Inherited retinal dystrophies represent the most important cause of vision impairment in adolescence, affecting approximately 1 out of 3000 individuals. Mutations of the photoreceptor-specific gene ABCA4 (ABCR) are a common cause of retinal dystrophy. A number of mutations have been repeatedly reported for this gene, notably the 2588G>C mutation which is frequent in both patients and controls. Here we ascertained the frequency of the 2588G>C mutation in a total of 2343 unrelated random control individuals from 11 European countries and 241 control individuals from the US, as well as in 614 patients with STGD both from Europe and the US. We found an overall carrier frequency of 1 out of 54 in Europe, compared with 1 out of 121 in the US, confirming that the 2588G>C ABCA4 mutation is one of the most frequent autosomal recessive mutations in the European population. Carrier frequencies show an increasing gradient in Europe from South-West to North-East. The lowest carrier frequency, 0 out of 199 (0%), was found in Portugal; the highest, 11 out of 197 (5.5%), was found in Sweden. Haplotype analysis in 16 families segregating the 2588G>C mutation showed four intragenic polymorphisms invariably present in all 16 disease chromosomes and sharing of the same allele for several markers flanking the ABCA4 locus in most of the disease chromosomes. These results indicate a single origin of the 2588G>C mutation which, to our best estimate, occurred between 2400 and 3000 years ago.
The ABCG2 c.421C>A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was determined in 660 healthy Finnish volunteers, of whom 32 participated in a pharmacokinetic crossover study involving the administration of 20 mg atorvastatin and rosuvastatin. The frequency of the c.421A variant allele was 9.5% (95% confidence interval 8.1-11.3%). Subjects with the c.421AA genotype (n = 4) had a 72% larger mean area under the plasma atorvastatin concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC(0-infinity)) than individuals with the c.421CC genotype had (n = 16; P = 0.049). In participants with the c.421AA genotype, the rosuvastatin AUC(0-infinity) was 100% greater than in those with c.421CA (n = 12) and 144% greater than in those with the c.421CC genotype. Also, those with the c.421AA genotype showed peak plasma rosuvastatin concentrations 108% higher than those in the c.421CA genotype group and 131% higher than those in the c.421CC genotype group (P
To investigate X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in an unselected population, we performed a population based, cross-sectional prevalence study, supplemented by a retrospective study of deceased subjects. Sixty-three subjects (34 males, 29 females) belonging to 22 kindreds were included. Thirty-nine subjects (13 males, 26 females) were alive, and 24 (21 males, 3 females) were deceased on the prevalence day. The point prevalence of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in Norway on July 1, 2011, was 0.8 per 100,000 inhabitants. The incidence at birth in the period 1956-1995 was 1.6 per 100,000 inhabitants. An age-dependent penetrance was observed among males and females, with more severe phenotypes appearing with rising age. Only 5% of deceased males had not developed cerebral leukodystrophy. No female older than 50 years was neurologically intact. Sixteen mutations in the ABCD1 gene were identified. De novo mutations were found in 19% of probands. The frequency of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy was lower in Norway than reported in the literature. A more severe natural course than previously reported was observed, indicating a need for better follow-up of both male and female patients. Given the high rate of de novo mutations, identification programs such as newborn screening may be required to offer timely treatment to all patients.
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a peroxisomial disorder caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene. Adrenomyeloneuropathy is the second most frequent phenotype (25-46%) of this disease and classically presents in adulthood with spastic paraparesis. Female heterozygotes can be symptomatic, but they are frequently misdiagnosed as having multiple sclerosis.
We report a novel missense mutation in the ABCD1 gene in a 47-year-old French-Canadian female with spastic paraparesis and no confirmed family history of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. The mutation is located on exon 1 and causes the amino acid substitution of a valine for an alanine in a region of the protein highly conserved between mouse and man.
Adrenomyeloneuropathy must be considered in the differential diagnosis of spastic paraparesis in men or women. This is an initial report of an ABCD1 gene mutation in the French-Canadian population, which should lead to the recognition of other cases in the future.
Type I diabetes mellitus is an immune-mediated disease that is known to be associated and linked with genes in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region on chromome 6. Functionally, HLA class I antigen presentation may be deranged in type I diabetes. The TAP1 and TAP2 transporters, which mediate the translocation of antigenic peptides into the endoplasmic reticulum and whose genes are located in the HLA class II region, are potential candidates for conferrring predisposition to type I diabetes. Five known coding region variants (codons 379, 565, 651, 665, and 687) as well as three new polymorphisms of TAP2, one silent (codon 604) and two intronic (nucleotide positions 49,270 and 49,471), were typed in a cohort of 146 well-characterized Finnish individuals with type I diabetes and 90 control subjects. Absolute linkage disequilibrium was apparent for the polymorphisms at codons 604, 665, and 687 as well as the two downstream intronic polymorphisms in a 613-bp region of the 3' portion of TAP2; the polymorphism at codon 651, which is also present within this region, was excluded from this linkage. The codon 651 polymorphism defines the allele TAP2F, the frequency of which in HLA-DR4+ diabetic subjects was 5.4 times that in DR4+ controls (27 vs. 5%, p = 0.002, p(c) = 0.01). These data are consistent with the existence of susceptibility haplotypes for type I diabetes in the Finnish population consisting of DRB1*04 (*0401 and *0404), DQ8, and TAP2F.
Enterococcus faecalis strains with multiple antibiotic resistances can cause infections that are difficult to treat. The microbial flora in treatment-resistant apical periodontitis is dominated by E. faecalis, and is a potential source of infections at other sites.
Sensitivities to a range of antibiotics were determined for 59 endodontic E. faecalis isolates from Finland and Lithuania. The DNA sequence of the gene responsible for the species' intrinsic quinupristin-dalfopristin resistance, lsa, was determined from two isolates with diminished resistance. Four pairs of isolates from the same root canal were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.
A high prevalence of resistance to rifampicin was found, whereas all isolates were susceptible or showed intermediate susceptibility to penicillin and ampicillin and four isolates were unusually susceptible to cefotaxime. No vancomycin or high-level gentamicin resistance was detected. Nine of 59 isolates were susceptible to quinupristin-dalfopristin. A fully quinupristin-dalfopristin-susceptible isolate also susceptible to clindamycin produced a truncated Lsa polypeptide, and an isolate with borderline quinupristin-dalfopristin-susceptibility had mutations proximal to the predicted ribosomal binding site. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that the same root canal could harbor two different strains of E. faecalis during the course of the same infection.
Despite the differing antibiotic usage in Finland and Lithuania, E. faecalis from endodontic infections in these countries showed similar susceptibility patterns with levels of resistance considered typical for the species, and decreased resistance to clindamycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin as well as lesions in the lsa gene which were similar to those described in other clinical isolates.
Alterations in antigen processing have been proposed to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). A non-major histocompatibility complex gene encoding an endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase, ERAP1, has been implicated recently. This study assessed 13 coding single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 5 genes involved in antigen processing (ERAP1, TAP1, TAP2, LMP2, and LMP7) in 3 Canadian cohorts of patients with AS, to address the possibility of gene interactions in disease susceptibility.
The study involved 992 AS cases and 1,437 controls from 3 centers (472 cases and 451 controls from Alberta, 138 cases and 392 controls from Newfoundland, and 382 cases and 594 controls from Toronto). Most of the patients with AS and healthy, unrelated controls were Caucasians of northern European descent. Single-marker and haplotype associations were determined using an allelic likelihood ratio test in UNPHASED, version 3.0.12, and the WHAP program, respectively. P values for significance of haplotype associations were calculated using a permutation test.
A specific ERAP1 haplotype, rs27044/10050860/30187-CCT, was strongly associated with increased risk of AS in all 3 case-control cohorts (pooled odds ratio [OR] 1.81, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.46-2.24; P=7x10(-8)), while a second specific ERAP1 haplotype, rs30187/26618/26653-CTG, reduced the disease risk (pooled OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.67-0.88; P=9x10(-5)). Significant associations were also noted for 3 ERAP1 SNP variants (rs10050860, rs30187, and rs26653), although no significant haplotype interaction between ERAP1 and TAP/LMP loci was evident.
These data indicate that an AS disease locus may reside on a specific ERAP1 haplotype, and its effect is not multiplicative with contributions from TAP and LMP genes.
CONTEXT: Low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are inversely related to cardiovascular risk. Whether this is a causal effect is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether genetically reduced HDL cholesterol due to heterozygosity for 4 loss-of-function mutations in ABCA1 cause increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Three studies of white individuals from Copenhagen, Denmark, were used: the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS), a 31-year prospective general population study (n = 9022; 28 heterozygotes); the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS), a cross-sectional general population study (n = 31,241; 76 heterozygotes); and the Copenhagen Ischemic Heart Disease Study (CIHDS), a case-control study (n = 16,623; 44 heterozygotes). End points in all 3 studies were recorded during the period of January 1, 1976, through July 9, 2007. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Levels of HDL cholesterol in the general population, cellular cholesterol efflux, and the association between IHD and HDL cholesterol and genotype. RESULTS: Heterozygotes vs noncarriers for 4 ABCA1 mutations (P1065S, G1216V, N1800H, R2144X) had HDL cholesterol levels of 41 mg/dL (interquartile range, 31-50 mg/dL) vs 58 mg/dL (interquartile range, 46-73 mg/dL), corresponding to a reduction in HDL cholesterol of 17 mg/dL (P
Recent studies have demonstrated that cholesterol metabolism has an important role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, suggesting that cholesterol-related genes may be significant genetic risk factors for AD. Based on the results of genome-wide screens, along with biological studies, we selected three genes as candidates for AD risk factors: ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H) and cholesterol 24-hydroxylase (CH24H). Case-control of North American Caucasians and AD families of Caribbean Hispanic origin were examined. Although excellent biological candidates, the case-control dataset did not support the hypothesis that these three genes were associated with susceptibility to AD. Similarly, no association was found in the Caribbean Hispanic families for CH25H. However, we did observe a possible interaction between ABCA1 and APOE in the Hispanics.
ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) transports cellular cholesterol to lipid-poor apolipoproteins. Mutations in the ABCA1 gene are linked to rare phenotypes, familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia (FHA) and Tangier disease (TD), characterized by markedly decreased plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. The aim was to test if the ABCA1 locus is a major locus regulating HDL-C levels in the homogenous Finnish population with a high prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD). Firstly, the ABCA1 locus was tested for linkage to HDL-C levels in 35 families with premature CHD and low HDL-C levels. Secondly, 62 men with low HDL-C levels and CHD were screened for the five mutations known to cause FHA. Thirdly, polymorphisms of the ABCA1 gene were tested for an association with HDL-C levels in a population sample of 515 subjects. The ABCA1 locus was not linked to HDL-C levels in the CHD families, and no carriers of the FHA mutations were found. The AA596 genotype was associated with higher HDL-C levels compared with the GG and GA genotypes in the women, but not in the men. The G596A genotypes explained 4% and the A2589G genotypes 3% of the variation in plasma HDL-C levels in women. The data suggest that the ABCA1 locus is of minor importance in the regulation of HDL-C in Finns.