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A 6-year exercise program improves skeletal traits without affecting fracture risk: a prospective controlled study in 2621 children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259943
Source
J Bone Miner Res. 2014 Jun;29(6):1325-36
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2014
Author
Fredrik Detter
Björn E Rosengren
Magnus Dencker
Mattias Lorentzon
Jan-Åke Nilsson
Magnus K Karlsson
Source
J Bone Miner Res. 2014 Jun;29(6):1325-36
Date
Jun-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorptiometry, Photon
Accelerometry
Bone Density
Bone and Bones - pathology - physiopathology - radiography
Case-Control Studies
Child
Exercise - physiology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Fractures, Bone - epidemiology - physiopathology - radiography
Humans
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Male
Motor Activity
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Most pediatric exercise intervention studies that evaluate the effect on skeletal traits include volunteers and follow bone mass for less than 3 years. We present a population-based 6-year controlled exercise intervention study in children with bone structure and incident fractures as endpoints. Fractures were registered in 417 girls and 500 boys in the intervention group (3969 person-years) and 835 girls and 869 boys in the control group (8245 person-years), all aged 6 to 9 years at study start, during the 6-year study period. Children in the intervention group had 40 minutes daily school physical education (PE) and the control group 60 minutes per week. In a subcohort with 78 girls and 111 boys in the intervention group and 52 girls and 54 boys in the control group, bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm(2) ) and bone area (mm(2) ) were measured repeatedly by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) measured bone mass and bone structure at follow-up. There were 21.7 low and moderate energy-related fractures per 1000 person-years in the intervention group and 19.3 fractures in the control group, leading to a rate ratio (RR) of 1.12 (0.85, 1.46). Girls in the intervention group, compared with girls in the control group, had 0.009?g/cm(2) (0.003, 0.015) larger gain annually in spine BMD, 0.07?g (0.014, 0.123) larger gain in femoral neck bone mineral content (BMC), and 4.1?mm(2) (0.5, 7.8) larger gain in femoral neck area, and at follow-up 24.1?g (7.6, 40.6) higher tibial cortical BMC (g) and 23.9?mm(2) (5.27, 42.6) larger tibial cross-sectional area. Boys with daily PE had 0.006?g/cm(2) (0.002, 0.010) larger gain annually in spine BMD than control boys but at follow-up no higher pQCT values than boys in the control group. Daily PE for 6 years in at study start 6- to 9-year-olds improves bone mass and bone size in girls and bone mass in boys, without affecting the fracture risk.
Notes
Comment In: J Bone Miner Res. 2014 Jun;29(6):1322-424764102
PubMed ID
24390777 View in PubMed
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A 6 year longitudinal study of accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time in Swedish adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature272785
Source
J Sci Med Sport. 2015 Sep;18(5):553-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2015
Author
Maria Hagströmer
Lydia Kwak
Pekka Oja
Michael Sjöström
Source
J Sci Med Sport. 2015 Sep;18(5):553-7
Date
Sep-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accelerometry
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Female
Humans
Linear Models
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Motor Activity - physiology
Sedentary lifestyle
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate changes over six years in physical activity and sedentary behavior assessed with accelerometry in a representative sample of Swedish adults.
A longitudinal study over six years.
The cohort consisted of 1172 participants (46% males) in 2002 and 511 participants (46% males) in 2008, of which 478 (45% males) had valid data on both occasions. Mean (SD) age at baseline was 45 (15) years. To analyze changes over time, a mixed linear model for average intensity physical activity (counts/min) and time in sedentary behavior and light- and moderate- or higher-intensity physical activity was conducted, stratified for sex and age, and adjusted for BMI, education, self-rated health and ? wear time.
Over a six year period no significant changes were seen in the total cohort for average intensity and time in moderate- or higher intensity physical activity. A significant decrease in average intensity physical activity was found for men (p=0.006) and those aged 60+ years at baseline (p
PubMed ID
25277849 View in PubMed
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Absolute and relative accelerometer thresholds for determining the association between physical activity and metabolic syndrome in the older adults: The Generation-100 study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287938
Source
BMC Geriatr. 2017 05 16;17(1):109
Publication Type
Article
Date
05-16-2017
Author
Nina Zisko
Javaid Nauman
Silvana Bucher Sandbakk
Nils Petter Aspvik
Øyvind Salvesen
Trude Carlsen
Hallgeir Viken
Jan Erik Ingebrigtsen
Ulrik Wisløff
Dorthe Stensvold
Source
BMC Geriatr. 2017 05 16;17(1):109
Date
05-16-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accelerometry - methods
Aged
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diabetes Mellitus - blood - diagnosis - epidemiology
Exercise - physiology
Female
Humans
Hypertension - blood - diagnosis - epidemiology
Male
Metabolic Syndrome - blood - diagnosis - epidemiology
Motor Activity
Norway - epidemiology
Triglycerides - blood
Abstract
When assessing population adherence to physical activity (PA) recommendation using accelerometers, absolute intensity threshold definition is applied despite having limited validity in those with low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), who are unable to reach them (e.g older adults). Thus, PA thresholds relative to CRF may be an alternative approach. We compared the proportion of the older adults meeting the PA recommendation when PA is assessed using absolute versus sex-and-CRF-adjusted (relative) accelerometer thresholds and determined the association between relative versus absolute moderate PA (MPA), vigorous PA (VPA) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and metabolic syndrome (MetS).
Cross-sectional study of 509 men and 567 women aged 70-77. Accelerometer assessed MPA, VPA and MVPA were analyzed using absolute and relative thresholds. Meeting the PA-recommendation was defined as amounting =150 min/week in MPA/MVPA or 75 min/week in VPA, respectively. CRF was directly measured as peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). MetS was defined as 3 or more of the following: elevated waist circumference, fasting glucose, hypertension, triglycerides, decreased HDL-cholesterol or diabetes, dyslipidemia or hypertension medication.
Higher proportion of the population met the recommendation when PA was assessed with relative compared to absolute thresholds: VPA (72.4% vs. 1.7%) and MVPA (75.2% vs. 33.8%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that men and women not meeting the relative-MVPA or VPA recommendation had higher likelihood of MetS (Men: MVPA OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.08-2.33.
1.81, 95%CI: 1.23-2.67 and Women: MVPA OR: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.36-3.31; VPA OR: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.29-2.95), compared to men and women meeting the relative MVPA or VPA recommendation. There was no significant association between MetS and absolute MVPA, MPA or VPA recommendations in the fully adjusted model.
The association between meeting/not meeting the PA recommendation and MetS differed with method. Not meeting relative MVPA and VPA recommendation was associated with significantly higher likelihood for presence of MetS. Since relative intensity is part of the current PA recommendation, it should be considered when assessing population PA and associated health risks in the older adults.
Clinical Trial Registration: NCT01931111 (Date of trial registration: July 19, 2013).
Notes
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PubMed ID
28511695 View in PubMed
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Accelerometer-determined physical activity and self-reported health in a population of older adults (65-85 years): a cross-sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264724
Source
BMC Public Health. 2014;14:284
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Hilde Lohne-Seiler
Bjorge H Hansen
Elin Kolle
Sigmund A Anderssen
Source
BMC Public Health. 2014;14:284
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accelerometry - statistics & numerical data
Activities of Daily Living - classification
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cross-Sectional Studies
Exercise
Female
Guideline Adherence - statistics & numerical data
Health status
Humans
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Personal Satisfaction
Quality of Life
Questionnaires
Registries
Regression Analysis
Sedentary lifestyle
Self Report
Abstract
The link between physical activity (PA) and prevention of disease, maintenance of independence, and improved quality of life in older adults is supported by strong evidence. However, there is a lack of data on population levels in this regard, where PA level has been measured objectively. The main aims were therefore to assess the level of accelerometer-determined PA and to examine its associations with self-reported health in a population of Norwegian older adults (65-85 years).
This was a part of a national multicenter study. Participants for the initial study were randomly selected from the national population registry, and the current study included those of the initial sample aged 65-85 years. The ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer was used to measure PA for seven consecutive days. A questionnaire was used to register self-reported health. Univariate analysis of variance with Bonferroni adjustments were used for comparisons between multiple groups.
A total of 560 participants had valid activity registrations. Mean age (SD) was 71.8 (5.6) years for women (n=282) and 71.7 (5.2) years for men (n=278). Overall PA level (cpm) differed considerably between the age groups where the oldest (80-85 y) displayed a 50% lower activity level compared to the youngest (65-70 y). No sex differences were observed in overall PA within each age group. Significantly more men spent time being sedentary (65-69 and 70-74 years) and achieved more minutes of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) (75-79 years) compared to women. Significantly more women (except for the oldest), spent more minutes of low-intensity PA compared to men. PA differed across levels of self-reported health and a 51% higher overall PA level was registered in those, with "very good health" compared to those with "poor/very poor health".
Norwegian older adults PA levels differed by age. Overall, the elderly spent 66% of their time being sedentary and only 3% in MVPA. Twenty one percent of the participants fulfilled the current Norwegian PA recommendations. Overall PA levels were associated with self-reported health.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24673834 View in PubMed
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Accelerometer epoch setting is decisive for associations between physical activity and metabolic health in children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature308136
Source
J Sports Sci. 2020 Feb; 38(3):256-263
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Feb-2020
Author
Eivind Aadland
Lars Bo Andersen
Sigmund Alfred Anderssen
Geir Kåre Resaland
Olav Martin Kvalheim
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Education, Arts and Sports, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Sogndal, Norway.
Source
J Sports Sci. 2020 Feb; 38(3):256-263
Date
Feb-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Abdominal Fat
Accelerometry - methods
Blood pressure
Body mass index
Cardiorespiratory fitness
Child
Child health
Child, Preschool
Exercise - physiology
Female
Fitness Trackers
Homeostasis
Humans
Insulin Resistance
Lipid Metabolism
Male
Multivariate Analysis
Norway
Physical Fitness - physiology
Abstract
When analysing physical activity (PA) levels using accelerometry, the epoch setting is critical to capture intensity-specific PA correctly. The aim of the present study was to investigate the PA intensity signatures related to metabolic health in children using different epoch settings. A sample of 841 Norwegian children (age 10.2 ± 0.3 years; BMI 18.0 ± 3.0; 50% boys) provided data on accelerometry (ActiGraph GT3X+) and several indices of metabolic health (aerobic fitness, abdominal fatness, insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, blood pressure) that were used to create a composite metabolic health score. We created intensity spectra from 0-99 to = 10000 counts per minute (cpm) for files aggregated using 1, 10, and 60-second epoch periods and used multivariate pattern analysis to analyse the data. The association patterns with metabolic health differed substantially between epoch settings. The intensity intervals most strongly associated with metabolic health were 7000-8000 cpm for data analysed using 1-second epoch, 5500-6500 cpm for data analysed using 10-second epoch, and 4000-5000 cpm analysed using 60-second epoch. Aggregation of data over different epoch periods has a clear impact on how PA intensities in the moderate and vigorous range are associated with childhood metabolic health.
PubMed ID
31735120 View in PubMed
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Accelerometer measured level of physical activity indoors and outdoors during preschool time in Sweden and the United States.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130954
Source
J Phys Act Health. 2012 Aug;9(6):801-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2012
Author
Anders Raustorp
Peter Pagels
Cecilia Boldemann
Nilda Cosco
Margareta Söderström
Fredrika Mårtensson
Author Affiliation
School of Sport Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
Source
J Phys Act Health. 2012 Aug;9(6):801-8
Date
Aug-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accelerometry - statistics & numerical data
Body mass index
Body Weights and Measures
Child, Preschool
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Exercise
Female
Humans
Male
North Carolina - epidemiology
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
It is important to understand the correlates of physical activity (PA) to influence policy and create environments that promote PA among preschool children. We compared preschoolers' PA in Swedish and in US settings and objectively examined differences boys' and girls' indoor and outdoor PA regarding different intensity levels and sedentary behavior.
Accelerometer determined PA in 50 children with mean age 52 months, (range 40-67) was recorded during preschool time for 5 consecutive weekdays at 4 sites. The children wore an Actigraph GTIM Monitor.
Raleigh preschool children, opposite to Malmö preschoolers spent significantly more time indoors than outdoors (P
PubMed ID
21952100 View in PubMed
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Accelerometer-measured sedentary time and physical activity-A 15 year follow-up of mortality in a Swedish population-based cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294710
Source
J Sci Med Sport. 2018 Jul; 21(7):702-707
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jul-2018
Author
Ing-Mari Dohrn
Michael Sjöström
Lydia Kwak
Pekka Oja
Maria Hagströmer
Author Affiliation
Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institutet, Sweden. Electronic address: ing-mari.dohrn@ki.se.
Source
J Sci Med Sport. 2018 Jul; 21(7):702-707
Date
Jul-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Accelerometry
Aged
Cardiovascular Diseases - mortality
Exercise
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality
Neoplasms - mortality
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Sedentary lifestyle
Sweden
Time Factors
Abstract
To investigate the associations of objectively assessed sedentary time, light intensity physical activity (PA), moderate to vigorous intensity PA (MVPA), and total PA with all-cause mortality and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) or cancer in a Swedish population-based cohort with 15 years follow-up time.
Longitudinal prospective cohort study.
Data from 851 persons (56% women) =35 years at baseline were included. Primary exposure variables were time (min/day) spent sedentary, in light intensity PA and in MVPA, and total counts from an Actigraph 7164 accelerometer. Data on all-cause mortality and mortality from CVD or cancer were obtained from Swedish registers. Cox proportional hazards models estimated hazard ratios (HR) of mortality with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Compared with the least sedentary participants, those in the most sedentary tertile had an increased risk of all-cause mortality, HR: 2.7 (1.4, 5.3), CVD mortality, HR: 5.5 (1.4, 21.2) and cancer mortality, HR: 4.3 (1.2, 16.0). For all-cause mortality, those in the highest light intensity PA tertile had a HR 0.34 (0.17, 0.67) compared with the lowest tertile. A similar pattern was found for CVD and cancer mortality. More time spent in MVPA was associated with the largest risk reduction for CVD mortality, with an almost 90% lower risk in the tertile with the most time in MVPA.
This study confirms a strong inverse relationship between MVPA and mortality, and adds new insight for the understanding of the associations between sedentary time and light intensity PA and mortality.
PubMed ID
29128418 View in PubMed
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Accelerometry-assessed physical activity and sedentary time and associations with chronic disease and hospital visits - a prospective cohort study with 15?years follow-up.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature307792
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2019 12 09; 16(1):125
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
12-09-2019
Author
Ing-Mari Dohrn
Anna-Karin Welmer
Maria Hagströmer
Author Affiliation
Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institutet, Aging Research Center, Tomtebodavägen 18A, SE-171 65, Solna, Sweden. ing-mari.dohrn@ki.se.
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2019 12 09; 16(1):125
Date
12-09-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Accelerometry - methods
Actigraphy
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Chronic Disease - epidemiology
Exercise
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Sedentary Behavior
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
Associations of objectively assessed physical activity in different intensities and risk of developing chronic disease that requires hospital care have not yet been examined in long term population-based studies. Studies addressing the link between physical activity and sedentary time and subsequent hospital admissions are lacking.
To examine the prospective associations between physical activity and sedentary time with morbidity defined as: 1) a registered main diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, cancer, type-2 diabetes, dementia, obesity or depression; 2) number of in- and outpatient hospital visits; and 3) number of in-hospital days.
In total, 1220 women and men, 18-75?years, from the population-based Sweden Attitude Behaviour and Change study 2000-2001 were included. Time spent sedentary, in light-intensity physical activity and in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and total accelerometer counts were assessed using the ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer. Morbidity data were obtained 2016 from Swedish registers. Cox proportional hazards models estimated hazard ratios (HR) of morbidity with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and negative binomial regression estimated incidence rate ratio (IRR) with 95% CI for number of hospital visits, and length of hospital stay.
Over a follow-up of 14.4?years (SD?=?1.6), 342 persons had at least one registered hospital visit due to any of the included diagnoses. Higher moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was associated with significant risk reductions for combined morbidity (all included diagnoses) (HR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.48-0.88) and cardiovascular disease (HR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.33-0.82). Higher total counts showed similar results, and was also associated with fewer hospital visits (IRR?=?0.56, 95% CI: 0.37-0.85). Higher sedentary time increased the risk of in-hospital days. (IRR?=?2.38, 95% CI: 1.20-4.74).
This study supports the importance of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity for preventing chronic disease that requires hospital care, especially cardiovascular disease. High volumes of sedentary behavior may increase the risk of future hospitalization. Our results support the public health message "sit less and move more".
PubMed ID
31818303 View in PubMed
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Aerobic physical activity assessed with accelerometer, diary, questionnaire, and interview in a Finnish population sample.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295378
Source
Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2018 Oct; 28(10):2196-2206
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Date
Oct-2018
Author
Henna Hukkanen
Pauliina Husu
Harri Sievänen
Kari Tokola
Henri Vähä-Ypyä
Heli Valkeinen
Tomi Mäki-Opas
Jaana H Suni
Tommi Vasankari
Author Affiliation
The UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
Source
Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2018 Oct; 28(10):2196-2206
Date
Oct-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Accelerometry
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Data Collection - methods
Exercise
Female
Finland
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Oligopeptides
Self Report
Surveys and Questionnaires
Young Adult
Abstract
This study evaluates the agreement between different methods to assess moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a large sample of Finnish adults. Methods were classified and examined pairwise (accelerometer vs diary; questionnaire vs interview). Proportion of participants meeting the aerobic health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) recommendation was compared pairwise between all four methods. The present study of 1916 adults aged 18-75 years (mean age 50 years, 57% women) is a sub-sample of population-based Health 2011 Study conducted by the National Institute of Health and Welfare in Finland. Participants used accelerometer for 7 days and completed physical activity (PA) diary during the same period. PA questionnaire and interview were completed retrospectively to assess typical weekly PA over the past year. Agreement between the methods was analyzed with paired samples t-test and Bland-Altman plot. Kappa-test was used to compare the prevalence of meeting the HEPA recommendation. The accelerometer resulted in 13 minutes (P 
PubMed ID
29923623 View in PubMed
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The association between accelerometer-measured patterns of sedentary time and health risk in children and youth: results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115533
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:200
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Rachel C Colley
Didier Garriguet
Ian Janssen
Suzy L Wong
Travis J Saunders
Valerie Carson
Mark S Tremblay
Author Affiliation
Health Analysis Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada. rcolley@cheo.on.ca
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:200
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accelerometry - statistics & numerical data
Adolescent
Blood pressure
Body mass index
Canada
Child
Cholesterol - blood
Female
Health status
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Sedentary lifestyle
Time Factors
Waist Circumference
Young Adult
Abstract
Self-reported screen time is associated with elevated health risk in children and youth; however, research examining the relationship between accelerometer-measured sedentary time and health risk has reported mixed findings. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between accelerometer-measured patterns of sedentary time and health risk in children and youth.
The results are based on 1,608 children and youth aged 6 to 19 years from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007-2009). Sedentary time was measured using the Actical accelerometer. Breaks in sedentary time and prolonged bouts of sedentary time lasting 20 to 120 minutes were derived for all days, weekend days and during the after-school period (i.e., after 3 pm on weekdays). Regression analyses were used to examine the association between patterns of sedentary time and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure and non-HDL cholesterol.
Boys accumulated more sedentary time on weekdays after 3 pm and had a higher number of breaks in sedentary time compared to girls. Overweight/obese boys (aged 6-19 years) accumulated more sedentary time after 3 pm on weekdays (282 vs. 259 min, p
Notes
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