OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to estimate, for the period 1971 through 1989, occupation-specific risks of breast cancer among Swedish women employed in 1970. METHODS: Age-period standardized incidence ratios were computed. Log-linear Poisson models were fitted, with geographical area and town size taken into account. Risks were further adjusted for major occupational group, used as a proxy for socioeconomic status. Risk estimators were also calculated for women reporting the same occupation in 1960 and 1970. RESULTS: Most elevated risks among professionals, managers, and clerks were reduced when intragroup comparisons were carried out, indicating the confounding effect of socioeconomic status. Excess risks were found for pharmacists, teachers of theoretical subjects, schoolmasters, systems analysts and programmers, telephone operators, telegraph and radio operators, metal platers and coaters, and hairdressers and beauticians, as well as for women working in 1960 and 1970 as physicians, religious workers, social workers, bank tellers, cost accountants, and telephonists. CONCLUSIONS: While the high risks observed among professional, administrative, and clerical workers might be related to lower birth rates and increased case detection, excess risks found for telephone workers and for hairdressers and beauticians deserve further attention.
The antibiotic susceptibility of 297 invasive isolates of group B streptococci (GBS) to a panel of 12 antibiotics was analysed using the E-test. The isolates (from 123 neonates and 174 adults) were collected from south-west Sweden during the 2 periods 1988-1997 and 1998-2001. The breakpoints of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute were used. All isolates were sensitive to cefotaxime, meropenem, linezolid, vancomycin, moxifloxacin and quinupristin-dalfopristin. Two strains displayed a slightly decreased susceptibility to penicillin G (MIC 0.25 microg/ml) also when tested by the broth dilution method. Two per cent were resistant to erythromycin and 1% to clindamycin. Strains with intermediate sensitivity to erythromycin and clindamycin increased over the 2 study periods. 68% were resistant to doxycycline, and the resistance rate for doxycycline increased over the 2 study periods. No strain was resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Serotype V dominated among strains with intermediate susceptibility to erythromycin and clindamycin. There were no other relationships between serotypes and decreased sensitivity to any agent. There were no significant differences in susceptibility to any agent tested between strains isolated from neonates and adults. In conclusion, penicillins remain the drug of choice in the region but with the increasing rates of intermediate susceptibility to both erythromycin and clindamycin, antibiotic sensitivity analysis should be performed on the GBS isolates from penicillin-allergic patients.
OBJECTIVE: To establish basic epidemiological data on chronic pain (duration > 3 months) in a defined population. Relationships between age, gender, and social class were tested. DESIGN: A survey of pain symptoms, including location, intensity, duration, and functional capacity, was conducted by means of a mail questionnaire. SETTING: General populations in two Swedish primary health care districts. Medical care was provided in a state health system. SUBJECTS: A random sample (from the population register) of 15% of the population aged 25-74 (n = 1,806). The response rate was 90%. OUTCOME MEASURES: Descriptive epidemiologic data in relation to objectives of the study. RESULTS: Without sex differences, 55% (95% confidence interval, 53-58%) of the population had perceived persistent pain for 3 months and 49% for 6 months. Among individuals with chronic pain, 90% localized their pain to the musculoskeletal system to a variable extent. Women experienced more multiple localizations of pain and had pain in the neck, shoulder, arm, and thigh to a greater extent than men. Prevalence of pain increased by age up to 50-59 years for both genders and then slowly decreased. The neck-shoulder area was the most common site of pain (30.2%), followed by the lower back (23.2%). Even in the youngest age groups more than one of four reported chronic pain. Blue-collar workers and employers (including farmers) reported chronic pain to a greater extent than other groups. In 13% of the population, manifest pain problems were associated with reduced functional capacity. CONCLUSION: Chronic pain symptoms are common but unevenly distributed in a general population. The results may influence planning and consultation in primary health care as well as warranting selective prevention activities.
This research report presents an overview of historical studies within the context of the interdisciplinary Swedish project on aging. The author discusses the project's conceptual framework and focuses on conflict theory and exchange theory as major models. The empirical studies concern changes in the provisions for old age and in the aging processes of the major social groups (farmers, rural proletarians, urban artisans and their wives, male and female industrial workers). The project aims at integrating a life course perspective in the analysis of social change. Class and gender are underlined as major forces in shaping the status of the aged in the last two centuries.
In Sweden, the first known telemedicine trial took place
around 1915, in the field of remote reading of ECG signals across
the campus at Lund University. Sea-to-shore telemedicine started in
the beginning of the 1920s from Sahlgren University Hospital, in
Gothenburg, to Swedish vessels around the world, a service that is
still operational today. This makes Sweden one of the pioneering
countries in telemedicine.
The aim was to study the tuberculin skin test in relation to immunological in vitro reactions in bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-vaccinated healthcare workers. The present study was performed in Sweden, a country with a low incidence of tuberculosis, a high BCG vaccination efficacy and high tuberculin conversion rates. BCG-vaccinated healthcare workers (n=381) were tuberculin skin tested. From these, 11 subjects with negative tuberculin reactions ( or = 15 mm). Lymphocyte transformation and the production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were analysed after stimulation in vitro of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with tuberculin purified protein derivative, heat-killed tubercle bacilli and a culture filtrate from tubercle bacilli. In the tuberculin-positive group the lymphocyte transformation response was 2-3 times larger, and IFN-gamma production was 7-10 times larger, than in the tuberculin-negative group (p
In a representative sample of Swedish women, smokers were significantly less obese than nonsmokers. However, a smoker was likely to have significantly more upper-body fat than a nonsmoker of similar body mass index. Women who quit smoking experienced less upper-body fat deposition than would be expected by their accompanying weight gain, suggesting that weight gained as a consequence of smoking cessation is not preferentially deposited in the region associated with increased cardiovascular risk.
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association between unemployment and early cause-specific mortality to determine whether the relationship was modified by other risk indicators. METHODS: Female and male twins (n=20632) were followed with regard to mortality from 1973 through 1996. Questionnaire data from 1973 were used to obtain information on experience of unemployment and on social, behavioral, health, and personality characteristics. RESULTS: Unemployment was associated with an increased risk of suicide and death from undetermined causes. Low education, personality characteristics, use of sleeping pills or tranquilizers, and serious or long-lasting illness tended to strengthen the association between unemployment and early mortality. CONCLUSIONS: An increased risk of death from external causes implies a need for support for those experiencing unemployment, particularly susceptible individuals.