The aim of the present study was to compare the ability of four clinical prediction rules to predict adverse outcome in perforated peptic ulcer (PPU): the Boey score, the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, and the sepsis score.
an observational multicenter study.
a total of 117 patients surgically treated for PPU between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2009 in seven gastrointestinal departments in Denmark were included. Pregnant and breastfeeding women, non-surgically treated patients, patients with malignant ulcers, and patients with perforation of other organs were excluded.
30-day mortality rate.
the ability of four clinical prediction rules to distinguish survivors from non-survivors (discrimination ability) was evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), positive predictive values (PPVs), negative predictive values (NPVs), and adjusted relative risks.
Median age (range) was 70 years (25-92 years), 51% of the patients were females, and 73% of the patients had at least one co-existing disease. The 30-day mortality proportion was 17% (20/117). The AUCs: the Boey score, 0.63; the sepsis score, 0.69; the ASA score, 0.73; and the APACHE II score, 0.76. Overall, the PPVs of all four prediction rules were low and the NPVs high.
The Boey score, the ASA score, the APACHE II score, and the sepsis score predict mortality poorly in patients with PPU.
Intensive care treatment is expensive and its capacity is limited. The population of elderly patients with greater need for intensive care increases. It has become more important to evaluate the use of intensive care resources and to compare it with the results of treatment. Diagnoses do not provide a satisfactory description of the stay in the intensive care unit. Scoring systems for severity of illness and for resource needs are therefore of great value. The Norwegian Board of Health has requested all intensive care units in Norway to describe their activities by scoring systems for severity of illness, SAPS II (Simplified Acute Physiology Score II) and for use of resources NEMS (Nine Equivalents of Nursing Manpower Use Score). The systems are generally well recognised, easy to learn and not time-consuming. Through SAPS II and NEMS it is possible to compare results of treatment and use of resources across intensive care units or against a standard.
BACKGROUND: Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) is a serious complication of critical illness. We evaluated the underlying diseases, clinical and diagnostic features, severity of associated organ failures, and outcome of operatively treated AAC in a mixed ICU patient population. METHODS: The data of all ICU patients who had operatively confirmed AAC during their ICU stay between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2001 were collected from the hospital records and the intensive care unit's data management system for predetermined variables. RESULTS: Thirty-nine (1%) out of 3984 patients underwent open cholecystectomy for AAC during the two-year period. Infection was the most common admission diagnosis, followed by cardiovascular surgery. The mean APACHE II score on admission was 25, and 64% of the patients had three or more failing organs on the day of cholecystectomy. The mean length of ICU stay before cholecystectomy was 8 days, and the mean total length of ICU stay was 19 days. Most patients (85%) received norepinephrine infusion, and 90% suffered respiratory failure before cholecystectomy. Hospital mortality was 44%. The non-survivors had higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores on the day of cholecystectomy compared to the survivors (12.9 vs. 9.5, P = 0.007). CONCLUSION: Acute acalculous cholecystitis was associated with severe illness, infection, long ICU stay, and multiple organ failure. Mortality was related to the degree of organ failure. Prompt diagnosis and active treatment of AAC can be life-saving in these patients.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence, aetiology, severity and mortality of patients with acute pancreatitis. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: University hospital, Iceland. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All 50 patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis during the one-year period October 1998-September 1999 inclusive. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: APACHE II, and Ranson and Imrie scores, and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. The Balthazar-Ranson criteria were used for scoring of computed tomograms (CT). RESULTS: 27 of the 50 patients were male. The median age of the whole series was 60 years (range 19-85). The estimated incidence was 32/100000 for the first attack of acute pancreatitis. The causes were; gallstones 21 (42%), alcohol 16 (32%), miscellaneous 12 (24%), and idiopathic 1 (2%). 15 (33%) of the patients had APACHE II scores > or = 9, 17 (38%) had Ranson scores of > or = 3, 23 (50%) had Imrie scores of > or = 3, and 16 (34%) had CRP concentrations over 210 mg/L during the first 4 days or > 120 mg/L during the first week. Seven patients had severe pancreatitis. 2 patients in the whole group died, and both had clinically severe pancreatitis. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that the incidence of less severe acute pancreatitis is rising. Prospective assessment makes it possible to evaluate the aetiological factors more accurately. Measurement of the CRP concentration is an attractive and simple alternative to the severity scoring systems currently in use.
OBJECTIVE: To study the usefulness of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scoring system for prognostication of inhospital mortality in acute myocardial infarction. DESIGN: A prospective validation study. SETTING: A medical intensive care unit (ICU) at a university hospital. PATIENTS: Over a 3-yr period, 2,007 admissions of 1,714 patients with acute myocardial infarction were studied. In readmissions to the medical ICU during the same hospital stay, only the first admission was studied. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Mean age of the patients was 72 +/- 10 yrs. The medical ICU mortality rate was 13% and total hospital mortality rate was 16%. Mean APACHE II score was 11.6 +/- 6.5. There was a close correlation between observed and predicted mortality rates in classes of patients with various APACHE II scores. Observed mortality in patients with scores of 20 to 24 was higher than the predicted mortality (p
The aim of this study was to assess population-based changes in incidence, treatment, and in short- and long-term survival of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) over 23 years.
Analysis of all patients in Iceland who fulfilled the consensus criteria for ARDS in 1988-2010. Demographic variables, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores and ventilation parameters were collected from hospital charts.
The age-standardised incidence of ARDS during the study period was 7.2 cases per 100,000 person-years and was increased by 0.2 cases per year (P?
Comparison of outcomes among intensive care units (ICUs) requires adjustment for patient variables. Severity of illness scores are associated with hospital mortality, but administrative databases rarely include the elements of these scores. However, these databases include the elements of comorbidity scores. The purpose of this study was to compare the value of these scores as adjustment variables in statistical models of hospital mortality and hospital and ICU length of stay after adjustment for other covariates.
We used multivariable regression to study 1808 patients admitted to a 13-bed medical-surgical ICU in a 400-bed tertiary hospital between December 1998 and August 2003.
For all patients, after adjusting for age, sex, major clinical category, source of admission, and socioeconomic determinants of health, we found that Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II and comorbidity scores were significantly associated with hospital mortality and that comorbidity but not APACHE II was significantly associated with hospital length of stay. Separate analysis of hospital survivors and nonsurvivors showed that both APACHE II and comorbidity scores were significantly associated with hospital length of stay and APACHE II score was associated with ICU length of stay.
The value of APACHE II and comorbidity scores as adjustment variables depends on the outcome and population of interest.
Intensive care is advanced and highly technical, and it is essential that, despite this, patient care remains safe and of high quality. Adverse events (AEs) are supposed to be reported to internal quality control systems by health-care providers, but many are never reported. Patients on the intensive care unit (ICU) are at special risk for AEs. Our aim was to identify the incidence and characteristics of AEs in patients who died on the ICU during a 2-year period.
A structured record review according to the Global Trigger Tool (GTT) was used to review charts from patients cared for at the ICU of a middle-sized Swedish hospital during 2007 and 2008 and who died during or immediately after ICU care. All identified AEs were scored according to severity and preventability.
We reviewed 128 records, and 41 different AEs were identified in 25 patients (19.5%). Health care-associated infections, hypoglycaemia, pressure sores and procedural complications were the most common harmful events. Twenty two (54%) of the AEs were classified as being avoidable. Two of the 41 AEs were reported as complications according to the Swedish Intensive Care Registry, and one AE had been reported in the internal AE-reporting system.
Almost one fifth of the patients who died on the ICU were subjected to harmful events. GTT has the advantage of identifying more patient injuries caused by AEs than the traditional AE-reporting systems used on many ICUs.
Nearly 75% of critically ill patients develop anemia in the intensive care unit (ICU). Anemia can be treated with red blood cell (RBC) transfusions, although evidence suggests that lower hemoglobin levels are tolerated in the critically ill. Despite such recommendations, variation exists in clinical practice.
A prospective cohort was assessed for anemia and RBC transfusion practices in 100 consecutive adults admitted to our General Systems ICU.
The prevalence of anemia in this cohort was 98%. Mean blood loss via phlebotomy was 25+/-10.3 mL per patient per day. The RBC transfusion rate for the ICU stay was 40%, increasing to 70% in patients whose ICU stay was >7 days. The mean pretransfusion level of hemoglobin was 7.35+/-0.47 mg/dL for the total cohort, and 8.2+/-0.65 mg/dL for those with a history of cardiovascular disease.
Anemia was common in this critically ill cohort, with hemoglobin levels continuing to drop with ICU stay. Pretransfusion hemoglobin levels were lower than reported by others, yet the RBC transfusion rate was comparable. There was no association between anemia and phlebotomy practices in our ICU.
To examine whether anticholinergic activity (AA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum is associated with risk of delirium in individuals with hip fracture.
Prospective cohort study.
Two university hospitals in Oslo, Norway, and Edinburgh, UK.
Individuals admitted with acute hip fracture (N = 151).
Participants were assessed daily for delirium using the Confusion Assessment Method (preoperatively and postoperative days 1-5 (all) or until discharge (participants with delirium)). Prefracture cognitive function was assessed using the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE). Serum was collected preoperatively and CSF at the onset of spinal anesthesia. AA in serum (SAA) and CSF samples was determined according to a muscarinic radio receptor bioassay. The association between AA measures and delirium was evaluated using logistic multivariate analyses.
Fifty-two (54%) of the participants in Oslo and 20 (39%) in Edinburgh developed delirium. There was no statistically significant difference in AA between participants with and without delirium in Oslo (serum: 7.02 vs 6.08 pmol/mL, P = .54; CSF: 0.39 vs 0.48 pmol/mL, P = .26) or in Edinburgh (serum: 1.35 vs 1.62 pmol/mL, P = .76; CSF: 0.36 vs 0.31 pmol/mL, P = .93). Nor was there any difference in SAA (Oslo, P = .74; Edinburgh, P = .51) or CSF AA (Oslo, P = .21; Edinburgh, P = .93) when participants were subdivided into prevalent, incident, subsyndromal, and never delirium. Stratifying participants according to prefracture cognitive status (IQCODE) gave the same results.
This is the first study of AA in CSF of individuals with and without delirium. The study does not support the hypothesis that central (CSF) or peripheral (serum) AA is an important mechanism of delirium in individuals with hip fracture.
Comment In: J Am Geriatr Soc. 2014 Jul;62(7):1414-525039529
Comment In: J Am Geriatr Soc. 2014 Jul;62(7):141525039530