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A 4-year review of severe pediatric trauma in eastern Ontario: a descriptive analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature191929
Source
J Trauma. 2002 Jan;52(1):8-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2002
Author
Martin H Osmond
Maureen Brennan-Barnes
Allyson L Shephard
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatrics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. osmond@cheo.on.ca
Source
J Trauma. 2002 Jan;52(1):8-12
Date
Jan-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accident prevention
Accidental Falls - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Accidents, Traffic - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Adolescent
Age Distribution
Athletic Injuries - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Child
Child Abuse - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Child, Preschool
Craniocerebral Trauma - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Female
Hospitals, Pediatric - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Ontario - epidemiology
Retrospective Studies
Sex Distribution
Time Factors
Trauma Centers - statistics & numerical data
Trauma Severity Indices
Wounds and Injuries - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Abstract
The objective of this study was to describe a population of children admitted to a tertiary care pediatric hospital with severe trauma to identify key areas for injury prevention research, and programming.
Retrospective chart review conducted on all children 0-17 years admitted to the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO) between April 1, 1996, and March 31, 2000, following acute trauma. Each record was reviewed and assigned an ISS using the AIS 1990 revision. All cases with an ISS > 11 were included in the study.
There were 2610 trauma cases admitted to CHEO over the study period. Of these, 237 (9.1%) had severe trauma (ISS > 11). Sixty-two percent were male. Twenty-nine percent were between the ages of 10 and 14 years, 27% between 5 and 9 years, 16% between 15 and 17 years, 15% between 1 and 4 years, and 13% less than 1 year old. The most common mechanisms of injury were due to motor vehicle traffic (39%), falls (24%), child abuse (8%), and sports (5%). Of those resulting from motor vehicle traffic, 53 (57%) were occupants, 22 (24%) were pedestrians, and 18 (19%) were cyclists. When combining traffic and nontraffic mechanisms, 26 (11% of all severe trauma cases) occurred as a result of cycling incidents. The most severe injury in 65% of patients was to the head and neck body region.
Research efforts and activities to prevent severe pediatric trauma in our region should focus on road safety, protection from head injuries, avoidance of falls, and prevention of child abuse.
PubMed ID
11791045 View in PubMed
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Bone mineral density in acute stroke patients: low bone mineral density may predict first stroke in women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature67447
Source
Stroke. 2001 Jan;32(1):47-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2001
Author
L. Jørgensen
T. Engstad
B K Jacobsen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Norway. Lone.Jorgensen@hitos.no
Source
Stroke. 2001 Jan;32(1):47-51
Date
Jan-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Bone Density
Cerebrovascular Accident - prevention & control - radiography
Densitometry, X-Ray
Female
Femur Neck - radiography
Humans
Male
Norway
Predictive value of tests
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Sex Factors
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Osteoporosis and stroke share several risk factors, including age, smoking, low physical activity, and hypertension. Thus, low bone mineral density (BMD) and high stroke risk may be related. We examined the relationship between BMD and acute stroke in noninstitutionalized men and women aged >/=60 years. METHODS: Sixty-three stroke patients (33 women and 30 men) and 188 control subjects from the general population were included. BMD was measured by using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at both proximal femurs. The measurements of the stroke patients were performed 6 days after the onset of stroke. RESULTS: The BMD at the femoral neck in the female stroke patients was 8% lower than in the control subjects (P:=0.007). In men, no difference in BMD between the stroke patients and their controls was found. Women with BMD values in the lowest quartile had a higher risk of stroke than women with BMD values in the highest quartile (OR 4.8), and the probability value for linear trend over the quartiles was statistically significant (P:=0.003). The OR for stroke increased 1.9 per SD (0.13 g/cm(2)) reduction in BMD, and the association between low BMD and stroke in women remained significant when the analysis was adjusted for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Female, but not male, stroke patients have lower BMD than population controls. Low BMD may predict stroke in women.
Notes
Comment In: Stroke. 2001 Dec 1;32(12):2956-711740005
PubMed ID
11136913 View in PubMed
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Characteristics and risk factors for accident injury in Canada from 1986 to 1996: an analysis of the Canadian Accident Injury Reporting and Evaluation (CAIRE) database.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature187536
Source
Inj Control Saf Promot. 2002 Jun;9(2):73-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2002
Author
Frank Mo
Bernard C K Choi
Clarence Clottey
Barbara LeBrun
Glenn Robbins
Author Affiliation
Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Population and Public Health Branch, Health Canada, AL # 1910C1, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, Ont., Canada K1A 0K9. Frank_Mo@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Inj Control Saf Promot. 2002 Jun;9(2):73-81
Date
Jun-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accident prevention
Accidents - classification - statistics & numerical data
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Consumer Product Safety
Databases, Factual
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Length of Stay
Male
Middle Aged
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Statistics as Topic
Wounds and Injuries - classification - epidemiology - prevention & control
Abstract
This study analyzed the database of Canadian Accident Injury Reporting and Evaluation (CAIRE) for the injuries reported from January 1986 to March 1996 in seven provinces at children's or general hospitals in Canada. In order to describe the characteristics of injuries, we compared the different categories of injuries by sex and by age groups, identified patterns of injuries, and detected the products causing injury to Canadian people. The results showed that there were 130,489 injury cases in Canada during the 10 years from 1986 to 1996. The 10-19 year age group had 57,582 cases, representing 44.13% of total injuries, and making it the group with the highest occurrence of injuries. The male injury rate (69.75%) was significantly higher than the female rate (30.25%) (P = 0.0001). Six areas were identified as priorities for intervention: 1) injuries occurring on playgrounds among children and youth; 2) sports and playground apparatus injuries and injuries sustained in transit among young people; 3) the top five causes of injuries; 4) diagnosis and treatment of injuries; 5) consumer products and safety; and 6) nature and physical sites of injuries. Further work is needed in: evaluating injury causes, comparing the results with reports from other countries and the necessary approaches and prevention measures to reduce and control injury occurrences to improve the quality of consumer products, and to protect the health of the population in Canada.
PubMed ID
12461833 View in PubMed
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Completion rates and injuries in alpine races during the 1994 Olympic Winter Games.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature210914
Source
Scand J Med Sci Sports. 1996 Oct;6(5):287-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1996
Author
A. Ekeland
S. Dimmen
H. Lystad
A K Aune
Author Affiliation
Orthopaedic Department, Ullevaal Hospital, University of Oslo, Norway.
Source
Scand J Med Sci Sports. 1996 Oct;6(5):287-90
Date
Oct-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accident prevention
Adult
Female
Humans
Incidence
International Cooperation
Male
Norway
Sex Distribution
Skiing - classification - injuries
Wounds and Injuries - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Abstract
The starting lists for the alpine disciplines during the 1994 Olympic Winter Games in Lillehammer totalled 555 racers, but only 354 of them (64%) completed the different races. The race completion rate was 43% in the slalom, 51% in the giant slalom, 75% in the super giant slalom and 91% in the downhill. In combined downhill/slalom the race completion rate was 60%, but 96% in the downhill and 68% in the slalom part of the combination, respectively. Only three injuries were recorded, all in females. Including the training competitions a total of 1541 runs through the different alpine courses was recorded during the games. This means an injury rate of 1.9 injuries per 1000 runs. For downhill the injury rate was only 1.1 per 1000 runs. If the injury rate is related to the number of skiers who did not finish the race because of falls or skiing errors, the rate was 21.1 injuries per 1000 falls (skiing errors) for all alpine races. In conclusion, the race completion rate was twice as high in downhill as in slalom, and the injury rate was low.
PubMed ID
8960650 View in PubMed
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Could driving safety be compromised by noise exposure at work and noise-induced hearing loss?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature154881
Source
Traffic Inj Prev. 2008 Oct;9(5):489-99
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2008
Author
Michel Picard
Serge André Girard
Marilène Courteau
Tony Leroux
Richard Larocque
Fernand Turcotte
Michel Lavoie
Marc Simard
Author Affiliation
Ecole d'orthophonie et d'audiologie, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec, Canada. michel.picard@umontreal.ca
Source
Traffic Inj Prev. 2008 Oct;9(5):489-99
Date
Oct-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accident Prevention - methods
Accidents, Traffic - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Automobile Driving
Confidence Intervals
Databases, Factual
Female
Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced - epidemiology - prevention & control
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Noise, Occupational - adverse effects - prevention & control
Prevalence
Probability
Quebec
Retrospective Studies
Risk assessment
Sex Distribution
Young Adult
Abstract
A study was conducted to verify if there is an association between occupational noise exposure, noise-induced hearing loss and driving safety expanding on previous findings by Picard, et al. (2008) that the two factors did increase accident risk in the workplace.
This study was made possible when driving records of all Quebec drivers were made available by the Societe de l'assurance automobile du Quebec (SAAQ is the state monopoly responsible for the provision of motor vehicle insurance and the compensation of victims of traffic accidents). These records were linked with personal records maintained by the Quebec National Institute of Public Health as part of its mission to prevent noise induced hearing loss in the workplace. Individualized information on occupational noise exposure and hearing sensitivity was available for 46,030 male workers employed in noisy industries who also held a valid driver's permit. The observation period is of five years duration, starting with the most recent audiometric examination. The associations between occupational noise exposure levels, hearing status, and personal driving record were examined by log-binomial regression on data adjusted for age and duration of exposure. Daily noise exposures and bilateral average hearing threshold levels at 3, 4, and 6 kHz were used as independent variables while the dependent variables were 1) the number of motor vehicle accidents experienced by participants during the study period and 2) participants' records of registered traffic violations of the highway safety code. The findings are reported as prevalence ratios (PRs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Attributable numbers of events were computed with the relevant PRs, lesser-noise, exposed workers and those with normal hearing levels making the group of reference.
Adjusting for age confirmed that experienced workers had fewer traffic accidents. The data show that occupational noise exposure and hearing loss have the same effect on driving safety record than that reported on the risk of accident in noisy industrial settings. Specifically, the risk of traffic accident (PR = 1.07 (CI 95% [1.01; 1.15]) is significantly associated with the daily occupational noise exposures >or= 100 dBA. For participants having a bilateral average hearing loss ranging from 16 to 30 dB, the PR of traffic accident is 1.06 (CI 95% [1.01; 1.11]) and reaches 1.31 (CI 95% [1.2; 1.42]) when the hearing loss exceeds of 50 dB. A reduction in the number of speeding violations occurred among workers occupationally exposed to noise levels >or= 90 dBA and those with noise-induced hearing loss >or=16 dB. By contrast, the same individuals had an increase in other violations of the Highway safety code. This suggests that noise-exposed workers might be less vigilant to other traffic hazards.
Daily occupational noise exposures >or= 100 dBA and noise-induced hearing losses-even when just barely noticeable-may interfere with the safe operation of motor vehicles.
PubMed ID
18836961 View in PubMed
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The Harstad injury prevention study: the characteristics and distribution of fractures amongst elders--an eight year study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature61409
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 1999 Apr;58(2):84-95
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1999
Author
B. Ytterstad
Author Affiliation
Department of Surgery, Harstad Hospital, Norway. boergey@online.no
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 1999 Apr;58(2):84-95
Date
Apr-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accident prevention
Accidents, Home - prevention & control
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cost of Illness
Costs and Cost Analysis
Female
Fractures, Bone - classification - economics - epidemiology - prevention & control
Hip Fractures - classification - economics - epidemiology - prevention & control
Homes for the Aged - economics - statistics & numerical data
Hospitalization - economics
Humans
Incidence
Injury Severity Score
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Nursing Homes - economics - statistics & numerical data
Prospective Studies
Registries
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Abstract
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To do a complete survey of hospital-treated fractures in the aged (65+ years old) and to report the characteristics and distribution of all fractures occurring within this defined population. DESIGN: Prospective injury recording study. SETTING: The Norwegian municipality of Harstad (population 23,000) during eight years from 1 July 1985. PARTICIPANTS: The person years of the study estimated from yearly census data, were 22,970. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The variables were selected and coded according to the Nordic system and the data were collected as part of a national injury surveillance system. Of 753 recorded fractures, nine out of ten were caused by falls. 50.6% of fractures occurred in private homes, 24.4% in traffic areas (traffic accidents excluded), 13.3% in nursing homes. Adjusting for exposure, fracture rates (per 1000 person years) were 70.0 in nursing homes, 17.7 in private homes, and 8.5 in traffic areas in winter (traffic accidents excluded). The fracture risk in traffic areas increased fivefold in months with snow. CONCLUSION: Nine out of ten fractures in the aged were caused by falls. Although the fracture risk for the elderly living in a nursing home was four times as high as those living in private homes, the volume of fractures occurring in private homes and traffic areas make them a prime target for interventions. Continuous prospective hospital recording of fractures in a community of aged is feasible and provides a tool for targeting interventions and evaluating the outcome of a community fall-fracture prevention programme.
PubMed ID
10429338 View in PubMed
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How many employees receive safety training during their first year of a new job?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature165204
Source
Inj Prev. 2007 Feb;13(1):37-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2007
Author
Peter M Smith
Cameron A Mustard
Author Affiliation
Institute for Work & Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. psmith@iwh.on.ca
Source
Inj Prev. 2007 Feb;13(1):37-41
Date
Feb-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accident Prevention - methods
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Canada
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Health - statistics & numerical data
Occupations
Organizational Culture
Personnel Turnover
Regression Analysis
Safety Management - organization & administration
Sex Distribution
Abstract
To describe the provision of safety training to Canadian employees, specifically those in their first year of employment with a new employer.
Three repeated national Canadian cross-sectional surveys.
59 159 respondents from Statistics Canada's Workplace and Employee Surveys (1999, 2001 and 2003), 5671 who were in their first year of employment.
Receiving occupational health and safety training, orientation training or office or non-office equipment training in either a classroom or on-the-job in the previous 12 months.
Only 12% of women and 16% of men reported receiving safety training in the previous 12 months. Employees in their first 12 months of employment were more likely to receive safety training than employees with >5 years of job tenure. However, still only one in five new employees had received any safety training while with their current employer. In a fully adjusted regression model, employees who had access to family and support programs, women in medium-sized workplaces and in manufacturing, and men in large workplaces and in part-time employment all had an increased probability of receiving safety training. No increased likelihood of safety training was found in younger workers or those in jobs with higher physical demands, both of which are associated with increased injury risk.
From our results, it would appear that only one in five Canadian employees in their first year of a new job received safety training. Further, the provision of safety training does not appear to be more prevalent among workers or in occupations with increased risk of injuries.
Notes
Cites: Int J Law Psychiatry. 1999 Sep-Dec;22(5-6):581-60110637759
Cites: Am J Ind Med. 2003 Jun;43(6):618-2912768612
Cites: Occup Environ Med. 2003 Sep;60(9):E1012937206
Cites: Occup Environ Med. 2004 Sep;61(9):750-615317915
Cites: Am J Public Health. 2006 Feb;96(2):315-2416380566
Cites: Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1991 Apr;52(4):A211-22069117
Cites: Percept Mot Skills. 1995 Jun;80(3 Pt 1):931-407567414
Cites: Am J Ind Med. 2005 Jul;48(1):50-615940721
Cites: Occup Environ Med. 2006 Jan;63(1):27-3216361402
Cites: Br J Ind Med. 1987 Mar;44(3):206-113828246
PubMed ID
17296687 View in PubMed
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Impact of a community-based osteoporosis and fall prevention program on fracture incidence.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature67168
Source
Osteoporos Int. 2005 Jun;16(6):700-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2005
Author
Ann-Charlotte Grahn Kronhed
Carina Blomberg
Nadine Karlsson
Owe Löfman
Toomas Timpka
Margareta Möller
Author Affiliation
Vadstena Primary Health Care Center, Jungfruvägen 5, 592 32, Vadstena, Sweden. lotta.grahn-kronhed@lio.se
Source
Osteoporos Int. 2005 Jun;16(6):700-6
Date
Jun-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accident prevention
Accidental Falls - prevention & control
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Analysis of Variance
Case-Control Studies
Female
Fractures, Bone - etiology - prevention & control
Hip Fractures - etiology - prevention & control
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Osteoporosis - complications - prevention & control
Patient Education
Radius Fractures - etiology - prevention & control
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Distribution
Ulna Fractures - etiology - prevention & control
Abstract
Associations between a 10-year community-based osteoporosis and fall prevention program and fracture incidence amongst middle-aged and elderly residents in an intervention community are studied, and comparisons are made with a control community. A health-education program was provided to all residents in the intervention community, which addressed dietary intake, physical activity, smoking habits and environmental risk factors for osteoporosis and falls. Both communities are small, semi-rural and situated in Ostergotland County in southern Sweden. The analysis is based on incidences of forearm fractures in the population 40 years of age or older, and hip fractures in the population 50 years of age or older. Data for three 5-year periods (pre-, early and late intervention) are accumulated and compared. In the intervention community, forearm fracture incidence decreased in women. There are also tendencies towards decreasing forearm fracture incidence in men, and towards decreasing trochanteric hip fracture incidences in women and in men in the late intervention period. No such changes in fracture incidences are found in the control community. Cervical hip fracture incidence did not change in the intervention and the control communities. Although the reported numbers of fractures are small (a total of 451 forearm and 357 hip fractures), the numbers are based on total community populations and thus represent a true difference. The decrease in forearm fracture incidence among women, and the tendency towards decreasing trochanteric hip fractures, in contrast to the absence of change in cervical hip fractures, might be mainly due to a more rapid effect of fall preventive measures than an increase in bone strength in the population. For the younger age groups an expected time lag between intervention and effect might invalidate the short follow-up period for outcome measurements. Thus, the effect of the 10-year intervention program on fracture incidence should be followed during an extended post-intervention period.
PubMed ID
15917986 View in PubMed
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International comparisons of child injuries and prevention programs: recommendations for an improved prevention program in Germany.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature32883
Source
Inj Prev. 2000 Mar;6(1):41-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2000
Author
G. Ellsässer
R. Berfenstam
Author Affiliation
Brandenburg Regional Public Health Office, Wünsdorf, Germany. 101.198605@germanynet.de
Source
Inj Prev. 2000 Mar;6(1):41-5
Date
Mar-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accident prevention
Adolescent
Age Distribution
Austria - epidemiology
Cause of Death
Child
Child, Preschool
Comparative Study
Female
Germany - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Male
Netherlands - epidemiology
Preventive Health Services - organization & administration
Primary Prevention - organization & administration
Program Evaluation
Registries
Reproducibility of Results
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Sweden - epidemiology
Switzerland - epidemiology
Wounds and Injuries - etiology - mortality
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To compare child injury mortality in Germany with that of four neighboring countries, and to examine injury prevention models in these countries with a view to improving prevention programs in Germany. METHODS: Based on official cause of death certificates, child injury mortality rates in Germany are compared with those of Austria, The Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland. The main structures and funding of injury prevention programs in these countries are described. RESULTS: In all five countries, mortality is highest among children aged 1-4 years for home and leisure accidents and drownings. Transport accidents are the main cause of death in the 5-14 age group. Mortality in both age groups has fallen significantly since 1980, most markedly in Sweden and The Netherlands. CONCLUSION: Drawing on the injury mortality data and experience of the comparison countries, the following recommendations are proposed to further reduce home and leisure injuries among children in Germany: (1) establish a soundly funded, central institution responsible for child injury surveillance, research, and the coordination of injury prevention activities, (2) improve product control legislation, and (3) disseminate specific safety information to target groups and the general public.
Notes
Comment In: Inj Prev. 2000 Mar;6(1):1-210728531
Comment In: Inj Prev. 2000 Mar;6(1):410728533
PubMed ID
10728541 View in PubMed
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Neighbourhood social and socio-economic composition and injury risks.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature83087
Source
Acta Paediatr. 2005 Oct;94(10):1488-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2005
Author
Reimers Anne
Laflamme Lucie
Author Affiliation
Department of Social Medicine and Epidemiology, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden. anne-mari.reimers@sll.se
Source
Acta Paediatr. 2005 Oct;94(10):1488-94
Date
Oct-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accident prevention
Accidents - statistics & numerical data
Adolescent
Age Distribution
Child
Child, Preschool
Confidence Intervals
Cross-Sectional Studies
Educational Status
Ethnic Groups - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Infant
Injury Severity Score
Male
Odds Ratio
Poverty
Prevalence
Probability
Residence Characteristics
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Social Class
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Wounds and Injuries - epidemiology - etiology
Abstract
AIM: To investigate whether social and socio-economic characteristics of the population within a parish influence childhood injury. METHODS: The study encompasses all children aged 0-15 y living in Stockholm County over the 3-y period 1999-2001 (about 360,000 children per year), grouped into parish of residence (138 parishes). The effect of parish attributes on injury rate were analysed based on three indices (deprivation, socio-economic status and social integration) derived by a factor analysis of 11 characteristics of the parishes' population, each index being split into three levels. Childhood injury resulting in at least one night of hospitalization during the period 1999-2001 was considered (n = 5540) by index, and rate ratios were calculated for 12 injury causes using parishes forming the best level of the index as the reference group. RESULTS: Higher levels of deprivation negatively influenced pedestrian injury rates, had a protective effect on other traffic-related injuries, and negatively affected some other types of unintentional injuries. Higher concentrations of people with low socio-economic status did not impact on the risk of traffic and fall injuries, but increased that of burns/scalds and cases of poisoning. Parishes with lower levels of social integration had significantly higher rates of bicycle- and moped-related injuries, and also of self-inflicted ones. CONCLUSION: Compositional characteristics of the population in a residential area affect injury to varying degrees and direction according to type of injury. The underlying mechanisms are likely to be specific to injury type.
PubMed ID
16299884 View in PubMed
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17 records – page 1 of 2.