The aim of this study was to characterise the acceleration and sprint profiles of elite football match play in one Norwegian elite football team (Rosenborg FC). Fifteen professional players in five playing positions took part in the study (n = 101 observations). Player movement was recorded during every domestic home game of one full season (n = 15) by an automatic tracking system based on microwave technology. Each player performed 91 ± 21 accelerations per match, with a lower number in the second compared with the first half (47 ± 12 vs. 44 ± 12). Players in lateral positions accelerated more often compared to players in central positions (98.3 ± 20.5 vs. 85.3 ± 19.5, p
To investigate whether observed gender differences in objectively measured physical activity (PA) in children (8-13 yr) are confounded by physical maturity differences.
Four hundred and one children (194 boys and 207 girls) volunteered for this study. An Actigraph accelerometer was used to obtain seven consecutive days of minute-by-minute PA data for each participant. Minutes of moderate to vigorous PA per day (MVPA), continuous minutes of MVPA per day (CMVPA), and minutes of vigorous PA per day (VPA) were derived from the accelerometer data. Age at peak height velocity (APHV), an indicator of somatic maturity, was predicted in all individuals. Gender differences in the PA variables were analyzed using a two-way (gender x age) ANOVA.
Levels of PA decreased with increasing chronological age in both genders (P
This paper presents a risk index model that can be used for assessing the safety effect of countermeasures. The model estimates risk in a multiplicative way, which makes it possible to analyze the impact of different factors separately. Expert judgments are incorporated through a Bayesian error model. The variance of the risk estimate is determined by Monte-Carlo simulation. The model was applied to assess the safety effect of a new design of a bicycle crossing. The intent was to gain safety by raising the crossings to reduce vehicle speeds and by making the crossings more visible by painting them in a bright color. Before the implementations, bicyclists were riding on bicycle crossings of conventional Swedish type, i.e. similar to crosswalks but delineated by white squares rather than solid lines or zebra markings. Automobile speeds were reduced as anticipated. However, it seems as if the positive effect of this was more or less canceled out by increased bicycle speeds. The safety per bicyclist was still improved by approximately 20%. This improvement was primarily caused by an increase in bicycle flow, since the data show that more bicyclists at a given location seem to benefit their safety. The increase in bicycle flow was probably caused by the new layout of the crossings since bicyclists perceived them as safer and causing less delay. Some future development work is suggested. Pros and cons with the used methodology are discussed. The most crucial parameter to be added is probably a model describing the interaction between motorists and bicyclists, for example, how risk is influenced by the lateral position of the bicyclist in relation to the motorist. It is concluded that the interaction seems to be optimal when both groups share the roadway.
It is well known that crashes on horizontal curves are a cause for concern in all countries due to the frequency and severity of crashes at curves compared to road tangents. A recent study of crashes in western Sweden reported a higher rate of crashes in right curves than left curves. To further understand this result, this paper reports the results of novel analyses of the responses of vehicles and drivers during negotiating and overtaking maneuvers on curves for right hand traffic. The overall objectives of the study were to find road parameters for curves that affect vehicle dynamic responses, to analyze these responses during overtaking maneuvers on curves, and to link the results with driver behavior for different curve directions. The studied road features were speed, super-elevation, radius and friction including their interactions, while the analyzed vehicle dynamic factors were lateral acceleration and yaw angular velocity. A simulation program, PC-Crash, has been used to simulate road parameters and vehicle response interaction in curves. Overtaking maneuvers have been simulated for all road feature combinations in a total of 108 runs. Analysis of variances (ANOVA) was performed, using two sided randomized block design, to find differences in vehicle responses for the curve parameters. To study driver response, a field test using an instrumented vehicle and 32 participants was reviewed as it contained longitudinal speed and acceleration data for analysis. The simulation results showed that road features affect overtaking performance in right and left curves differently. Overtaking on right curves was sensitive to radius and the interaction of radius with road condition; while overtaking on left curves was more sensitive to super-elevation. Comparisons of lateral acceleration and yaw angular velocity during these maneuvers showed different vehicle response configurations depending on curve direction and maneuver path. The field test experiments also showed that drivers behave differently depending on the curve direction where both speed and acceleration were higher on right than left curves. The implication of this study is that curve direction should be taken into consideration to a greater extent when designing and redesigning curves. It appears that the driver and the vehicle are influenced by different infrastructure factors depending on the curve direction. In addition, the results suggest that the vehicle dynamics response alone cannot explain the higher crash risk in right curves. Further studies of the links between driver, vehicle, and highway characteristics are needed, such as naturalistic driving studies, to identify the key safety indicators for highway safety.
Cites: Ann Adv Automot Med. 2009 Oct;53:155-6520184841
This study compared the accumulated minutes of objectively measured physical activity in 1,790 boys and girls in Grades 3, 7, and 11 classified as healthy weight, at risk of overweight, and overweight.
Height and weight were measured and body mass index calculated. Minutes of sedentary, light, moderate, hard, and very hard physical activity were obtained from a seven-day measurement of physical activity using an accelerometer (Actigraph, mode 7164; MTI).
In Grade 3, boys (p=0.000) and girls (p=0.012) classified as overweight obtained significantly fewer minutes of very hard physical activity compared with their healthy weight counterparts. Boys in Grade 7 considered overweight obtained significantly fewer minutes of hard (p=0.002) and very hard physical activity (p=0.006) compared with boys who were a healthy weight. There were no significant differences in minutes of sedentary, light, moderate, hard, or very hard intensity physical activity in the boys and girls in Grade 11, who were considered a healthy weight, at risk of overweight, or overweight.
Weak and inconsistent support was provided for the notion that boys and girls classified overweight are less physically active than their healthy weight counterparts.
The high acceleration (Gz) exposure among military pilots flying fighter aircraft has been associated with an increased risk for cervical and lumbar disorders. It has been suggested that an adequate level of physical performance could reduce the risk of experiencing these disorders. The Finnish Air Force has for several years used aerobic (bicycle ergometer) and muscular fitness tests (battery of five tests) in the selection process of military pilot candidates in order to evaluate their physical fitness level. The aim of the study was to determine if these selection phase tests and anthropometry measures can predispose those individuals who might be at risk of developing severe spinal disorders leading to permanent flight duty limitations later during their military pilots' career.
The study population consisted of 23 pilots flying with Gz limitation (+2 Gz, +4 Gz or +5 Gz) due to spinal disorders and 50 experienced (+1,000 flight hours) symptomless controls flying actively in operative missions. Data obtained retrospectively for all subjects included anthropometry, physical (aerobic and muscular fitness) test results and self-reported physical activity levels at a pilot selection phase. Aerobic fitness was measured with a maximal ergometer test and muscular endurance was evaluated with a test battery (standing long jump, pull-ups, sit-ups, back extensions, and push-up tests).
Fighter pilots flying without Gz limitation had significantly better mean (±SE) results in pull-up (14.4 ± 4.2 vs. 11.5 ± 2.0, p
Change of road user attitudes is often advocated as a necessary condition for improvement of road safety. The relation between road user attitudes and accident risk is, however, not well known in road safety research. The objective of this study was to find out whether attitudes are of importance to road safety, i.e. the hypothesis is that drivers having attitudes considered correct according to the traffic code, have lower accident risk than other drivers. The attitudes of a representative sample of Norwegian driver's license holders as well as their accident involvement and driving distance were surveyed by mail questionnaires in two phases. When no other factor is taken into account, accident risk is found to be affected by driver attitudes. When, on the other hand, the age of drivers is taken into account, the relation between attitudes and accident risk disappears. It is concluded that age and annual mileage are more important to accident risk than are attitudes, and more knowledge of the relationship between attitudes and road accident risk is needed.
During the radiation survey of a reinstalled 10-MV linear accelerator in an old radiation treatment facility, high dose rates of neutrons were observed. The area outside the maze entrance is used as a waiting room where patients, their relatives and staff other than those involved in the actual treatment can freely pass. High fluence rates of neutrons would cause an unnecessary high effective dose to the staff working in the vicinity of such a system, and it can be several orders higher than the doses received due to X-rays at the same location. However, the common knowledge appears to have been that the effect of neutrons at 10-MV X-ray linear accelerator facilities is negligible and shielding calculations models seldom mention neutrons for this operating energy level. Although data are scarce, reports regarding this phenomenon are now emerging. For the future, it is advocated that contributions from neutrons are considered already during the planning stage of new or modified facilities aimed for 10 MV and that estimated dose levels are verified.
To describe physical activity (PA) intensity across a school day and assess the percentage of girls and boys achieving recommended guidelines.
The authors measured PA via accelerometry in 380 children (8-11 years) and examined data representing (1) the whole school day, (2) regular class time, (3) recess, (4) lunch and (5) scheduled physical education (PE). Activity was categorised as sedentary (SED), light physical activity (LPA) or moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) using age-specific thresholds. They examined sex differences across PA intensities during each time period and compliance with recommended guidelines.
Girls accumulated less MVPA and more SED than boys throughout the school day (MVPA -10.6 min; SED +13.9 min) recess (MVPA -1.6 min; SED +1.7 min) and lunch (MVPA -3.1 min; SED +2.9 min). Girls accumulated less MVPA (-6.2 min), less LPA (-2.5 min) and more SED (+9.4 min) than boys during regular class time. Fewer girls than boys achieved PA guidelines during school (90.9% vs 96.2%), recess (15.7% vs 34.1%) and lunch (16.7% vs 37.4%). During PE, only 1.8% of girls and 2.9% of boys achieved the PA guidelines. Girls and boys accumulated similar amounts of MVPA, LPA and SED.
The MVPA deficit in girls was due to their sedentary behaviour as opposed to LPA. Physical activity strategies that target girls are essential to overcome this deficit. Only a very small percentage of children met physical activity guidelines during PE. There is a great need for additional training and emphasis on PA during PE. In addition schools should complement PE with PA models that increase PA opportunities across the school day.
This study examines how precipitation, light conditions and surface conditions affect the drivers' risk perception. An indicator CRI (Chosen Risk Index) is defined, which describes the chosen risk level for drivers in a car-following situation. The dataset contains about 70 000 observations of driver behaviour and weather status on a rural road. Based on the theory of risk homeostasis and an assumption that driving behaviour in situations with daylight, dry road and no precipitation reflects drivers' target level of risk, generalised linear models (GLM) were estimated for cars and trucks separately to reveal the effect of adverse weather conditions on risk perception. The analyses show that both car and truck drivers perceive the highest risk when driving on snow covered roads. For car drivers, a snow covered road in combination with moderate rain or light snow are the factors which lowers the CRI the most. For trucks, snow cover and partially covered roads significantly lowers the CRI, while precipitation did not seem to impose any higher risk. Interaction effects were found for car drivers only.