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Intelligent speed adaptation as an assistive device for drivers with acquired brain injury: a single-case field experiment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123795
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 2012 Sep;48:57-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2012
Author
Brith Klarborg
Harry Lahrmann
NielsAgerholm
Nerius Tradisauskas
Lisbeth Harms
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, University of Copenhagen, OesterFarimagsgade 2A, 1353 Copenhagen K, Denmark. brith.klarborg@psy.ku.dk
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 2012 Sep;48:57-62
Date
Sep-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acceleration
Accident Prevention - instrumentation
Accidents, Traffic - prevention & control
Aged
Artificial Intelligence
Attention
Automobile Driving - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Automobiles
Brain Damage, Chronic
Denmark
Female
Humans
Intention
Interviews as Topic
Law Enforcement - methods
Male
Middle Aged
Self-Help Devices
User-Computer Interface
Abstract
Intelligent speed adaptation (ISA) was tested as an assistive device for drivers with an acquired brain injury (ABI). The study was part of the "Pay as You Speed" project (PAYS) and used the same equipment and technology as the main study (Lahrmann et al., in press-a, in press-b). Two drivers with ABI were recruited as subjects and had ISA equipment installed in their private vehicle. Their speed was logged with ISA equipment for a total of 30 weeks of which 12 weeks were with an active ISA user interface (6 weeks=Baseline 1; 12 weeks=ISA period; 12 weeks=Baseline 2). The subjects participated in two semi-structured interviews concerning their strategies for driving with ABI and for driving with ISA. Furthermore, they gave consent to have data from their clinical journals and be a part of the study. The two subjects did not report any instances of being distracted or confused by ISA, and in general they described driving with ISA as relaxed. ISA reduced the percentage of the total distance that was driven with a speed above the speed limit (PDA), but the subjects relapsed to their previous PDA level in Baseline 2. This suggests that ISA is more suited as a permanent assistive device (i.e. cognitive prosthesis) than as a temporary training device. As ABI is associated with a multitude of cognitive deficits, we developed a conceptual framework, which focused on the cognitive parameters that have been shown to relate to speeding behaviour, namely "intention to speed" and "inattention to speeding". The subjects' combined status on the two independent parameters made up their "speeding profile". A comparison of the speeding profiles and the speed logs indicated that ISA in the present study was more efficient in reducing inattention to speeding than affecting intention to speed. This finding suggests that ISA might be more suited for some neuropsychological profiles than for others, and that customisation of ISA for different neuropsychological profiles may be required. However, further studies with more subjects are needed in order to be conclusive on these issues.
PubMed ID
22664668 View in PubMed
Less detail

Pay as You Speed, ISA with incentive for not speeding: results and interpretation of speed data.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123796
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 2012 Sep;48:17-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2012
Author
Harry Lahrmann
Niels Agerholm
Nerius Tradisauskas
Kasper K Berthelsen
Lisbeth Harms
Author Affiliation
Aalborg University, Department of Development and Planning, Fibigerstraede 11, DK-9220 Aalborg, Denmark.lahrmann@plan.aau.dk
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 2012 Sep;48:17-28
Date
Sep-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acceleration
Accident Prevention - economics - instrumentation
Accidents, Traffic - prevention & control
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Artificial Intelligence
Automobile Driving - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Automobiles
Denmark
Female
Humans
Insurance - economics
Law Enforcement - methods
Male
Middle Aged
Young Adult
Abstract
To simulate a market introduction of Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) and to study the effect of a Pay as You Speed (PAYS) concept, a field trial with 153 drivers was conducted during 2007-2009. The participants drove under PAYS conditions for a shorter or a longer period. The PAYS concept consisted of informative ISA linked with economic incentive for not speeding, measured through automatic count of penalty points whenever the speed limit was exceeded. The full incentive was set to 30% of a participant's insurance premium. The participants were exposed to different treatments, with and without incentive crossed with informative ISA present or absent. The results showed that ISA is an efficient tool for reducing speeding particularly on rural roads. The analysis of speed data demonstrated that the proportion of distance driven above the speed where the ISA equipment responded (PDA) was a sensitive measure for reflecting the effect of ISA, whereas mean free flow speed and the 85th percentile speed, were less sensitive to ISA effects. The PDA increased a little over time but still remained at a low level; however, when ISA was turned off, the participants' speeding relapsed to the baseline level. Both informative ISA and incentive ISA reduced the PDA, but there was no statistically significant interaction. Informative reduced it more than the incentive.
PubMed ID
22664664 View in PubMed
Less detail

Pay as You Speed, ISA with incentives for not speeding: a case of test driver recruitment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123797
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 2012 Sep;48:10-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2012
Author
Harry Lahrmann
Niels Agerholm
Nerius Tradisauskas
Teresa Næss
Jens Juhl
Lisbeth Harms
Author Affiliation
Aalborg University, Department of Development and Planning, Fibigerstraede 11, DK-9220 Aalborg, Denmark. lahrmann@plan.aau.dk
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 2012 Sep;48:10-6
Date
Sep-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acceleration
Accident Prevention - economics - instrumentation
Accidents, Traffic - prevention & control
Adolescent
Adult
Artificial Intelligence
Automobile Driving - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Automobiles
Cellular Phone
Denmark
Equipment Design
Geographic Information Systems
Humans
Insurance - economics
Internet
Interviews as Topic
Law Enforcement - methods
Motivation
Politics
Young Adult
Abstract
The Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) project we describe in this article is based on Pay as You Drive principles. These principles assume that the ISA equipment informs a driver of the speed limit, warns the driver when speeding and calculates penalty points. Each penalty point entails the reduction of a 30% discount on the driver's car insurance premium, which therefore produced the name, Pay as You Speed. The ISA equipment consists of a GPS-based On Board Unit with a mobile phone connection to a web server. The project was planned for a three-year test period with 300 young car drivers, but it never succeeded in recruiting that number of drivers. After several design changes, the project eventually went forward with 153 test drivers of all ages. This number represents approximately one thousandth of all car owners in the proving ground of North Jutland in Denmark. Furthermore the project was terminated before its scheduled closing date. This article describes the project with an emphasis on recruitment efforts and the project's progress. We include a discussion of possible explanations for the failure to recruit volunteers for the project and reflect upon the general barriers to using ISA with ordinary drivers.
PubMed ID
22664663 View in PubMed
Less detail