A valid method for classifying chronic pain patients into more homogenous groups could be useful for treatment planning, that is, which treatment is effective for which patient, and as a marker when evaluating treatment outcome. One instrument that has been used to derive subgroups of patients is the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI). The primary aim of this study was to evaluate a classification method based on the Swedish version of the MPI, the MPI-S, to predict sick leave among chronic neck and back pain patients for a period of 7 years after vocational rehabilitation. As hypothesized, dysfunctional patients (DYS), according to the MPI-S, showed a higher amount of sickness absence and disability pension expressed in days than adaptive copers (AC) during the 7-years follow-up period, even when adjusting for sickness absence prior to rehabilitation (355.8days, 95% confidence interval, 71.7; 639.9). Forty percent of DYS patients and 26.7% of AC patients received disability pension during the follow-up period. However, this difference was not statistically significant. Further analyses showed that the difference between patient groups was most pronounced among patients with more than 60days of sickness absence prior to rehabilitation. Cost-effectiveness calculations indicated that the DYS patients showed an increase in production loss compared to AC patients. The present study yields support for the prognostic value of this subgroup classification method concerning long-term outcome on sick leave following this type of vocational rehabilitation.
Mental disorders are a key cause of sickness absence (SA) and challenge prolonging working careers. Thus, evidence on the development of SA trends is needed. In this study, educational differences in long SAs due to mental disorders were examined in two age groups among employees of the City of Helsinki from 2004 to 2013.
All permanently and temporarily employed staff aged 18-34 and 35-49 were included in the analyses (n=~27800 per year). SA spells of =14 days due to mental disorders were examined annually. Education was classified to higher and lower levels. Joinpoint regression was used to identify major turning points in SA trends.
Joinpoint regression models showed that lower educated groups had more long SAs spells due to mental disorders than those groups with higher education. SA trends decreased during the study period in all studied age and educational groups. Lower educated age groups had similar SA trends. Younger employees with higher education had the fewest SAs.
A clear educational gradient was found in long SAs due to mental disorders during the study period. SA trends decreased from 2004 to 2013.
Socioeconomic differences in sickness absence are well established among middle-aged employees but poorly known among younger employees, in particular for shorter spells. We examined trends in occupational class differences in short sickness absence among young women.
The data were obtained from the registers of the City of Helsinki, Finland, and included female employees aged 18-34 years from 2002 to 2013. Self-certified (1-3 days) sickness absence spells were examined. Occupational class was classified into four hierarchical categories. Joinpoint regression models were used to identify major changes in sickness absence trends.
Short sickness absence increased until 2008, after which it decreased in all occupational classes except manual workers. Differences in sickness absence between occupational classes remained over time. Routine non-manuals had the highest amount of short sickness absence, while managers and professionals had the smallest amount. Manual workers had somewhat less short sickness absence than routine non-manuals and semi-professionals.
The socioeconomic differences in short sickness absence were clear among young women but not fully consistent as routine non-manuals tended to have more sickness absence than manual workers. Preventive measures are needed to narrow socioeconomic differences in young women's sickness absence especially among routine non-manuals.
A retrospective investigation was undertaken of the connection between absence on account of illness and the hygienic routines in 28 day institutions in the County of Storstrøm. A total of 953 children aged 0-6 years were involved. Absence on account of illness was described on the basis of registration for three months carried out by the staffs of the day institutions. On the basis of information about sick-leave, interview investigations were carried out the hygienic routines in the six day institutions which showed the highest and lowest absenteeism on account of illness, respectively. Only slight differences were found in the hygienic routines in the institutions investigated and no connections were found between sickness and hygiene. On the other hand, there appears to have been a connection between absence on account of illness and time spent out-of-doors; the greatest illness being observed in the institutions where the children spent least time out-of-doors. With the object preventions of illness among children in day institutions, further investigations concerning the significance of time spent out-of-doors and the indoor environment for these children would be of interest.
Various indicators of health have been shown to be associated with traffic crash involvement. As general health is also related to absence from work, the latter variable may be more strongly related to crashes, especially for professional drivers.
Bus driver absence from work was analyzed in association with their crash records. Two British samples and one Swedish sample were used.
One of the British samples yielded fair correlations between crash record and absence, while for the other the effect was restricted to the first three months of driving. The Swedish data had effects in the expected direction but these were not significant.
The use of an indirect, overall measurement of health, may be a viable method for predicting the traffic crash involvement for professional drivers, although replications are needed in larger samples and other populations.
The use of absence records for the identification of at risk drivers would seem to be a simple and useful method for companies with major fleets, and it also shows the importance of promoting employee health and well being at work as a potential method of reducing the cost, not only of absenteeism, but also of crashes in company vehicles.
The present work demonstrates a close association between illness-associated absence among children below 4 y of age in day-care, and the age-related composition of the child groups. The study, which spanned a 4 y period and is based on illness-related absence from day-care in a Stockholm suburb, shows that morbidity decreases significantly among young children as age-integration in the groups is intensified. Absence due to illness was most common in toddler groups of infants up to 3 y of age. Among sibling groups of children in the age range 0-6 y, illness-related absence was lower among toddlers compared to toddlers in age-separated groups, and significantly lower in extended sibling groups in the age range 0-12 y. Morbidity among children older than 3 y was not affected in the same way by group structure.
The aim of the present study was to investigate absence from work in Denmark due to occupational and non-occupational accidents.
Since the beginning of the last decade, political focus has been placed on the population's working capacity and the scope of absence due to illness. Absence from work is estimated at between 3% and 6% of working hours in the EU and costs are estimated at approximately 2.5% of GNP.
Victims of accidents treated at two emergency departments were interviewed regarding absence for the injured, the family and others. All answers were linked to the hospital information on the injury, so that it was possible to examine the relation between absence and injury type, and cause of the accident.
In total, 1,479 injured persons were interviewed. 36% of these reported absence from work by themselves or others. In mean, an injury caused 3.21 days of absence. Based on this the total absence due to injuries in Denmark was estimated to 1,822,000 workdays, corresponding to approximately 6% of the total absence from work due to all types of illness. Non-occupational injuries resulted in more absence than did occupational injuries.
Absence due to accidents contributed to a considerable part of the total absence from work, and non-occupational accidents caused more absence than did occupational accidents.
The number of days of absence because of sickness, recorded for all children in one city in Finland, cared for in municipal day care over a period of 2.5 years, was collected from the monthly figures kept by the city council office for accounting purposes. The average number of days of absence per child was 24 per year at child-care centers and 9 in family care (p