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A time-series analysis of the impact of heavy drinking on homicide and suicide mortality in Russia, 1956-2002.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166165
Source
Addiction. 2006 Dec;101(12):1719-29
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2006
Author
William Alex Pridemore
Mitchell B Chamlin
Author Affiliation
Department of Criminal Justice, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA. wpridemo@indiana.edu
Source
Addiction. 2006 Dec;101(12):1719-29
Date
Dec-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol Drinking - mortality
Alcohol-Related Disorders - mortality
Analysis of Variance
Cause of Death
Cross-Sectional Studies
Death Certificates
Female
Homicide - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Models, Statistical
Russia - epidemiology
Suicide - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Assess the impact of heavy drinking on homicide and suicide mortality in Russia between 1956 and 2002. MEASURES AND DESIGN: Alcohol-related mortality was used as a proxy for heavy drinking. We used autoregressive integrated moving average techniques to model total and sex-specific alcohol-homicide and alcohol-suicide relationships at the population level.
We found a positive and significant contemporaneous association between alcohol and homicide and between alcohol and suicide. We found no evidence of lagged relationships. These results held for overall and sex-specific associations.
Our results lend convergent validity to the alcohol-suicide link in Russia found by Nemtsov and to the alcohol-homicide associations found in cross-sectional analyses of Russia. Levels of alcohol consumption, homicide and suicide in Russia are among the highest in the world, and the mounting evidence of the damaging effects of consumption on the social fabric of the country reveals the need for intervention at multiple levels.
Notes
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PubMed ID
17156171 View in PubMed
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The persistence of American Indian health disparities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166795
Source
Am J Public Health. 2006 Dec;96(12):2122-34
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2006
Author
David S Jones
Author Affiliation
Center for the Study of Diversity in Science, Technology, and Medicine, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 02139, USA. dsjones@mit.edu
Source
Am J Public Health. 2006 Dec;96(12):2122-34
Date
Dec-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Colonialism - history
Europe - ethnology
Health Policy - history
Health Services Accessibility
Health Services, Indigenous - history
History, 16th Century
History, 17th Century
History, 18th Century
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
Humans
Indians, North American - genetics
Politics
Poverty - ethnology
Rural Health - history
Smallpox - ethnology - history
Social Justice
Socioeconomic Factors
Tuberculosis - ethnology - history
United States - epidemiology
United States Indian Health Service
Vulnerable Populations - ethnology
Abstract
Disparities in health status between American Indians and other groups in the United States have persisted throughout the 500 years since Europeans arrived in the Americas. Colonists, traders, missionaries, soldiers, physicians, and government officials have struggled to explain these disparities, invoking a wide range of possible causes. American Indians joined these debates, often suggesting different explanations. Europeans and Americans also struggled to respond to the disparities, sometimes working to relieve them, sometimes taking advantage of the ill health of American Indians. Economic and political interests have always affected both explanations of health disparities and responses to them, influencing which explanations were emphasized and which interventions were pursued. Tensions also appear in ongoing debates about the contributions of genetic and socioeconomic forces to the pervasive health disparities. Understanding how these economic and political forces have operated historically can explain both the persistence of the health disparities and the controversies that surround them.
Notes
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Comment In: Am J Public Health. 2007 Sep;97(9):1541-2; author reply 1542-317666681
PubMed ID
17077399 View in PubMed
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Psychometric evaluation of a short measure of social capital at work.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature167046
Source
BMC Public Health. 2006;6:251
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Anne Kouvonen
Mika Kivimäki
Jussi Vahtera
Tuula Oksanen
Marko Elovainio
Tom Cox
Marianna Virtanen
Jaana Pentti
Sara J Cox
Richard G Wilkinson
Author Affiliation
Institute of Work, Health & Organisations, University of Nottingham, 8 William Lee Buildings, Nottingham Science and Technology Park, University Boulevard, Nottingham NG7 2RQ, UK. anne.kouvonen@nottingham.ac.uk
Source
BMC Public Health. 2006;6:251
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Anxiety
Culture
Data Collection
Decision Making, Organizational
Employment - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Factor Analysis, Statistical
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Psychometrics - instrumentation - methods
Questionnaires
Residence Characteristics
Reward
Social Justice
Social Support
Workplace - classification - psychology
Abstract
Prior studies on social capital and health have assessed social capital in residential neighbourhoods and communities, but the question whether the concept should also be applicable in workplaces has been raised. The present study reports on the psychometric properties of an 8-item measure of social capital at work.
Data were derived from the Finnish Public Sector Study (N = 48,592) collected in 2000-2002. Based on face validity, an expert unfamiliar with the data selected 8 questionnaire items from the available items for a scale of social capital. Reliability analysis included tests of internal consistency, item-total correlations, and within-unit (interrater) agreement by rwg index. The associations with theoretically related and unrelated constructs were examined to assess convergent and divergent validity (construct validity). Criterion-related validity was explored with respect to self-rated health using multilevel logistic regression models. The effects of individual level and work unit level social capital were modelled on self-rated health.
The internal consistency of the scale was good (Cronbach's alpha = 0.88). The rwg index was 0.88, which indicates a significant within-unit agreement. The scale was associated with, but not redundant to, conceptually close constructs such as procedural justice, job control, and effort-reward imbalance. Its associations with conceptually more distant concepts, such as trait anxiety and magnitude of change in work, were weaker. In multilevel models, significantly elevated age adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of poor self-rated health (OR = 2.42, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.24-2.61 for the women and OR = 2.99, 95% CI: 2.56-3.50 for the men) were observed for the employees in the lowest vs. highest quartile of individual level social capital. In addition, low social capital at the work unit level was associated with a higher likelihood of poor self-rated health.
Psychometric techniques show our 8-item measure of social capital to be a valid tool reflecting the construct and displaying the postulated links with other variables.
Notes
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Erratum In: BMC Public Health. 2007;7:90
PubMed ID
17038200 View in PubMed
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North-South benefit sharing arrangements in bioprospecting and genetic research: a critical ethical and legal analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature167048
Source
Dev World Bioeth. 2006 Dec;6(3):122-34
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2006
Author
Udo Schüklenk
Anita Kleinsmidt
Author Affiliation
Centre for Ethics in Public Policy and Corporate Governance, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, UK.
Source
Dev World Bioeth. 2006 Dec;6(3):122-34
Date
Dec-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biodiversity
Databases, Factual
Developed Countries
Developing Countries
Drug Industry - economics
Genetic Research - legislation & jurisprudence
Humans
International Cooperation
Organizations
Patents as Topic
Plants, Medicinal
Population Groups - genetics
Poverty
Public Policy
Social Justice
Tissue Donors
United Nations
Abstract
Most pharmaceutical research carried out today is focused on the treatment and management of the lifestyle diseases of the developed world. Diseases that affect mainly poor people are neglected in research advancements in treatment because they cannot generate large financial returns on research and development costs. Benefit sharing arrangements for the use of indigenous resources and genetic research could only marginally address this gap in research and development in diseases that affect the poor. Benefit sharing as a strategy is conceptually problematic, even if one, as we do, agrees that impoverished indigenous communities should not be exploited and that they should be assisted in improving their living conditions. The accepted concept of intellectual property protection envisages clearly defined originators and owners of knowledge, whereas the concept of community membership is fluid and indigenous knowledge is, by its very nature, open, with the originator(s) lost in the mists of time. The delineation of 'community' presents serious conceptual and practical difficulties as few communities form discrete, easily discernable groups, and most have problematic leadership structures. Benefit sharing is no substitute for governments' responsibility to uplift impoverished communities. Benefit sharing arrangements may be fraught with difficulties but considerations of respect and equity demand that prior informed consent and consultation around commercialisation of knowledge take place with the source community and their government.
PubMed ID
17038004 View in PubMed
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Recovery in Canada: toward social equality.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126490
Source
Int Rev Psychiatry. 2012 Feb;24(1):19-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2012
Author
Myra Piat
Judith Sabetti
Author Affiliation
McGill University and Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. myra.piat@douglas.mcgill.ca
Source
Int Rev Psychiatry. 2012 Feb;24(1):19-28
Date
Feb-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Health Policy
Health promotion
Humans
Mental Disorders - psychology - rehabilitation - therapy
Mental Health Services - organization & administration
Power (Psychology)
Social Justice
Social Support
State Government
Abstract
This article reviews evolution of the recovery paradigm in Canadian mental health. We first trace the origins and development of the recovery concept through the literature, followed by an examination of how the recovery concept has been implemented in national and provincial mental health policy since publication of the 2006 Kirby Commission Report. Based on consultations with Canadian policymakers, and an examination of available policy documents, we explore how the dual theme of 'recovery' and 'well-being', adopted by the Mental Health Commission of Canada in its 2009 strategy: Toward Recovery and Well-being - A Framework For a Mental Health Strategy has subsequently played out in mental health policymaking at the provincial level. Findings reveal mixed support for recovery as a guiding principle for mental health reform in Canada. While policies in some provinces reflect widespread support for recovery, and strong identification with the aspirations of the consumer movement; other provinces have shifted to population-based, wellness paradigms that privilege evidence-based services and professional expertise. The recognition of social equality for people who experience mental illness emerges as an important value in Canadian mental health policy, cutting across the conceptual divide between recovery and well-being.
PubMed ID
22385423 View in PubMed
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Service user involvement in risk assessment and management: the Transition Inventory.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126600
Source
Crim Behav Ment Health. 2012 Apr;22(2):136-47
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2012
Author
Daryl G Kroner
Author Affiliation
Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Faner Hall - Mail Code 4504, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901–4328, USA. dkroner@siu.edu
Source
Crim Behav Ment Health. 2012 Apr;22(2):136-47
Date
Apr-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Antisocial Personality Disorder - psychology - rehabilitation
Canada
Comorbidity
Crime - psychology
Humans
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Patient Care Planning
Personality Inventory - statistics & numerical data
Prisoners - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Psychometrics - statistics & numerical data
Reproducibility of Results
Residence Characteristics
Risk Assessment - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Self Concept
Social Facilitation
Transfer Agreement - legislation & jurisprudence
Abstract
Drawing on self-prediction theory and the positive benefits of increasing health service user participation in risk assessments, the Transition Inventory (TI) was developed. It is an aid to the assessment of areas that people anticipate will be of difficulty in the next stage of transition, for example from open hospital to the community.
The aim of this paper is to determine reliability and convergent/discriminant validity data for the TI and its subscales, including behavioral impulsivity, social pressure, substance misuse, financial/employment, leisure, negative affect, interpersonal and family concerns and social alienation.
Eighty-eight male offenders coming towards the end of a period of imprisonment were asked to complete the TI. Their results were compared with the staff-rated Measures of Criminal Attitudes and Associates (MCAA) scale, alcohol blame and causation of crime items. Comparisons with the MCAA's antisocial intent scale, which is a future-orientated scale, and the associates scale allowed for convergent/discriminant validity to be examined with TI scales. With a community offender sample, TI results were used to predict researcher ratings.
The TI scales demonstrated adequate internal consistency. Overall, the MCAA's antisocial intent scale had higher correlations with the TI than with a nonfuture-orientated scale. TI scales also demonstrated convergent validity with other measures and preliminary predictive validity with researcher ratings.
The TI provides a way to increase service user involvement in the assessments that determine when and how they transfer to settings where they will have more independence.
PubMed ID
22374801 View in PubMed
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The integration of agency and communion in moral personality: Evidence of enlightened self-interest.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134486
Source
J Pers Soc Psychol. 2011 Jul;101(1):149-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2011
Author
Jeremy A Frimer
Lawrence J Walker
William L Dunlop
Brenda H Lee
Amanda Riches
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. jeremyfrimer@gmail.com
Source
J Pers Soc Psychol. 2011 Jul;101(1):149-63
Date
Jul-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Altruism
Awards and Prizes
Beneficence
Canada
Ethics
Female
Humans
Individuality
Male
Middle Aged
Moral Development
Motivation
Personality
Power (Psychology)
Social Distance
Social Dominance
Social Justice
Volunteers - psychology
Abstract
Agency and communion are fundamental human motives, often conceptualized as being in tension. This study examines the notion that moral exemplars overcome this tension and adaptively integrate these 2 motives within their personality. Participants were 25 moral exemplars-recipients of a national award for extraordinary volunteerism-and 25 demographically matched comparison participants. Each participant responded to a life review interview and provided a list of personal strivings, which were coded for themes of agency and communion; interviews were also coded for the relationship between agency and communion. Results consistently indicated that exemplars not only had both more agency and communion than did comparison participants but were also more likely to integrate these themes within their personality. Consistent with our claim that enlightened self-interest is driving this phenomenon, this effect was evident only when agency and communion were conceptualized in terms of promoting interests (of the self and others, respectively) and not in terms of psychological distance (from others) and only when the interaction was observed with a person approach and not with the traditional variable approach. After providing a conceptual replication of these results using different measures elicited in different contexts and relying on different coding procedures, we addressed and dismissed various alternative explanations, including chance co-occurrence and generalized complexity. These results provide the first reliable evidence of the integration of motives of agency and communion in moral personality.
PubMed ID
21574724 View in PubMed
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Psychosocial work environment among immigrant and Danish cleaners.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134644
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2012 Jan;85(1):89-95
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2012
Author
Kasper Olesen
Isabella G Carneiro
Marie B Jørgensen
Mari-Ann Flyvholm
Reiner Rugulies
Charlotte D N Rasmussen
Karen Søgaard
Andreas Holtermann
Author Affiliation
National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Lersø Parkallé 105, 2100, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2012 Jan;85(1):89-95
Date
Jan-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Emigrants and Immigrants - psychology
Female
Humans
Job Satisfaction
Male
Stress, Psychological - etiology
Workplace - psychology
Abstract
Non-Western cleaners have been shown to have poorer health than their Danish colleagues. One reason could be a poorer psychosocial work environment. However, it is unknown if differences in self-reported psychosocial work environment exist between non-Western and Danish workers within the same social class. The aim of this study was to investigate such differences among cleaners with the hypothesis that the non-Western compared with Danish cleaners would report a generally poorer psychosocial work environment.
Two hundred and eighty-five cleaners (148 Danes and 137 non-Western immigrants) from 9 workplaces in Denmark participated in this cross-sectional study. The cleaners' immigrant status was tested for association with psychosocial work environment scales from the short version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) using ordinal logistic regression.
Models adjusted for age, sex, BMI, smoking, workplace, and perceived physical work exertion showed that non-Western cleaners compared with Danish cleaners reported significantly higher scores with regard to Predictability (OR = 3.97), Recognition (OR = 1.92), Quality of Leadership (OR = 1.81), Trust Regarding Management (OR = 1.72), and Justice (OR = 2.14).
This study showed that non-Western immigrant cleaners reported a statistically significantly better psychosocial work environment than Danish cleaners on a number of scales. Therefore, the hypothesis of non-Western immigrants reporting worse psychosocial work environment than their Danish colleagues was not supported.
PubMed ID
21556838 View in PubMed
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The second version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138227
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2010 Feb;38(3 Suppl):8-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2010
Author
Jan Hyld Pejtersen
Tage Søndergård Kristensen
Vilhelm Borg
Jakob Bue Bjorner
Author Affiliation
National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark. jhp@nrcwe.dk
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2010 Feb;38(3 Suppl):8-24
Date
Feb-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Burnout, Professional - etiology - psychology
Conflict (Psychology)
Denmark
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Health
Psychometrics
Questionnaires - standards
Reproducibility of Results
Sleep Disorders - etiology - psychology
Social Class
Stress, Psychological - complications
Workload - psychology
Workplace - psychology
Abstract
The aim of the present paper is to present the development of the second version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II).
The development of COPSOQ II took place in five main steps: (1) We considered practical experience from the use of COPSOQ I, in particular feedback from workplace studies where the questionnaire had been used; (2) All scales concerning workplace factors in COPSOQ I were analyzed for differential item functioning (DIF) with regard to gender, age and occupational status; (3) A test version of COPSOQ II including new scales and items was developed and tested in a representative sample of working Danes between 20 and 59 years of age. In all, 3,517 Danish employees participated in the study. The overall response rate was 60.4%; (4) Based on psychometric analyses, the final questionnaire was developed; and (5) Criteria-related validity of the new scales was tested.
The development of COPSOQ II resulted in a questionnaire with 41 scales and 127 items. New scales on values at the workplace were introduced including scales on Trust, Justice and Social inclusiveness. Scales on Variation, Work pace, Recognition, Work-family conflicts and items on offensive behaviour were also added. New scales regarding health symptoms included: Burnout, Stress, Sleeping troubles and Depressive symptoms. In general, the new scales showed good criteria validity. All in all, 57% of the items of COPSOQ I were retained in COPSOQ II.
The COPSOQ I concept has been further developed and new validated scales have been included.
PubMed ID
21172767 View in PubMed
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Accommodating a social work student with a speech impairment: the shared experience of a student and instructor.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature139086
Source
J Soc Work Disabil Rehabil. 2010;9(4):235-53
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
Kimberly Calderwood
Jonathan Degenhardt
Author Affiliation
School of Social Work, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario, Canada. kcalder@uwindsor.ca
Source
J Soc Work Disabil Rehabil. 2010;9(4):235-53
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Humans
Male
Ontario
Social Justice
Social Work - education
Speech
Stuttering - psychology
Teaching
Abstract
This ethnographic study describes the results of a collaborative journaling process that occurred between a student and his instructor of a second-year social work communications course. Many questions from the student's and the instructor's perspectives are raised regarding accommodating the student with a severe speech impairment in a course that specifically focuses on communication skills. Preliminary recommendations are made for social work students and professionals with communication limitations, and for social work educators.
PubMed ID
21104514 View in PubMed
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Is reasonable access what we want? Implications of, and challenges to, current Canadian policy on equity in health care.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature222391
Source
Int J Health Serv. 1993;23(4):629-53
Publication Type
Article
Date
1993
Author
S. Birch
J. Abelson
Author Affiliation
Centre for Health Economics and Policy Analysis, McMaster University.
Source
Int J Health Serv. 1993;23(4):629-53
Date
1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Financing, Government - economics - trends
Health Policy - economics - trends
Health Services Accessibility - economics - trends
Health Services Needs and Demand - economics - trends
Humans
Medical Indigency - economics - trends
National Health Programs - economics - trends
Social Justice
Abstract
Considerations of equity in the context of health care systems are often related closely to the presence or level of prices incurred by users of health care services. Some politicians and commentators have suggested that the removal of user charges under the Canadian health care system has led to equal access to care. But it is not clear that the equity principle inferred from these claims corresponds to the equity goals of current Canadian health policy. In this article the authors identify the precise equity principle that lies behind current health policy in Canada and consider the extent to which that principle is reflected in the performance of the system. They then consider other approaches to equity in health care in the context of the stated objectives of Canadian health policy and identify the implications of pursuing reasonable access in future health policy. The authors suggest that the implications of the current equity goals have not been recognized by policy makers, and if they were to be recognized it is not clear that they would be acceptable to Canadian populations and/or policy makers. Moreover, some of the implications would appear to be incompatible with other stated objectives of public policy.
Notes
Comment In: Int J Health Serv. 1994;24(2):373-58034399
Comment In: Int J Health Serv. 1994;24(2):371-28034398
PubMed ID
8080493 View in PubMed
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The construction of health care and the ideology of the private in Canadian constitutional law.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature222571
Source
Ann Health Law. 1993;2:121-59
Publication Type
Article
Date
1993
Author
H. Lessard
Author Affiliation
University at Victoria Faculty of Law, British Columbia.
Source
Ann Health Law. 1993;2:121-59
Date
1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abortion, Legal
Canada
Constitution and Bylaws
Federal Government
Female
Government Regulation
Health Services Accessibility - history - legislation & jurisprudence
History, 18th Century
History, 20th Century
Humans
Insurance, Health - history - legislation & jurisprudence
National Health Programs - history - legislation & jurisprudence
Pregnancy
Pregnant Women
Private Sector
Public Sector
Social Justice
Women's Health Services - history - legislation & jurisprudence
Abstract
Healthcare benefits are provided universally to all Canadians through a national healthcare system with provincial differences. A history of the manner in which healthcare issues have been understood in different historical and constitutional periods reveals the ever present inequalities in many aspects of healthcare delivery.
PubMed ID
10139964 View in PubMed
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Social phobia and potential childhood risk factors in a community sample.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195510
Source
Psychol Med. 2001 Feb;31(2):307-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2001
Author
M J Chartier
J R Walker
M B Stein
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health Sciences and Department of Clinical Health Psychology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
Source
Psychol Med. 2001 Feb;31(2):307-15
Date
Feb-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada - epidemiology
Community Mental Health Services
Cross-Sectional Studies
Family - psychology
Female
Humans
Male
Phobic Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Prevalence
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Questionnaires
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Abstract
This study examined the relationship between potential childhood risk factors and social phobia in an epidemiological sample. Identifying risk factors such as childhood adversities can often uncover important clues as to the aetiology of a disorder. This information also enables health care providers to predict which individuals are most likely to develop the disorder.
Data came from the Mental Health Supplement to the Ontario Health Survey of a survey of 8116 Canadian respondents, aged 15-64. Social phobia was diagnosed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Childhood risk factors were assessed by a series of standardized questions.
A positive relationship was observed between social phobia and lack of close relationship with an adult, not being first born (in males only), marital conflict in the family of origin, parental history of mental disorder, moving more than three times as a child, juvenile justice and child welfare involvement, running away from home, childhood physical and sexual abuse, failing a grade, requirement of special education before age 9 and dropping out of high school. Many of these variables remained significant after controlling for phobias, major depressive disorder and alcohol abuse. The data also suggest that some childhood risk factors may interact with gender to influence the development of social phobia.
Although an association was detected between social phobia and childhood risk factors, naturalistic prospective studies are needed to clarify the aetiological importance of these and other potential risk factors for the disorder.
PubMed ID
11232917 View in PubMed
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Monitoring health reform: a report card approach.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195653
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2001 Mar;52(5):657-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2001
Author
M D Brownell
N P Roos
L L Roos
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, St. Boniface General Hospital Research Centre, Winnipeg, Canada. brownl@cpe.umanitoba.ca
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2001 Mar;52(5):657-70
Date
Mar-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Child
Efficiency, Organizational - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health Care Reform - economics
Health Facility Closure - economics
Health Services Accessibility - statistics & numerical data
Health Services Research - methods
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Manitoba - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Quality Indicators, Health Care
Social Justice
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
During the past several years, budget cuts have forced hospitals in several countries to change the way they deliver care. Gilson (Gilson, L. (1998).
In defence and pursuit of equity. Social Science & Medicine, 47(12), 1891-1896) has argued that, while health reforms are designed to improve efficiency, they have considerable potential to harm equity in the delivery of health care services. It is essential to monitor the impact of health reforms, not only to ensure the balance between equity and efficiency, but also to determine the effect of reforms on such things as access to care and the quality of care delivered. This paper proposes a framework for monitoring these and other indicators that may be affected by health care reform. Application of this framework is illustrated with data from Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Despite the closure of almost 24% of the hospital beds in Winnipeg between 1992 and 1996, access to care and quality of care remained generally unchanged. Improvements in efficiency occurred without harming the equitable delivery of health care services. Given our increasing understanding of the weak links between health care and health, improving efficiency within the health care system may actually be a prerequisite for addressing equity issues in health.
PubMed ID
11218171 View in PubMed
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Health inequities in the United States: prospects and solutions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195682
Source
J Public Health Policy. 2000;21(4):394-427
Publication Type
Article
Date
2000
Author
D. Raphael
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Toronto, McMurrich Building, Toronto, Ontario, M5S IA8, Canada.
Source
J Public Health Policy. 2000;21(4):394-427
Date
2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Health Policy
Health Promotion - organization & administration
Health Services Accessibility
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Life Style
Poverty
Social Justice
Social Problems
Socioeconomic Factors
United States
Abstract
An overview of the role that social determinants of health play in influencing health is provided. Emphasis is on the impact of economic inequality in creating health inequities among Americans. Economic inequality is seen as impacting health in three ways: increasing economic inequality weakens population health by creating poverty; weakening communal social structures that support health such as social and health services; and decreasing social cohesion and civil commitment. Documentation is provided of the growing degree of economic inequality in the USA and complicating issues of racial segregation are considered. Specific recommendations for addressing economic inequality, from USA, British, and Canadian sources, are presented. These recommendations indicate the need to move from epidemiologic research to public health action, from demonstrating the major impact of economic inequality on community health to the development and implementation of specific policies and programs to reverse the continuing increase in economic inequality.
PubMed ID
11214374 View in PubMed
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American International Health Alliance joins Medical Advocates for Social Justice to launch HIV/AIDS Russian language Internet partnership.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195703
Source
J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2001 Jan-Feb;12(1):90-1
Publication Type
Article
Source
J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2001 Jan-Feb;12(1):90-1
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
HIV Infections
Humans
International Cooperation
Internet
Language
Russia
Social Justice
United States
PubMed ID
11211677 View in PubMed
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Solidarity in Swedish welfare--standing the test of time?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature196111
Source
Health Care Anal. 2000;8(4):395-411
Publication Type
Article
Date
2000
Author
A. Bergmark
Author Affiliation
Department of Social Work, Stockholm University, S-106 91, Stockholm, Sweden. AakeB@socarb.su.se
Source
Health Care Anal. 2000;8(4):395-411
Date
2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Freedom
Health Care Reform
Humans
Income - statistics & numerical data - trends
Politics
Public Opinion
Public Policy
Social Justice
Social Responsibility
Social Values
Social Welfare - trends
Socioeconomic Factors
State Medicine - organization & administration - trends
Sweden
Abstract
Swedish welfare has for decades served as a role model for universalistic welfare. When the economic recession hit Swedish economy in the beginning of the 1990s, a period of more than 50 years of continuous expansion and reforms in the welfare sector came to an end. Summing up the past decade, we can see that the economic downturn enforced rationing measures in most parts of the welfare state, although most of this took place in the beginning of the decade. Today, most of the retrenchment has stopped and in some areas we can see tendencies of restoration--but more so in financial benefits than in the caring sectors. In the article this process is discussed as a process of reallocation where general principles of solidarity become manifest. Various levels of decision making are discussed within the context of socio-political action. Current transitions in Swedish health care are described with respect to coverage rates, content, marketization and distribution. Basic principles of distribution are highlighted in order to analyse the meaning of social solidarity in a concrete allocative setting. The significance of popular opinion--it's shifts and determinants--is also considered. The article concludes with a discussion of how the (once salient) features of universalism in welfare and health care provision have been affected by the developments in the past decade in Sweden.
PubMed ID
11155559 View in PubMed
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