OBJECTIVE: A common polymorphism (-1C to T) in the translation initiation sequence of annexin A5 (ANV) gene has recently been associated with a decreased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aim of the present study was to analyze the association between the ANV genepolymorphism and the risk of AMI and ischemic sudden cardiac death (SCD) in middle-aged Finnish males. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A case-control study involving three distinct groups of subjects was carried out: (1) victims of SCD (n=98), (2) survivors of AMI (n=212), and (3) randomly selected control subjects without any history of coronary heart disease (n=243). The ANV polymorphism was genotyped in each study group. RESULTS: Among the control group of healthy Finnish males the prevalence rates of the CC, CT, and TT genotypes were 83.1%, 15.2%, and 1.6%, respectively. Among the survivors of AMI, the prevalence rates of CC, CT, and TT were 79.7%, 20.3%, and 0%, respectively, and among the victims of SCD 83.7%, 16.3%, and 0%, respectively. No significant differences in the genotype or allele distributions were observed between the study groups. CONCLUSION: The -1C to T polymorphism in the ANV gene is not associated with the risk of AMI or SCD in middle-aged Finnish males.
The analysis of -1997G/T, -1663indelT, and +1245G/T polymorphic loci of the 5'region of COLIA1 gene in 124 females aged from 50 to 70 years old with low numbers of traumatic fractures as well as 150 healthy individuals from Volga-Ural region has been conducted. The association of -1663indelT and +1245G/T loci with the risk of osteoporotic fractures has been discovered. It has been shown that -1997*G*G/-1663*I*D/+1245*G*T genotype combination and -1997*G/-1663*D/+1245*T haplotype can be considered as markers for fracture development.
Widespread circulation of human enterovirus 71 was discovered in a prospective study of fecal samples obtained from healthy Norwegian children. Molecular characterization of the virus determined that it belonged to genotype C1. Complete sequencing of this strain, HEV71 804/NO/03, revealed differences in the 5'UTR and polymerase with respect to more pathogenic genotypes that may explain its reduced neurovirulence.
Studies associating the prothrombin 20210G>A (FII 20210A), factor V Leiden (FVL), and factor XIII Leu34 (FXIII-A Leu34) alleles with myocardial infarction (MI) have yielded conflicting results. Complicated gene-gene interactions, small sample sizes, and heterogeneous genetic and environmental backgrounds may contribute to opposing findings. Simultaneous analysis of multiple gene variants in a large sample size from a genetically isolated population may overcome these weaknesses. Genotyping was performed in 500 MI patients and 500 control subjects from the genetically isolated Newfoundland population to determine the prevalence of the FII 20210A, FVL, and FXIII-A Leu34 variants and their association with MI. Gene-gene interactions were also analyzed. The prevalence of the FII 20210A allele was higher in MI patients (3.2%) than in control subjects (1.0%; P =.015). The FII 20210A allele was also 5.6-fold higher in MI patients younger than 51 years than in age-matched control subjects (P =.04). FVL showed 3.9-fold higher prevalence in young patients than in patients older than 50 years (P =.004) and 2.7-fold higher than in age-matched control subjects (P =.007). Furthermore, the prevalence of combined carriers of the FXIII-A L34 and FII 20210A alleles was 12-fold higher in MI patients than in control subjects (P =.002) and with 92% penetrance. There was disequilibrium of the FXIII-A Leu34 allele to MI patients carrying the FII 20210A allele as a genetic background. Based on our data, we determined that (1) the FII 20210A allele is a risk factor for MI, possibly important for early onset; (2) FVL may predispose for early-onset MI; (3) the FXIII-A Leu34 allele predisposes for MI in males only; however, (4) interaction between the FII 20210A and FXIII-A Leu34 alleles forms a synergistic coeffect that strongly predisposes for MI, placing combined carriers at high risk for MI.
Comment In: Blood. 2003 Aug 15;102(4):1558-9; author reply 1559-6012900358
Mutations in the Breast-Cancer-1 (BRCA1) gene are the major cause of familial breast/ovarian cancer. Among familial breast cancer only, 15-20% have been suggested to have a deleterious mutation in BRCA1. A highly sensitive method (REF-SSCP) was applied to screen the open reading frame and the 5'UTRs of BRCA1 for mutations. The patient cohort comprised 61 unrelated moderate to high risk breast cancer patients from Western-Norway. Only one known deleterious BRCA1 mutation (c.816-817delGT) was found in two of the 61 patients (3.3%). Four haplotypes were established based on nine known single nucleotide polymorphisms. Two patients had a novel deletion (c.-33_-29delAAAAA) in the 5'UTR, and a novel amino acid substitution (L523W) was found in one patient. Size variations analysis in the 5'UTR was repeated in a cohort of 159 unrelated familial breast/ovarian cancer patients and 94 healthy blood donors. Two patients were identified with 5'UTR (c.-30 to -60) variations (CAAAA)5 and (CAAAA)7, instead of the (CAAAA)6-repeat. All of the identified 5'UTR size variations were localized between the start codon and the most stable secondary structures previously proposed for the exon 1b transcript. No such alterations were found among the healthy blood donors but association studies of the 5'UTR variations within the respective families were not conclusive.
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS; OMIM 122470) is a rare multiple congenital anomaly/mental retardation syndrome characterized by distinctive dysmorphic facial features, severe growth and developmental delay and abnormalities of the upper limbs. About 50% of CdLS patients have been found to have heterozygous mutations in the NIPBL gene and a few cases were recently found to be caused by mutations in the X-linked SMC1L1 gene. We performed a mutation screening of all NIPBL coding exons by direct sequencing in 11 patients (nine sporadic and two familial cases) diagnosed with CdLS in Sweden and detected mutations in seven of the cases. All were de novo, and six of the mutations have not been previously described. Four patients without identifiable NIPBL mutations were subsequently subjected to multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis to exclude whole exon deletions/duplications of NIPBL. In addition, mutation analysis of the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) of NIPBL was performed. Tiling resolution array comparative genomic hybridization analysis was carried out on these four patients to detect cryptic chromosome imbalances and in addition the boys were screened for SMC1L1 mutations. We found a de novo 9p duplication with a size of 0.6 Mb in one of the patients with a CdLS-like phenotype but no mutations were detected in SMC1L1. So far, two genes (NIPBL and SMC1L1) have been identified causing CdLS or CdLS-like phenotypes. However, in a considerable proportion of individuals demonstrating the CdLS phenotype, mutations in any of these two genes are not found and other potential loci harboring additional CdLS-causing genes should be considered.
A high level of red blood cell (RBC) aggregation has been consistently found in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) in case-control studies. Plasma fibrinogen has been shown to promote RBC aggregability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the genetic variability of the beta-fibrinogen gene on RBC aggregation in patients with CAD.
The genotype of the beta-fibrinogen gene locus was determined by polymerase chain reaction using the restriction enzyme HaeIII for a G to A substitution at position -455 upstream from the transcriptional start site in 135 French Canadians with premature CAD (age: 51+/-7 years). Indices measuring the RBC aggregation kinetics (S10) and shear resistance of the aggregates (gammaS) were obtained by laser reflectometry. Patients were separated into groups by using the medians of S10 and gammaS. Using chi2 analyses, the distribution of the -455GG, -455GA, and -455AA genotypes in the groups with high levels of S10 (0.43, 0.49, and 0.08) and gammaS (0.45, 0.49, and 0.06) were found to be significantly distinct from those in the groups with low levels of S10 (0.67, 0.27, and 0.06; p
Between 1999 and 2007 1,388 stool specimens from patients with acute flaccid paralysis or aseptic meningitis were submitted to the Austrian reference laboratory for poliomyelitis. Samples (201) yielded non-poliovirus enterovirus in culture. One hundred eighty-one viruses were available for typing and 78 isolates which remained serologically untyped were further analyzed by CODEHOP-PCR and sequencing of the VP1 gene and the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR). Typing revealed an Echovirus 30 outbreak in northwestern Austria in 2000, which was in accordance with the situation in Europe, and no dramatic seasonal changes of Coxsackie viruses were observed. In 2002/2003 a small outbreak of enterovirus 71 (EV71), affected 12 patients in the province of Styria. This virus was identified as genotype C1 and appeared to be genetically distinct from the isolates observed in 2001/2002 in Vienna. In 2004 two unrelated cases occurred in Lower Austria, which were identified as genotype C4, which has been described associated with high mortality most recently in China. In contrast to the situation in Asia the detected EV71 cases were not associated with hand-foot-mouth disease, but with serous meningitis only. This was surprising as a recent publication suggested a reduced neurovirulence of C1 genotype in children in Norway, presumably due to alterations in 5'-UTR and polymerase gene. However, comparing the 5'-UTR of the Austrian isolates and established virulent reference strains to the Norwegian isolate and an attenuated EV71 laboratory strain we did not find an indication that the genotype C1 possesses a RNA structure in its 5'-UTR leading to reduced neurovirulence.
The objective of this work was to explore the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) in lipid metabolism in humans.
PPARD is a nuclear receptor involved in lipid metabolism in primates and mice. We screened the 5'-region of the human gene for polymorphisms to be used as tools in association studies. Four polymorphisms were detected: -409C/T in the promoter region, +73C/T in exon 1, +255A/G in exon 3, and +294T/C in exon 4. The frequencies of the rare alleles were 4.2%, 4.2%, 1.2% and 15.6%, respectively, in a population-based group of 543 healthy men. Only the +294T/C polymorphism showed significant association with a metabolic trait. Homozygotes for the rare C allele had a higher plasma LDL-cholesterol concentration than homozygotes for the common T allele, which was verified in an independent cohort consisting of 282 healthy men. Transfection studies showed that the rare C allele had higher transcriptional activity than the common T allele. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that the +294T/C polymorphism influenced binding of Sp-1. An interaction with the PPAR alpha L162V polymorphism was also detected for several lipid parameters.
These findings suggest that PPARD plays a role in cholesterol metabolism in humans.
ATP7A and ATP7B are involved in cellular resistance to platinum compounds such as cisplatin. By sequencing ATP7A, 38 genetic variations, including 30 novel ones were detected from 203 Japanese cancer patients. Of these, seven nonsynonymous variations were found: novel 1030A>G (R344G), 2111A>G (Q704R), 2200C>A (Q734K), 2948C>T (T983M) and 3112G>A (V1038I) at 0.004 frequencies and known 2299G>C (V767L) and 4390A>G (I1464V) at 0.351 and 0.075 frequencies, respectively. Regarding ATP7B, 28 novel and 33 known genetic variations were detected including 13 nonsynonymous ones: novel 1258A>G (M420V), 1426G>A (A476T), and 2401A>C (T801P) were found at 0.002, 0.005, and 0.002, respectively and known 1216G>T (A406S), 1366G>C (V456L), 2495A>G (K832R), 2785A>G (I929V), 2855G>A (R952K), 2871delC (P957PfsX9), 3419T>C (V1140A), 3836A>G (D1279G), 3886G>A (D1296N) and 3889G>A (V1297I) at 0.483, 0.463, 0.387, 0.005, 0.384, 0.005, 0.387, 0.002, 0.012, and 0.015 frequencies, respectively. Linkage disequilibrium between detected variations was also analyzed. Our results would provide fundamental and useful information for genotyping ATP7A and ATP7B in the Japanese and probably other Asian populations.