Clostridium difficile is commonly associated with a spectrum of disease in humans referred to as C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD) and use of antimicrobials is considered a risk factor for development of disease in humans. C. difficile can also inhabit healthy food animals and transmission to humans is possible. As a result of the complexity and cost of testing, C. difficile is rarely tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 376 C. difficile strains (94 each from swine and dairy feces, and 188 from beef cattle feces) were isolated from healthy food animals on farms during studies conducted by the National Animal Health Monitoring System. Using the Etest (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden), samples were tested for susceptibility to nine antimicrobials implicated as risk factors for CDAD (linezolid, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, clindamycin, erythromycin, levofloxacin, metronidazole, rifampicin, and vancomycin). Vancomycin was active against all isolates of C. difficile (MIC90=3.0Âµg/ml) while almost all isolates (n=369; 98.1%) were resistant to levofloxacin. With the exception of vancomycin, resistance varied by animal species as follows: linezolid (8.5% resistance among swine versus 2.1 and 1.1% resistance among dairy and beef, respectively), clindamycin (56.4% resistance among swine versus 80% and 90.9% resistance among dairy and beef, respectively), and rifampicin (2.1% and 0% resistance among swine and dairy cattle isolates, respectively versus 14.3% resistance among beef isolates). Regardless of species, multiple drug resistance was observed most often to combinations of clindamycin and levofloxacin (n=195; 51.9%) and ampicillin, clindamycin and levofloxacin (n=41; 10.9%). The reason for the variability of resistance between animal species is unknown and requires further research.
Research has shown that the provision of brief interventions in the health care system is effective for reducing hazardous drinking. Using a telephone-administered questionnaire, this study provides a population-based investigation on the extent to which physicians address patients' alcohol habits in the Swedish health care system, whether there are gender differences in the extent to which patients receive questions about alcohol, and predictors for receiving such questions. Data were obtained from monthly telephone surveys with around 72,000 people in 2006-2009. Having received an alcohol enquiry was defined as having been asked about one's drinking habits by a physician in any health care visit in the last 12 months. Fourteen percent of the total population had received an alcohol enquiry, but there were considerable gender differences: for hazardous drinkers, 13% of the women and 17% of the men had received an alcohol enquiry; among those with sensible alcohol consumption, 10% of women and 15% of men had received an alcohol enquiry. Patients were more likely to have received an alcohol enquiry if they had self-reported alcohol-related problems, were hazardous drinkers and/or daily smokers. Some of the alcohol enquiry predictors differed by gender; social class was an important predictor for women but not for men.
The aim was to investigate the relationship between soft drink consumption, oral health and some lifestyle factors in Swedish adolescents.
A clinical dental examination and a questionnaire concerning lifestyle factors, including drinking habits, oral hygiene, dietary consumption, physical activity and screen-viewing habits were completed. Three hundred and ninety-two individuals completed the study (13-14 years, n = 195; 18-19 years, n = 197). The material was divided into high and low carbonated soft drink consumption groups, corresponding to approximately the highest and the lowest one-third of subjects in each age group. Differences between the groups were tested by the Mann-Whitney U-test and logistic regression.
Intake of certain dietary items, tooth brushing, sports activities, meal patterns, screen-viewing behaviors, BMI and parents born outside Sweden differed significantly between high and low consumers in one or both of the two age groups. Dental erosion (both age groups) and DMFT/DMFS (18-19 years group) were significantly higher in the high consumption groups. Logistic regression showed predictive variables for high consumption of carbonated soft drinks to be mainly gender (male), unhealthy dietary habits, lesser physical activity, higher BMI and longer time spent in front of TV/computer.
High soft drink consumption was related to poorer oral health and an unhealthier lifestyle.
AIMS: To estimate the use of medical resources and the societal impact of otitis media (OM) in children less than five years of age in Sweden.
METHODS: An internet survey questionnaire was administered to a sample of parents with children
AIM: To study the mortality and causes of death among homeless men and women in relation to the risk indicators, previous treatment for alcohol and drug abuse, previous treatment for mental disorders and non-Swedish citizenship.
METHODS: The mortality was studied in a cohort comprising 1,757 men and 526 women compared with the general population and persons with inpatient treatment for alcohol- and drug-related disorders. The follow-up period was from 1995 to 1997 until the end of 2005. The causes of death were analyzed.
RESULTS: 421 deaths occurred during the follow-up period. The relative risk of death was 3.1, with no difference in mortality between homeless men and homeless women. Previous treatment for alcohol and drug abuse disorders was related to excess mortality and previous treatment for mental disease to lower mortality. Homeless people with inpatient treatment for alcohol or drug use disorders had no higher mortality than the general population in Stockholm with a similar history. There was a dominance of alcohol- and drug-related causes of death. DISCUSSION: Compared with previous studies of homeless people in Stockholm the excess mortality among men found in this study is of the same magnitude. Mortality among women is lower. The mortality rate in homeless people with previous treatment for an alcohol and illicit drug use disorder did not differ from those treated for these disorders in the general population.
CONCLUSIONS: The most important finding is that excess mortality among homeless men and women in Stockholm is entirely related to alcohol and drug abuse.
AIMS: Research often fails to ascertain whether men and women are equally hit by the health consequences of unemployment. The aim of this study was to analyze whether men's self-reported health and health behavior were hit more by unemployment than women's in a follow-up of the Northern Swedish Cohort.
METHODS: A follow-up study of a cohort of all school leavers in a middle-sized industrial town in northern Sweden was performed from age 16 to age 42. Of those still alive of the original cohort, 94% (n = 1,006) participated during the whole period. A sample was made of participants in the labor force and living in Sweden (n = 916). Register data were used to assess the length of unemployment from age 40 to 42, while questionnaire data were used for the other variables.
RESULTS: In multivariate logistic regression analyses significant relations between unemployment and mental health/smoking were found among both women and men, even after control for unemployment at the time of the investigation and indicators of health-related selection. Significant relations between unemployment and alcohol consumption were found among women, while few visits to a dentist was significant among men.
CONCLUSIONS: Men are not hit more by the health consequences of unemployment in a Swedish context, with a high participation rate of women in the labor market. The public health relevance is that the study indicates the need to take gendered contexts into account in public health research.
BACKGROUND: Refugees needing long-term health care must adapt to new healthcare systems. The aim of this study was to examine the viewpoints of nine refugees in a county in Sweden, with a known chronic disease or functional impairment requiring long-term medical care, on their contacts with care providers regarding treatment and personal needs.
METHODS: Semi-structured interviews with nine individuals and/or their next of kin. Inductive content analysis was used to identify experiences.
RESULTS: "Care organizations/resources" and "professional competence" were the categories extracted. Participants felt cared for due to accessibility to and regular appointments with the same care provider. Visiting different clinics contributed to a negative experience and lack of trust. The staff's interest in participants' lives and health contributed to a sense of professionalism. Most participants said the problems experienced were not related to their backgrounds as refugees. Many patients did not fully understand which clinic they were attending or the purpose of the care that the specific clinic provided. Some lacked knowledge of their disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Health care was perceived as equal to other Swedish citizens and problems experienced were not explained by refugee backgrounds. Lack of information from care providers and being sent to various levels of care created feelings of a lack of overall medical responsibility.
AIMS: The spatial aspect of Swedish seasonal influenza data was investigated and modeled with the main aim of finding patterns that could be useful for outbreak detection, i.e. for detecting an increase in incidence as soon as possible.
METHODS: Quality problems with data on laboratory-diagnosed cases (LDI) collected by a number of laboratories and other data were studied. Parametric and nonparametric regression methods were used for estimation of the excepted incidence. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the impact of different spatial components.
RESULTS: Quality problems were found for all types of data. LDI was found useful for the present aim. No evidence for a geographical pattern was found. It was found that the influenza outbreak started at about the same time in the metropolitan areas and about 1 week later in the rest of the country. Both parametric and nonparametric regression models are suggested.
CONCLUSIONS: There was a time difference between the outbreaks in the metropolitan areas and the rest of the country. This can be utilized to improve outbreak detection.
AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate whether temporary employment was related to non-optimal self-rated health and psychological distress at age 42 after adjustment for the same indicators at age 30, and to analyze the effects of job insecurity, low cash margin and high job strain on this relationship.
METHODS: A subcohort of the Northern Swedish Cohort that was employed at the 2007 follow-up survey (n = 907, response rate of 94%) was analyzed using data from 1995 and 2007 questionnaires.
RESULTS: Temporary employees had a higher risk of both non-optimal self-rated health and psychological distress. After adjustment for non-optimal self-rated health at age 30 and psychological distress at age 30 as well as for sociodemographic variables, the odds ratios decreased but remained significant. However, after adjustment for job insecurity, high job strain and low cash margin the odds ratio dropped for non-optimal self-rated health but remained significant for psychological distress.
CONCLUSIONS: Temporary employment may have adverse effects on self-rated health and psychological health after adjustment for previous health status and sociodemographic variables. Our findings indicate that low cash margin and job insecurity may partially mediate the association between temporary employment and health status.