The secretion of the ABH antigens in saliva was tested in indigenous individuals of several populations: Icelanders in Reykjavik and Husavik (northeastern Iceland), Aland Islanders, Finno-Ugrians (Finns, Finnish Lapps, Komi) and Eskimos (Augpilagtok, northwestern Greenland). The frequencies of ABH non-secretors among the Icelanders (28-36%) were among the highest ever noted in Europeans. Among Alanders and Swedes on the Finnish mainland the frequency (around 20%) was comparable to Swedish values but considerably higher than among Finns (13-14%). The values among northeastern Finns and Komi (about 9%) were intermediate between values among Lapps (below 5%) and Scandinavians (15-26%), excluding Icelanders (28-41%). The average frequency of non-secretors among Lapps in Finland (2.2 +/- 0.5%) was the lowest observed among white populations. Like many other arctic populations of the Mongolian race, the Greenland Eskimos had a very low frequency of non-secretors. It is probable that the non-secretor allele ABH*se was absent from the ancient Lapps and Greenland Eskimos but introduced by invading populations. It is concluded that the ABH*se allele frequencies vary much more among northern European populations than hitherto appreciated. Recent studies indicate that the non-secretor status of the ABH blood group substances in mucous body fluids is associated with pathological conditions of the mucous membranes of the embryologically related digestive and respiratory systems, particularly with duodenal ulcer and gastric (pre)malignancies but probably also with pulmonary dysfunction. In view of these disadvantages of the ABH non-secretor status the high frequency of ABH*se in Icelanders is a paradoxical phenomenon. The frequency of ABH non-secretors among the founders (Vikings) of Iceland may have been considerably higher than among the present populations in northwestern Europe. The increase in northwestern direction of the ABH*se allele frequencies supports this hypothesis; the dilution effect has not been as strong in Iceland as on the European continent.
Survivors from meningococcal disease (serogroups B and C) and a control series (blood donors) were examined for their ability to secrete ABH blood group substance. The examination was done indirectly by determining their Lewis phenotypes. There was no significant difference in the secretor status between the two groups.
There is a large amount of evidence that the ABO blood group system may play a role in disease etiology. A relationship between ABO and Rhesus blood groups and cancer risk has been demonstrated in a number of studies. However, in relation to gynecological malignancies, these findings are inconsistent and contradictory.
To perform a case-control study for analysis of the distribution of ABO and Rh blood antigens among women from South-East Siberia who suffered from ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancer, and to assess the potential role of these antigens in carcinogenesis.
A total of 1,163 cases with ovarian cancer (n=551), endometrial cancer (n=440) and cervical cancer (n=172) were involved in the study. The control group was formed from 22,581 female blood donors. Blood groups were determined through patients medical records and blood donor records. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. The blood group O was defined as the referent group, as it has the greatest frequency in the populations of Southern Siberia. P values less than 0.05 were regarded as statistically significant.
We found that carriage of non-O blood types increased the risk of ovarian cancer by 40-60%, and the magnitude of this relationship was strongest in women with the AB (IV) blood group. Carriage of the A (II) blood group strongly correlated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer in premenopausal, but not in postmenopausal women. No statistically significant correlations were obtained for endometrial cancer and cervical cancer. Additionally, we did not observe a relationship between Rhesus factor and cancer risk.
We suggest that carriage of non-O blood groups may elevate risk of ovarian cancer and can play a role in its development.
To examine the association between ABO and RhD blood groups and gestational hypertensive disorders in a large population-based cohort.
Cohort study. Risks of gestational hypertensive disorders, pre-eclampsia, and severe pre-eclampsia, estimated by odds ratios for maternal ABO blood group and RhD status.
National health registers of Sweden.
All singleton deliveries in Sweden born to first-time mothers during the period 1987-2002 [total n = 641 926; any gestational hypertensive disorders, n = 39 011 (6.1%); pre-eclampsia cases, n = 29 337 (4.6%); severe pre-eclampsia cases, n = 8477 (1.3%)].
Using blood group O as a reference, odds ratios of gestational hypertensive disorders, pre-eclampsia, and severe pre-eclampsia were obtained from logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounding factors.
Gestational hypertensive disorders, pre-eclampsia, and severe pre-eclampsia.
Compared with blood group O, all non-O blood groups had modest but statistically significantly higher odds of pre-eclampsia. Blood group AB had the highest risk for pre-eclampsia (OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.04-1.16) and severe pre-eclampsia (OR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.07-1.30). RhD-positive mothers had a small increased risk for pre-eclampsia (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.03-1.10).
In the largest study on this topic to date, women with AB blood group have the highest risks of gestational hypertensive disorders, pre-eclampsia, and severe pre-eclampsia, whereas women with O blood group have the lowest risks of developing these disorders. Although the magnitude of increased risk is small, this finding may help improve our understanding of the etiology of pre-eclampsia.
During the 3 year period 1970-1972 a total of 554 patients were notified for the first time as having bacillary or abacillary pulmonary tuberculosis in the Municipality of Copenhagen; 99 per cent of these patients were typed according to the ABO and rhesus system. The bacillary patients showed an excess of group O and AB and a deficit of A and B as compared to the general population. The deviations were statistically highly significant for group O and A. The distribution according to the rhesus system did not deviate from the expected pattern. The ABO and rhesus distribution of the abacillary patients did not differ significantly from the expected pattern. During a follow-up period of 2-5 years after the initial diagnosis 104 bacillary patients died; the ABO pattern among the survivors was now closer to the normal; this resulted from a high number of deaths from tuberculosis among patients of group O and a low number among those belonging to group A. More rhesus negative patients died from tuberculosis than rhesus positive. It is concluded that a study of the ABO and rhesus pattern among the tuberculosis patients becomes biased if a break-down by bacteriological findings and history is not made. It is also important that the study covers all patients who contract tuberculosis within a certain period, as the longevity of the patients is apparently to some extent dependent on their blood group.
The association between ABO blood groups and Achilles tendon (AT) ruptures was studied in 215 consecutive AT rupture patients treated at Oulu University Hospital during the 16-year period from 1979 to 1994 as compared with control material consisting of earlier blood group determinations performed on an unselected sample of 5,536 young Finnish male adults. There was no blood group O dominance or other statistical differences in ABO blood groups between the patients with AT rupture and the control population (chi 2 3.79, P = 0.28), the A/O ratio being 1.82 in the rupture group and 1.42 in the controls. We found no blood group O dominance in competitive athletes, recreational athletes or non-athletes, in patients with sports-related AT ruptures or non-sports-related ruptures and in younger ( or = 45--years) patients. In conclusion, our results do not confirm early findings of blood group O dominance in patients with AT rupture.
Dementia includes a group of neuro-degenerative disorders characterized by varying degrees of cognitive impairment. Recent data indicates that blood group AB is associated with impaired cognition in elderly patients. To date there are no large-scale studies that have examined the relationship between ABO blood group and dementia-related disorders in detail.
We used data from the SCANDAT2 database that contains information on over 1.6 million blood donors from 1968 in Sweden and 1981 from Denmark. The database was linked with health outcomes data from nationwide patient and cause of death registers to investigate the relationship between blood groups and risk of different types of dementia. The incident rate ratios were estimated using log-linear Poisson regression models.
Among 1,598,294 donors followed over 24 million person-years of observation we ascertained 3,615 cases of Alzheimer's disease, 1,842 cases of vascular dementia, and 9,091 cases of unspecified dementia. Overall, our study showed no association between ABO blood group and risk of Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia or unspecified dementia. This was also true when analyses were restricted to donors aged 70 years or older except for a slight, but significantly decreased risk of all dementia combined in subjects with blood group A (IRR, 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-0.98), compared to those with blood group O.
Our results provide no evidence that ABO blood group influences the risk of dementia.
ABO blood groups have been shown to be associated with increased risks of venous thromboembolic and arterial disease. However, the reported magnitude of this association is inconsistent and is based on evidence from small-scale studies.
We used the SCANDAT2 (Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions) database of blood donors linked with other nationwide health data registers to investigate the association between ABO blood groups and the incidence of first and recurrent venous thromboembolic and arterial events. Blood donors in Denmark and Sweden between 1987 and 2012 were followed up for diagnosis of thromboembolism and arterial events. Poisson regression models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios as measures of relative risk. A total of 9170 venous and 24 653 arterial events occurred in 1 112 072 individuals during 13.6 million person-years of follow-up. Compared with blood group O, non-O blood groups were associated with higher incidence of both venous and arterial thromboembolic events. The highest rate ratios were observed for pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism (incidence rate ratio, 2.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.77-2.79), deep vein thrombosis (incidence rate ratio, 1.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.80-2.05), and pulmonary embolism (incidence rate ratio, 1.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.71-1.88).
In this healthy population of blood donors, non-O blood groups explain >30% of venous thromboembolic events. Although ABO blood groups may potentially be used with available prediction systems for identifying at-risk individuals, its clinical utility requires further comparison with other risk markers.