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Global leadership priorities for Canadian nursing: a perspective on the ICN 24th Quadrennial Congress, Durban, South Africa.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144305
Source
Nurs Leadersh (Tor Ont). 2010 Mar;23(1):16-21
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Date
Mar-2010
Author
Susan Duncan
Nora Whyte
Author Affiliation
School of Nursing, Thompson Rivers University, Kamloops, British Columbia.
Source
Nurs Leadersh (Tor Ont). 2010 Mar;23(1):16-21
Date
Mar-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Keywords
Canada
Health Priorities
Health promotion
Humans
International Cooperation
International Council of Nurses - organization & administration
Leadership
Nurse Administrators
Nurse's Role
Primary Health Care - organization & administration
World Health
Abstract
We had the privilege of joining over 5,000 nurses attending the 24th Congress of the International Council of Nurses, held for the first time on the African continent in Durban, South Africa. The Congress inspired us to reflect on how leadership and policy directions in Canadian nursing resonate with global health challenges and opportunities. Dynamic plenary speakers from African countries inspired the conference theme: Leading Change--Building Healthy Nations. Ensuing discussions signalled shifting priorities and urgent implications for nursing leadership and programs of research in Canada and worldwide, in areas of primary healthcare renewal, nursing health human resources sustainability and health interventions for the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) (United Nations 2009; WHO 2008). Sharing challenges with nurses worldwide, Canadian nurses are privileged with the resources to address these challenges (CNA 2008; WHO 2008). Our experience at the Congress prompted the question: How must Canadian nurses reshape leadership priorities and agendas not only in the Canadian context, but also in the mutual interests of health for all? Reflecting upon the themes of the Congress and the leadership role of Canadian nurses, we identify three interconnected priorities: Invest our hearts, souls and resources in primary healthcare renewal. Grapple with the complexity of an equitable and sustainable global nursing human resources system. Ensure a lens of social justice through leadership, research and education for the achievement of the MDGs.
PubMed ID
20383076 View in PubMed
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Re-visioning public health ethics: a relational perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144482
Source
Can J Public Health. 2010 Jan-Feb;101(1):9-11
Publication Type
Article
Author
Nuala P Kenny
Susan B Sherwin
Françoise E Baylis
Author Affiliation
Department of Bioethics, Dalhousie University, 5849 University Avenue, Halifax, NS B3H 4H7. nuala.kenny@dal.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2010 Jan-Feb;101(1):9-11
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Communication
Health Policy
Health Status Disparities
Humans
Public Health - ethics
Public Health Practice - ethics
Social Justice
Abstract
Canada is in the forefront of thinking about the unique and complex issues of contemporary public health ethics. However, an inordinate focus on the urgent issues of emergency preparedness in pandemic and reliance on bioethical analysis steeped in the autonomy and individual rights tradition of health care and research do not serve adequately as the basis for an ethic of public health with its focus on populations, communities and the common good. This paper describes some concerns regarding the focus on pandemic ethics in isolation from public health ethics; identifies inadequacies in the dominant individualistic ethics framework; and summarizes nascent work on the concepts of relational autonomy, relational social justice and relational solidarity that can inform a re-visioning of public health ethics. While there is still much work to be done to further refine these principles, they can help to reclaim and centre the common and collective good at risk in pandemic and other emergency situations. Minimally, these principles require a policy-making process that is truly transparent, fair and inclusive; is sensitive and responsive to the workings of systemic inequalities; and requires public recognition of the fact that we enter any crisis with varying degrees of inequity. Public policy response to crisis must not forseeably increase existing inequities.
PubMed ID
20364529 View in PubMed
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Environmental justice in the therapeutic inner city.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144771
Source
Health Place. 2010 Jul;16(4):656-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2010
Author
Jeffrey R Masuda
Alexis Crabtree
Author Affiliation
Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, 222 Isbister, 183 Dafoe Road, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T2N2, Canada. jeff_masuda@umanitoba.ca
Source
Health Place. 2010 Jul;16(4):656-65
Date
Jul-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attitude to Health
British Columbia
Causality
Community-Based Participatory Research
Consumer Participation
Environmental health
Health services needs and demand
Humans
Photography
Poverty Areas
Public Facilities - statistics & numerical data
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Resilience, Psychological
Social Environment
Social Justice
Social Support
Stereotyping
Urban Health - statistics & numerical data
Urban Renewal
Abstract
Vancouver's Downtown Eastside (DTES) has long been characterized as Canada's skid row within public narratives that raise concerns about communicable diseases, open drug use, survival sex work, and homelessness. This stigmatizing gaze has bolstered a deficit-oriented philosophy that emphasizes measures to mitigate these threats, ostensibly by erasing the moral and environmental depravity from the landscape. However, such measures threaten to further marginalize DTES residents by perpetuating public sentiments of fear and disgust toward the inner city. In this paper, we challenge this orientation by reporting the results of a research process in which DTES residents chronicled their impressions of the neighbourhood. Our findings reveal a paradoxical therapeutic response to environmental injustice in the inner city, one that enables society's most marginalized people to find support, solidarity, and acceptance in their everyday struggles to survive, even thrive, amidst the structural and physical violence of the urban margins.
PubMed ID
20303316 View in PubMed
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Court decision extends long-term income support to those dependent on alcohol or drugs.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144906
Source
HIV AIDS Policy Law Rev. 2009 Dec;14(2):38-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2009
Source
HIV AIDS Policy Law Rev. 2009 Dec;14(2):38-9
Date
Dec-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcoholism
Canada
Humans
Income
Public Assistance
Substance-Related Disorders
Abstract
On 20 April 2009, the Ontario Superior Court of Justice upheld a decision of the Social Benefits Tribunal which found the exclusion from long-term income support of people suffering from alcohol or drug dependency to be discriminatory.
PubMed ID
20225516 View in PubMed
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A case-control analysis of socio-economic and marital status differentials in alcohol- and non-alcohol-related mortality among working-age Russian males.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144943
Source
Eur J Public Health. 2010 Oct;20(5):569-75
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2010
Author
William Alex Pridemore
Susannah Tomkins
Krista Eckhardt
Nikolay Kiryanov
Lyudmila Saburova
Author Affiliation
Department of Criminal Justice, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47401, USA. wpridemo@indiana.edu
Source
Eur J Public Health. 2010 Oct;20(5):569-75
Date
Oct-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Cause of Death
Health Status Disparities
Humans
Life expectancy
Logistic Models
Male
Marital status
Middle Aged
Mortality
Odds Ratio
Russia - epidemiology
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology
Social Class
Abstract
We examined the role of socio-economic status (SES) and marital status in premature mortality among working-age Russian males. Life expectancy among this group dropped sharply following the collapse of the Soviet Union and has yet to recover despite the relative economic and political stability of the last decade.
We employed individual-level data from a large-scale, population-based, case-control study (n = 3500). Adjusting for age group, hazardous drinking and smoking status, we estimated mortality odds ratios to determine the impact of SES and marital status on premature mortality due to all, alcohol- and non-alcohol-related causes of death.
Results revealed clear protective effects of SES and marital status against premature mortality. Although the effects for marital status were significant across alcohol- and non-alcohol-related causes of death, the effects of SES were largely limited to non-alcohol-related causes of death. When heavy drinkers were excluded from the analysis, however, SES was found to protect against premature mortality for alcohol-related causes.
While hazardous drinking is known to be a leading cause of premature mortality among working-age Russian males, it is unwise to ignore other factors. Given the substantial social and economic impacts in Russia of the dissolution of the Soviet Union, it is important to examine the health effects of SES and marital status and other social forces in the nation. Our results reveal that while Russia has a very different past in terms of medicine, public health and economic institutions, it currently faces public health threats that follow similar patterns to those found in Western nations.
Notes
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PubMed ID
20219866 View in PubMed
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Revisiting our social justice roots in population health intervention research.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature145026
Source
Can J Public Health. 2009 Nov-Dec;100(6):405-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
Nancy C Edwards
Author Affiliation
School of Nursing and Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, University of Ottawa, ON.
Source
Can J Public Health. 2009 Nov-Dec;100(6):405-8
Language
English
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Health Promotion - history
Health Services Research
Healthcare Disparities
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Humans
Public Health
Social Justice - history
PubMed ID
20209730 View in PubMed
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Factors associated with the history of attempted suicide.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature145121
Source
Crisis. 2010;31(1):12-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
A. Hakansson
L. Bradvik
F. Schlyter
M. Berglund
Author Affiliation
Clinical Alcohol Research, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden. anders_c.hakansson@med.lu.se
Source
Crisis. 2010;31(1):12-21
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcoholism - epidemiology - genetics - psychology
Cause of Death
Child
Child Abuse - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Comorbidity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Interview, Psychological
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology - genetics - psychology
Odds Ratio
Prisoners - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Statistics as Topic
Street Drugs
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - genetics - psychology
Suicide, Attempted - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Sweden
Abstract
The present study examines a population of criminal justice clients for suspected substance-related problems.
It aims to identify variables associated with a history of suicide attempt (SA).
6,836 clients were interviewed with the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). Attempters were compared to nonattempters regarding substance use, medical/psychiatric status, family history, and social relationships in a stepwise forward logistic regression.
Attempters (21%) were more likely to report binge drinking, intake of illicit drugs, injection of drugs, physical and mental illness, problematic family history, and history of being abused. After logistic regression, SA was independently associated with older age, female gender, binge drinking, delirium tremens, injection, overdose, medical problems, psychiatric symptoms, family history of alcohol or psychiatric problems, and sexual, physical, and emotional abuse. The psychiatric and family/social domains (including being abused) most strongly separated attempters from nonattempters.
Family background factors, psychiatric symptoms, severity of substance use, and sexual, physical, and emotional abuse appear to be factors associated with SA among criminal justice clients.
PubMed ID
20197253 View in PubMed
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Using grounded theory to generate a theoretical understanding of the effects of child custody policy on women's health promotion in the context of intimate partner violence.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168471
Source
Health Care Women Int. 2006 Jun-Jul;27(6):490-512
Publication Type
Article
Author
Judith Wuest
Marilyn Ford-Gilboe
Marilyn Merritt-Gray
Shannon Lemire
Author Affiliation
University of New Brunswick, Faculty of Nursing, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada.
Source
Health Care Women Int. 2006 Jun-Jul;27(6):490-512
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Battered Women - legislation & jurisprudence
Canada
Child
Child Abuse - legislation & jurisprudence
Child Custody - legislation & jurisprudence
Female
Health Policy
Health Promotion - legislation & jurisprudence - organization & administration
Humans
Male
Models, organizational
National Health Programs - legislation & jurisprudence
Nursing Methodology Research
Policy Making
Social Conditions
Socioeconomic Factors
Spouse Abuse - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Women's health
Abstract
Women's health is frequently influenced by social and structural factors, largely beyond women's control, and often entrenched in public policy. Although health is acknowledged to be socially determined, the ways that social conditions affect health are rarely explicated. Grounded theory is a useful method for discovering how structural conditions influence patterns of behavior. We used grounded theory to generate a theoretical understanding of how justice system policy and services related to child custody influence health promotion processes of women and their children after leaving abusive male partners/fathers. In two diverse Canadian provinces, we interviewed single mothers who had left abusive partners as well as frontline workers and policymakers in the justice system. We identified the key dimensions of policy and services that influence the ways in which women and their children promote their health in the context of varying levels of ongoing intrusion as information, eligibility, accessibility, timeliness, human resources, safety, and diversity. In this article, the interplay between theses policy and service dimensions and women's health promotion after leaving abusive partners is discussed and suggestions are made for strengthening "healthy" custody policy.
PubMed ID
16820353 View in PubMed
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Missing links in oral health care for frail elderly people.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168829
Source
J Can Dent Assoc. 2006 Jun;72(5):421-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2006
Author
Michael I MacEntee
Author Affiliation
Division of Prosthodontics and Dental Geriatrics, Department of Oral Health Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. macentee@interchange.ubc.ca
Source
J Can Dent Assoc. 2006 Jun;72(5):421-5
Date
Jun-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
British Columbia
Canada
Dental Care for Aged - ethics - legislation & jurisprudence - organization & administration
Dental Caries - prevention & control
Ethics, Dental
Frail Elderly
Health services needs and demand
Humans
Nursing Homes
Oral Hygiene
Patient Acceptance of Health Care
Periodontal Diseases - prevention & control
Quality of Life
Social Justice
Abstract
A national interdisciplinary strategy is needed to address the comprehensive oral health care needs of frail elderly people residing in long-term care facilities. Reasonable care within the social and personal context of frailty encompasses active prevention of disease augmented by necessary restorative treatment, provided with sensitivity to a person"s propensity to seek care. Typically, dental emergencies are managed quite well in longterm care facilities, either by treating the resident on site or by transporting the resident to a local clinician. In addition, facility administrators are usually well aware of their legal responsibilities to provide diagnostic services to residents before disease or dysfunction causes irreparable damage. Consequently, many facilities have arrangements with dental hygienists, dentists or denturists for periodic clinical assessment of all residents, or they seek help at the first sign of trouble. On the other hand, effective, widely accepted strategies for assisting frail residents with daily oral hygiene are lacking, and in many regions across the country it is overly difficult for frail residents with severe oral impairment or dysfunction to receive appropriate care and treatment. A cooperative effort from many disciplines will be needed to provide these missing links in Canadian health services and to realize the principle of providing maximum benefit to the least advantaged in society.
PubMed ID
16772066 View in PubMed
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Source
Jurid Rev. 2004;2004(1):65-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
Ragnar Adalsteinsson
Author Affiliation
Supreme Court, Iceland.
Source
Jurid Rev. 2004;2004(1):65-74
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biological Specimen Banks
Computer Security
Confidentiality
Conflict of Interest
Databases, Factual - ethics - legislation & jurisprudence
Databases, Genetic - ethics - legislation & jurisprudence
Democracy
Freedom
Genetic Privacy
Genetic Research - ethics - legislation & jurisprudence
Genetics, Population - ethics - legislation & jurisprudence
Humans
Iceland
Industry
Legislation as Topic
Medical Records
Physicians
Politics
Presumed Consent - ethics
Public Policy
Research Support as Topic
Social Justice
Abstract
This paper examines an act of the Icelandic Parliament on health-sector databases. Both the legislation itself and the manner in which it was presented by the Government to the Parliament and the general public raise various questions about democratic parliamentary procedures, community consultation, autonomy, privacy, professional confidence, control of health data in hospitals and business relationships between medical doctors and biotechnology corporations. A major question to be asked is: In whose interest is it that such sensitive data are handed over to for-profit corporations? Furthermore, is it within the authority of the legislature to authorize politically appointed boards of health institutes to transfer such data without the direct informed consent of the patient and without the relevant physicians' having a say? Does experience teach us to entrust private companies with sensitive personal data? Should the Government be involved in the research policy-making of the biotechnology companies that have been given access to the genetic data of a population, or should the profit motive be the sole deciding influence? That is, should the interest of the shareholders of the companies prevail over the interest of underprivileged groups who are most in need of new methods or medicine to alleviate their situation due to incurable diseases? Or is the invisible hand of the market the only competent decision-maker? Finally, will the proliferation of databases containing sensitive personal data, such as human genetic data, limit our personal liberty?
PubMed ID
16755701 View in PubMed
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Commentary: The revitalization of the Stockholm Metropolitan Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature169010
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2006 Jun;35(3):553
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2006
Author
Carl-Gunnar Janson
Author Affiliation
Department of Sociology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden. cgjanson@sociology.su.se
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2006 Jun;35(3):553
Date
Jun-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Cohort Studies
Crime
Humans
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Population Surveillance - methods
Social Justice
Sweden - epidemiology
Violence
Notes
Comment On: Int J Epidemiol. 2006 Jun;35(3):546-816377656
PubMed ID
16751578 View in PubMed
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The compliant court--procedural fairness and social control in compulsory community care.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265094
Source
Int J Law Psychiatry. 2014 Nov-Dec;37(6):543-50
Publication Type
Article
Author
Liv Zetterberg
Stefan Sjöström
Urban Markström
Source
Int J Law Psychiatry. 2014 Nov-Dec;37(6):543-50
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Commitment of Mentally Ill - legislation & jurisprudence
Community Mental Health Services - legislation & jurisprudence
Dangerous Behavior
Databases, Factual
Female
Humans
Male
Mandatory Programs - legislation & jurisprudence
Mental Disorders - therapy
Mentally Ill Persons - legislation & jurisprudence
Patient Rights - legislation & jurisprudence
Social Control, Formal
Social Justice - legislation & jurisprudence
Sweden
Abstract
Compulsory community care (CCC) was introduced in Sweden in 2008. This article investigates all written court decisions regarding CCC over a 6 month period in 2009 (N=541). The purpose is to examine how the legal rights of patients are protected and what forms of social control patients are subjected to. 51% of CCC patients are women and 84% are being treated for a psychosis-related disorder. In the court decisions, only 9% of patients are described as dangerous to themselves, while 18% are regarded a danger to others. The most common special provisions that patients are subjected to are medication (79%) and a requirement that they must maintain contact with either community mental health services (51%) or social services (27%). In the decisions, both the courts and court-appointed psychiatrists agree with treating psychiatrists in 99% of cases. Decisions lack transparency and clarity, and it is often impossible to understand the conclusions of the courts. There is considerable variation between regional courts as regards the provisions to which patients are subjected and the delegation of decision-making to psychiatrists. This means that decisions fail to demonstrate clarity, transparency, consistency and impartiality, and thus fail to meet established standards of procedural fairness. Surveillance techniques of social control are more common than techniques based on therapy or sanctions. Because of the unique role of medication, social control is primarily imposed on a physical dimension, as opposed to temporal and spatial forms. The article concludes that patients are at risk of being subjected to new forms of social control of an unclear nature without proper legal protection.
PubMed ID
24656218 View in PubMed
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Seeking serenity: Living with HIV/AIDS in rural Western Canada

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101088
Source
Rural and Remote Health. 2007 Apr-Jun;7(2):677
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-Jun 2007
Author
Groft, JN
Robinson Vollman, A
Author Affiliation
University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB, Canada
Robinson Vollman Inc, Calgary, AB, Canada
Source
Rural and Remote Health. 2007 Apr-Jun;7(2):677
Date
Apr-Jun 2007
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Access to care
Alberta
Canada
HIV
Naturalistic inquiry
Perceptions of health
Personal beliefs and values
Rural residents
Wellbeing
Abstract
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this naturalistic inquiry was to describe the experience of living with HIV infection in rural Alberta, Canada. Although the urban HIV epidemic has been well researched, the virus continues its spread into more remote populations where there is a need to understand and address its impact. Affected rural residents form a diverse and marginalized group that includes women, Aboriginal peoples, immigrants, injecting drug users, and men who have sex with men, yet there are few data available to inform appropriate health and social services and practice. A number of factors, such as stigma, invisibility, isolation, confidentiality, poverty, and risk behaviours, contribute to the rural experience, but have not been clearly explicated in the literature. This study was conducted in order to better understand the perceptions of health in a rural setting, the processes involved in accessing care, the challenges and benefits associated with rural life, and the relationship between personal beliefs and values and the nature of the disease.METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six HIV-seropositive individuals and one caregiver who were living or had lived in rural settings, as well as four AIDS agency staff from a small city. Participants represented varied backgrounds, ages, sexual orientations, exposure to risk behaviours, lifestyles, roles, and citizenship. A naturalist inquiry approach was used in order to explore the qualitative aspects of the experience. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Documents such as poetry, letters, field notes and journals served to enrich the data.RESULTS: Participants identified the components of health as a sense of wellbeing, quality of life, and independence. Within the context of HIV infection, health was achieved through three processes: (1) accommodating the reality of the diagnosis into daily life; (2) creating and engaging in supportive relationships and communities; and (3) reflecting on the meaning of one's life and future. Rural life had various meanings and implications for individuals, in terms of security, comfort, relationships, access to services, attitudes, dignity, and justice. Barriers and challenges to reaching health centred around a lack of skill and knowledge in human services workers, violation of confidentiality, difficulty associated with travel for medical care, and inadequate support for family caregivers. Participants suggested that the health of the community is reflected in the health of individuals. They expressed the hope that some day diversity would not only be tolerated, but would be celebrated by all members of society.CONCLUSIONS: Rural residents perceive and enact health in distinct ways. Caregivers must understand that health usually represents a concern only after it has failed and self-initiated attempts to overcome problems have been unsuccessful. Participants in this study articulated their need to live in a society that acknowledges their diversity and honours their rights to access health and social supports in the community. Service providers may enhance care and promote health of this aggregate through education, attention to professional responsibilities, fostering resilient communities, and advocating for vulnerable members of society. Further research needs to be conducted in order to learn more about the relationships between HIV infection and rural living and the needs of people who live in such situations. With this knowledge, appropriate healthcare services can be developed and implemented to enhance the wellbeing and quality of life for individuals, families, and communities.
PubMed ID
17516839 View in PubMed
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Shigellosis at Airline In-Flight Catering Kitchens, Anchorage

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87830
Source
State of Alaska. Depment of Health and Social Services. Epidemiology. Bulletin no. 5.
Publication Type
Article
Date
April 28, 1989
://www.hss.alaska.gov/dalp/ http://www.hss.alaska.gov/dbh/ http://www.hss.alaska.gov/commissioner/boards/ 9/20/2019 The Section of Epidemiology Bulletin epibulletins.dhss.alaska.gov/Document/Display?DocumentId=672 3/3 l | | | Finance and Management Services | Health Care Services | Juvenile Justice | Office of
  1 document  
Author
Rogers, Joan
Watson, James
Author Affiliation
Providence Hospital
Source
State of Alaska. Depment of Health and Social Services. Epidemiology. Bulletin no. 5.
Date
April 28, 1989
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Article
File Size
111654
Keywords
Shigella
Food poisoning
in flight-carrier kitchen
Foodborne outbreak
sheigella flixneri
Documents

Epidemiology-1989-Bulletin-5.pdf

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Men as caregivers: reciprocal relationships or obligation?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature203739
Source
J Adv Nurs. 1998 Nov;28(5):959-68
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1998
Author
A. Neufeld
M J Harrison
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Nursing, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
Source
J Adv Nurs. 1998 Nov;28(5):959-68
Date
Nov-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alberta
Caregivers - psychology
Cognition Disorders - nursing
Family Health
Focus Groups
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Male
Middle Aged
Social Support
Abstract
This study explored reciprocity in the relationships of men caregivers of cognitively impaired older adults. Reciprocity is a dimension of social support that is important in caregivers' ability to sustain supportive relationships. Equity theory predicts that inequitable (non-reciprocal) exchanges will result in termination of relationships. The objective of the study was to identify the context in which reciprocity was present or absent, the characteristics of reciprocity in caregivers' relationships with the care recipient, family and friends, and the men's feelings about reciprocal social support during caregiving. Twenty-two men caregivers were interviewed three times over 18 months. Study findings were confirmed in a focus group discussion with seven caregivers. Three variations in reciprocity in the men's relationship with the care recipient were identified: waived reciprocity, generalized reciprocity and constructed reciprocity. Those experiencing constructed or generalized reciprocity described positive feelings, whereas men identifying waived reciprocity described either positive or negative feelings. When reciprocity was absent the men described giving care on the basis of obligation with either mixed or negative feelings. Reciprocity in relationships with friends and family is also described. The study findings support the assumptions of equity theory about reciprocity; however, perceptions of obligation may be better understood in the context of the principles of justice and caring.
PubMed ID
9840867 View in PubMed
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Critical reflections on the politics of need: implications for public health.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature203885
Source
Soc Sci Med. 1998 Nov;47(10):1419-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1998
Author
A. Robertson
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, McMurrich Building, University of Toronto, Ont., Canada.
Source
Soc Sci Med. 1998 Nov;47(10):1419-30
Date
Nov-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Health services needs and demand
Humans
Language
Politics
Public Health
Social Justice
Abstract
This paper presents a case for an underlying language of need consistent with public health's commitment to social justice. After examining the problem of human need as it has been conceptualised historically, this paper argues that the problems of needs--a central concern in the modern welfare state--are inherently political. Two ways of conceptualizing need which have dominated the recent discourse on need--namely a therapeutic language of need and rights talk--are examined and found to be unsatisfactory in capturing the sense in which needs and their definition and arbitration are central to the life of the community. What is required for public health is a language of need which speaks to the reciprocity and interdependence which characterise community; such a language is to be found in a "moral economy of interdependence". The paper concludes by discussing what a moral economy of interdependence, as a language of need consistent with the aims of public health, might look like.
PubMed ID
9823038 View in PubMed
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Justifications for coercive care in child and adolescent psychiatry, a content analysis of medical documentation in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276745
Source
BMC Health Serv Res. 2016 Feb 19;16:66
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-19-2016
Author
Veikko Pelto-Piri
Lars Kjellin
Christina Lindvall
Ingemar Engström
Source
BMC Health Serv Res. 2016 Feb 19;16:66
Date
Feb-19-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent - ethics - ethics - ethics - statistics & numerical data - statistics & numerical data - ethics
Adolescent Health Services - ethics - ethics - ethics - statistics & numerical data - statistics & numerical data - ethics
Adolescent Psychiatry - ethics - ethics - ethics - statistics & numerical data - statistics & numerical data - ethics
Adult - ethics - ethics - ethics - statistics & numerical data - statistics & numerical data - ethics
Child - ethics - ethics - ethics - statistics & numerical data - statistics & numerical data - ethics
Child Protective Services - ethics - ethics - ethics - statistics & numerical data - statistics & numerical data - ethics
Coercion - ethics - ethics - ethics - statistics & numerical data - statistics & numerical data - ethics
Commitment of Mentally Ill - ethics - ethics - ethics - statistics & numerical data - statistics & numerical data - ethics
Documentation - ethics - ethics - ethics - statistics & numerical data - statistics & numerical data - ethics
Female - ethics - ethics - ethics - statistics & numerical data - statistics & numerical data - ethics
Hospitalization - ethics - ethics - ethics - statistics & numerical data - statistics & numerical data - ethics
Humans - ethics - ethics - ethics - statistics & numerical data - statistics & numerical data - ethics
Male - ethics - ethics - ethics - statistics & numerical data - statistics & numerical data - ethics
Medical Records - ethics - ethics - ethics - statistics & numerical data - statistics & numerical data - ethics
Mental Health Services - ethics - ethics - ethics - statistics & numerical data - statistics & numerical data - ethics
Social Justice - ethics - ethics - ethics - statistics & numerical data - statistics & numerical data - ethics
Sweden - ethics - ethics - ethics - statistics & numerical data - statistics & numerical data - ethics
Abstract
There has been considerable interest in normative ethics regarding how and when coercive care can be justified. However, only a few empirical studies consider how professionals reason about ethical aspects when assessing the need for coercive care for adults, and even less concerning children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine and describe how professionals document their value arguments when considering the need for coercive psychiatric care of young people.
All 16 clinics that admitted children or adolescents to coercive care during one year in Sweden were included in the study. These clinics had a total of 155 admissions of 142 patients over one year. Qualitative content analysis with a deductive approach was used to find different forms of justification for coercive care that was documented in the medical records, including Care Certificates.
The analysis of medical records revealed two main arguments used to justify coercive care in child and adolescent psychiatry: 1) the protection argument - the patients needed protection, mainly from themselves, and 2) the treatment requirement argument - coercive care was a necessary measure for administering treatment to the patient. Other arguments, namely the caregiver support argument, the clarification argument and the solidarity argument, were used primarily to support the two main arguments. These supportive arguments were mostly used when describing the current situation, not in the explicit argumentation for coercive care. The need for treatment was often only implicitly clarified and the type of care the patient needed was not specified. Few value arguments were used in the decision for coercive care; instead physicians often used their authority to convince others that treatment was necessary.
One clinical implication of the study is that decisions about the use of coercive care should have a much stronger emphasis on ethical aspects. There is a need for an ethical legitimacy founded upon explicit ethical reasoning and after communication with the patient and family, which should be documented together with the decision to use coercive care.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26893126 View in PubMed
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The Interacting Axes of Environmental, Health, and Social Justice Cumulative Impacts: A Case Study of the Blueberry River First Nations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature277127
Source
Healthcare (Basel). 2016 Oct 18;4(4)
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-18-2016
Author
Maya K Gislason
Holly K Andersen
Source
Healthcare (Basel). 2016 Oct 18;4(4)
Date
Oct-18-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
We consider the case of intensive resource extractive projects in the Blueberry River First Nations in Northern British Columbia, Canada, as a case study. Drawing on the parallels between concepts of cumulative environmental and cumulative health impacts, we highlight three axes along which to gauge the effects of intensive extraction projects. These are environmental, health, and social justice axes. Using an intersectional analysis highlights the way in which using individual indicators to measure impact, rather than considering cumulative effects, hides the full extent by which the affected First Nations communities are impacted by intensive extraction projects. We use the case study to contemplate several mechanisms at the intersection of these axes whereby the negative effects of each not only add but also amplify through their interactions. For example, direct impact along the environmental axis indirectly amplifies other health and social justice impacts separately from the direct impacts on those axes. We conclude there is significant work still to be done to use cumulative indicators to study the impacts of extractive industry projects-like liquefied natural gas-on peoples, environments, and health.
PubMed ID
27763548 View in PubMed
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Source
Vardfacket. 1992 Mar 5;16(5):3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-5-1992
Author
K. Nyman
Source
Vardfacket. 1992 Mar 5;16(5):3
Date
Mar-5-1992
Language
Swedish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Humans
Pensions
Retirement
Social Justice
Sweden
PubMed ID
1636316 View in PubMed
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