The secretion of the ABH antigens in saliva was tested in indigenous individuals of several populations: Icelanders in Reykjavik and Husavik (northeastern Iceland), Aland Islanders, Finno-Ugrians (Finns, Finnish Lapps, Komi) and Eskimos (Augpilagtok, northwestern Greenland). The frequencies of ABH non-secretors among the Icelanders (28-36%) were among the highest ever noted in Europeans. Among Alanders and Swedes on the Finnish mainland the frequency (around 20%) was comparable to Swedish values but considerably higher than among Finns (13-14%). The values among northeastern Finns and Komi (about 9%) were intermediate between values among Lapps (below 5%) and Scandinavians (15-26%), excluding Icelanders (28-41%). The average frequency of non-secretors among Lapps in Finland (2.2 +/- 0.5%) was the lowest observed among white populations. Like many other arctic populations of the Mongolian race, the Greenland Eskimos had a very low frequency of non-secretors. It is probable that the non-secretor allele ABH*se was absent from the ancient Lapps and Greenland Eskimos but introduced by invading populations. It is concluded that the ABH*se allele frequencies vary much more among northern European populations than hitherto appreciated. Recent studies indicate that the non-secretor status of the ABH blood group substances in mucous body fluids is associated with pathological conditions of the mucous membranes of the embryologically related digestive and respiratory systems, particularly with duodenal ulcer and gastric (pre)malignancies but probably also with pulmonary dysfunction. In view of these disadvantages of the ABH non-secretor status the high frequency of ABH*se in Icelanders is a paradoxical phenomenon. The frequency of ABH non-secretors among the founders (Vikings) of Iceland may have been considerably higher than among the present populations in northwestern Europe. The increase in northwestern direction of the ABH*se allele frequencies supports this hypothesis; the dilution effect has not been as strong in Iceland as on the European continent.
OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that long-term occupational exposure to airborne pollutants is a stronger risk factor for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in men with blood type O than in men with other ABO phenotypes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and prospective study taking into account potential confounders. SETTING: The Copenhagen Male Study. SUBJECTS: 3321 men aged 53-74 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Lifetime prevalence of myocardial infarction and incidence of IHD in an 8-year follow-up among men without overt cardiovascular disease. RESULTS: Among men with phenotypes other than O no association was found between airborne pollutant exposure and IHD risk. Among men with blood type O (P = 1417, 42%), 4.7% had a history of myocardial infarction, as compared with 5.7% among men with other phenotypes (P = 1904, 58%). Long-term occupational exposure (> 5 years of exposure) to various airborne pollutants: soldering fumes, welding fumes and plastic fumes was associated with a significantly increased lifetime prevalence of myocardial infarction. Odds ratios (95% confidence limits) for these factors were 3.0 (1.6-5.8), P = 0.002, 2.1 (1.05-4.2), P = 0.05, and 8.3 (2.6-27.0), P = 0.003. In an 8-year follow-up a similar though weaker association was found with a significantly increased risk for those exposed long term to soldering fumes: 1.8 (1.0-3.2), P = 0.05. CONCLUSION: The finding of a quite strong interplay between airborne pollutants, ABO phenotypes, and risk of IHD, may open up new possibilities for clarifying the roles of the ABO blood group and air pollution as cardiovascular risk factors.
The phenotype frequency distributions of several classical blood genetic markers and dermatoglyphic characters were analyzed in workers of Siberian aluminum plants who had occupational fluorosis. Comparison with healthy workers revealed significant differences in frequencies of several markers. Phenotypes B (AB0), D (Rh), MN (MN), P1 (P), Le a (Lewis), Gc 2-1, Cx (on both hands), Th/I+ (on the left hand), C3, and C4 (HLA) were associated with higher risk of occupational fluorosis.
In this study, we explore the geographic and temporal distribution of a unique variant of the O blood group allele called O1v(G542A) , which has been shown to be shared among Native Americans but is rare in other populations. O1v(G542A) was previously reported in Native American populations in Mesoamerica and South America, and has been proposed as an ancestry informative marker. We investigated whether this allele is also found in the Tlingit and Haida, two contemporary indigenous populations from Alaska, and a pre-Columbian population from California. If O1v(G542A) is present in Na-Dene speakers (i.e., Tlingits), it would indicate that Na-Dene speaking groups share close ancestry with other Native American groups and support a Beringian origin of the allele, consistent with the Beringian Incubation Model. If O1v(G542A) is found in pre-Columbian populations, it would further support a Beringian origin of the allele, rather than a more recent introduction of the allele into the Americas via gene flow from one or more populations which have admixed with Native Americans over the past five centuries. We identified this allele in one Na-Dene population at a frequency of 0.11, and one ancient California population at a frequency of 0.20. Our results support a Beringian origin of O1v(G542A) , which is distributed today among all Native American groups that have been genotyped in appreciable numbers at this locus. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that Na-Dene and other Native American populations primarily derive their ancestry from a single source population.
Transformations of computer maps of geographical distribution of gene frequencies using basic mathematical statistical procedures are considered. These transformations are designated as statistical transformation of maps. Two transformation groups are considered: of one map separately and of a group of maps. Transformations possess a value beyond their use as intermediate stages of more complicated cartographical analysis: the resulting maps carry entirely new information on the geography of genes or a gene pool. This article considers three examples of obtaining new genetic profiles using statistical transformation algorithms. These profiles are of: heterozygosity (of HLA-A, B, C loci in northeastern Eurasia); (2) disease risk (Rh-incompatibility of mother and child with simultaneous registration of Rh and ABO blood groups in Eastern Europe); (3) genetic distances (from own mean ethnic values for Belarus' and from mean Russian values for the gene pool of Eastern Europe).
The distributions of AB0 and Rhesus phenotypes and the corresponding genes in the population of Kursk oblast were studied. Based on these data, genetic differentiation of rural populations with respect to the d gene frequency was revealed. The differentiation was determined by the differences in the genetic and demographic structure of these rural populations. The frequency of homozygotes for the recessive gene d and the incidence of malformations affecting the children's viability increased with an increase in the inbreeding level of a population. Genetic distances between the population of Kursk oblast and other populations were estimated.
For the estimation of radiation exposure on genetic processes in Mayak PA population we studied the distribution of a number of genetic markers in offsprings of Mayak PA workers depending on radiation (preconceptive and antenatal chronic exteral gamma-radiation) and non-radiation (age-sex characteristics of children and age characteristics of parents to the moment of conception) factors. Relatively unfavorable changes in distribution of genotypes and genes of haptoglobin genetic system in offsprings, whose parents (one or both) were exposed to external gamma-radiation in preconceptive cumulative dose of more than 200 cGy were detected. The most obvious reason of such changes may consist in directed gametic selection (Hp2 allele versus Hp1 allele) which turns out in abnormalities of segregation of Hp2-1 heterozygote that have both alleles. Effect of antenatal exposure on distribution of studied genetic markers in offspring of exposed population in studied dose range were not found. Homotypic changes in distribution of ABO bood groups and alleles in offspring of exposed and unexposed individuals depending on age characteristics of parents (middle age and age differences of both parents) for the moment of conception were also detected.
326 employees of 4 medical institutions (1 regional hospital, 2 city hospitals and a maternity clinic) were examined for the presence of S. aureus carriership. Examinations were made every 3 months for 3 recent years. The results of these examinations were compared with the distribution of the blood groups in the AB0 system among the carriers. Constant and malignant carrier state was detected mainly in persons with blood group A.