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Addressing individual behaviours and living conditions: Four Nordic public health policies

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101197
Source
Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. 2011 Mar;39(6 suppl):6-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2011
Author
Vallgårda, S
Author Affiliation
Unit of Health Services Research, Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade, Copenhagen, Denmark
Source
Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. 2011 Mar;39(6 suppl):6-10
Date
Mar-2011
Language
English
Geographic Location
Denmark
Finland
Norway
Sweden
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Behavior
Health Policy
Health promotion
Liberalism
Nordic countries
Public Health
Responsibility
Social Conditions
Social democracy
Abstract
AIMS: To identify characteristics of the public health policies of four Nordic countries concerning how they present the causes of ill health, the best ways to deal with these causes, and where to place responsibility; additionally, to investigate whether there is a common Nordic policy. METHODS: Analyses of recent public health programs in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. RESULTS: Focus is on either, or both, individual behavior and living conditions as causes of ill health; the remedies are classical liberal as well as social democratic policies. None of the programs is consistent with either ideological strand; each has its peculiar combination of interpretations and policies. The Danish program is the most liberal focusing on behaviors and individual's choices; the Norwegian program is the most social democratic or social liberal focusing mostly on the social and physical environment and the politicians' responsibility to improve the population's health. The Swedish and the Finnish programs lie between those of Denmark and Norway. The Finnish and Norwegian governments stress their responsibility for the health of the population. CONCLUSIONS: No common Nordic political approach to public health exists. All programs contain contradictory policies and ideological statements with differences regarding the emphasis on individual behavior versus choice and living conditions and political responsibility. The policies are not entirely predictable from the political stance of the government; national differences seem to play a role.
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Adolescent impulsivity and soft drink consumption: The role of parental regulation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature277047
Source
Appetite. 2016 Jan 1;96:432-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1-2016
Author
Elisabeth L Melbye
Ingunn H Bergh
Solveig E S Hausken
Ester F C Sleddens
Kari Glavin
Nanna Lien
Mona Bjelland
Source
Appetite. 2016 Jan 1;96:432-42
Date
Jan-1-2016
Language
English
Geographic Location
Norway
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Carbonated Beverages
Cross-Sectional Studies
Feeding Behavior - psychology
Female
Health Behavior
Humans
Impulsive Behavior
Linear Models
Male
Norway
Parent-Child Relations
Parenting
Social Environment
Socioeconomic Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
The present study aimed to explore the process in which impulsivity might influence soft drink consumption in adolescents, addressing potential mediating effects of perceived parental regulation regarding unhealthy eating. A cross-sectional survey was performed among 440 13-15-year-olds in Eastern Norway. The survey questionnaire included measures of impulsivity, six types of maternal and paternal regulation (as perceived by the adolescents), and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). Parallel multiple-mediator analyses were performed to reveal potential mediating effects of perceived parental regulatory behaviors on the association between adolescent impulsivity and SSB consumption. Separate models were run for maternal and paternal regulation. Results from our model analyses (both maternal and paternal models) indicated that all the six measured parental regulatory behaviors jointly acted as mediators on the association between adolescent impulsivity and SSB consumption. However, only perceived maternal and paternal legitimacy of regulation showed a unique contribution to the mediated effect. This finding suggests that adolescents' perception of parental legitimate authority is of particular importance in explaining the relationship between impulsivity and unhealthy eating behaviors in adolescents. Future nutrition interventions targeting adolescents and their parents should take personal factors such as adolescents' level of impulsivity into account. Ultimately; what may be an appropriate approach to impulsive individuals and their parents may diverge from what may be an appropriate approach to less impulsive individuals and their parents.
PubMed ID
26456410 View in PubMed
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Adolescent smoking and exposure to tobacco marketing under a tobacco advertising ban: Findings from 2 Norwegian national samples

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature67227
Source
American Journal of Public Health. 2004 Jul;94(7):1230-1238
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2004
  1 website  
Author
Braverman, MT
Aarø, LE
Author Affiliation
Department of Human and Community Development, University of California, Davis 95616, USA. mtbraverman@ucdavis.edu
Source
American Journal of Public Health. 2004 Jul;94(7):1230-1238
Date
Jul-2004
Language
English
Geographic Location
Norway
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Adolescent Psychology - statistics & numerical data
Advertising - legislation & jurisprudence - methods - statistics & numerical data
Attitude to Health
Cohort Studies
Female
Friends - psychology
Habits
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Health Policy - legislation & jurisprudence
Health Surveys
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Marketing - organization & administration
Mass Media
Multivariate Analysis
Needs Assessment
Norway - epidemiology
Peer Group
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Smoking - epidemiology - prevention & control - psychology
Tobacco Industry - organization & administration
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: We examined the extent to which adolescents in Norway have been exposed to tobacco marketing despite an existing ban, and whether exposure is related to their current smoking or expectations they will smoke in the future. METHODS: Questionnaires were administered to nationally representative systematic samples of Norwegian youths aged 13 to 15 years in 1990 (n = 4282) and 1995 (n = 4065). RESULTS: About half in each cohort reported exposure to marketing. Youths reporting exposure were significantly more likely to be current smokers and to expect to be smokers at 20 years of age, after control for important social influence predictors. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents' current smoking and future smoking expectations are linked to marketing exposure even in limited settings, suggesting the need for comprehensive controls to eliminate the function of marketing in promoting adolescent smoking.
PubMed ID
15226148 View in PubMed
Online Resources
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Agglutinins and antibodies to Francisella tularensis outer membrane antigens in the early diagnosis of disease during an outbreak of tularemia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature38538
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Mar;26(3):433-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1988
Author
L. Bevanger
J A Maeland
A I Naess
Author Affiliation
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Trondheim, Norway.
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Mar;26(3):433-7
Date
Mar-1988
Language
English
Geographic Location
Norway
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Agglutination Tests
Agglutinins - analysis
Antibodies, Bacterial - analysis
Antigens, Bacterial - immunology
Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins - immunology
Child
Disease Outbreaks
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Francisella tularensis - immunology
Humans
Immunoassay
Immunoglobulins - immunology
Middle Aged
Norway
Tularemia - diagnosis - epidemiology - microbiology
Abstract
Tularemia was diagnosed in 57 patients during an outbreak in central Norway in 1984 and 1985. Clinical categories of the disease showed seasonal variations. A bacterial microagglutination test and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with class-specific antibodies against Francisella tularensis outer membrane (OM) antigens were evaluated for the early diagnosis of tularemia. ELISA with immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, or IgM antibodies and the microagglutination test differed only marginally in diagnostic sensitivity. The OM preparation harbored F. tularensis agglutinogens and contained a variety of proteins, several of which functioned as immunogens in tularemia patients, as shown by Western blotting (immunoblotting). All 12 patients tested produced antibodies against a 43,000-molecular-weight OM protein. Individual variation was noted with regard to antibody response against other OM antigens. The OM is a suitable antigen preparation in ELISA for the diagnosis of tularemia and, presumably, contains antigens important in the immunobiology of tularemia.
PubMed ID
3356786 View in PubMed
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An examination of the myth of rampant Sami alcoholism.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296736
Source
University of Texas at Austin. Sami Culture.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Kunec, Kevin
Source
University of Texas at Austin. Sami Culture.
Date
2007
Language
English
Geographic Location
Finland
Norway
Sweden
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Sami
Alcoholism
Laestadianism
Notes
Online. Available from the University of Texas, Sami Web at https://www.laits.utexas.edu/sami/dieda/socio/alcohol.htm
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An outbreak of gastroenteritis among schoolchildren staying in a wildlife reserve: Thorough investigation reveals Norway's largest cryptosporidiosis outbreak

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101200
Source
Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. 2011 May;39(3):287-295
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2011
Author
Rimðelienë, G
Vold, L
Robertson, L
Nelke, C
S¸li, K
Johansen, ¨H
Thrana, FS
Nygård, K
Author Affiliation
European Programme for Intervention Epidemiology Training, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Stockholm, Sweden
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
Parasitology laboratory, Institute for Food Safety and Infection, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo, Norway
Nore og Uvdal municipality, Norway
Kongsberg Food Safety Authority, Norway
Department of Microbiology, Vestfold Hospital, Tønsberg, Norway
Tønsberg Municipal Public Health Department, Tønsberg, Norway
Source
Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. 2011 May;39(3):287-295
Date
May-2011
Language
English
Geographic Location
Norway
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cryptosporidium
Cryptosporidium parvum
Disease outbreak
Gastroenteritis
Norway
Abstract
AIMS: In March and April 2009, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health was notified about two groups of schoolchildren with gastroenteritis following a stay at a Norwegian wildlife reserve. Although at first considered a typical norovirus outbreak, an investigation that considered other possibilities was initiated. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among schoolchildren visiting the reserve in the relevant weeks. A web-based questionnaire was distributed by email. Fecal samples of visitors and employees were analyzed. The premises were inspected, and water samples and animal feces analyzed. RESULTS: We received 141 replies (response rate 84%); 74 cases were identified. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in fecal samples from 9/12 (75%) visitors and 2/15 (13%) employees. One employee diagnosed with Cryptosporidium infection helped in the kitchen. Additionally, one pupil was diagnosed with norovirus infection. No food item was identified as a source of the outbreak. Pathogens were not detected in water samples taken in week 12, one week from the start of the outbreak. Escherichia coli, but not Cryptosporidium oocysts, were detected in water samples taken one month later. CONCLUSIONS: Although Cryptosporidium is seldom considered as an etiological agent of gastrointestinal illness in Norway, this outbreak indicates that it should not be excluded. In this cryptosporidiosis outbreak, the largest in Norway to date, the transmission vehicle was not definitively identified, but a food handler, water, and animal contact could not be excluded. We recommend improving hand hygiene routines, boiling drinking water, and emphasize that people who are unwell, particularly those working in catering, should stay away from work.
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Antibody against hepatitis A in seven European countries. I. Comparison of prevalence data in different age groups.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature41337
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1979 Jul;110(1):63-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1979
Author
G G Frösner
G. Papaevangelou
R. Bütler
S. Iwarson
A. Lindholm
A. Couroucé-Pauty
H. Haas
F. Deinhardt
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1979 Jul;110(1):63-9
Date
Jul-1979
Language
English
Geographic Location
Sweden
Norway
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Antibodies, viral
Child
Child, Preschool
Comparative Study
Europe
Female
Hepatitis A - epidemiology - immunology
Humans
Infant
Male
Middle Aged
Abstract
Using a solid phase radioimmunoassay, antibody to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) was determined in 3890 sera from populations in seven European countries. Prevalence of anti-HAV was lowest in Scandinavian countries and highest in Greece and France. Antibodies were found in 77 (13%) of 602 blood donors in Sweden, in 29 (17%) of 175 blood donors and women taking birth control pills in Norway, in 273 (39%) of 700 blood donors in Switzerland, in 262 (52%) of 505 blood donors in Holland, in 365 (55%) of 661 accident patients in West Germany, in 452 (75%) of 600 blood donors in France and in 530 (82%) of 647 persons in Greece. Prevalence of anti-HAV increased with age in all populations tested, indicating nearly total exposure to HAV in persons over 19 years of age in Greece and in persons over 39 years of age in West Germany, Holland and France. Antibody was found more frequently in rural than in urban populations in Greece and Switzerland. Calculation of the age-specific incidence of HAV infections suggests a remarkable decline in the exposure rate in the last few decades.
PubMed ID
463865 View in PubMed
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Antimicrobial susceptibility of Swedish, Norwegian and Danish isolates of Clostridium perfringens from poultry, and distribution of tetracycline resistance genes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature56590
Source
Vet Microbiol. 2004 Apr 19;99(3-4):251-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-19-2004
Author
A. Johansson
C. Greko
B E Engström
M. Karlsson
Author Affiliation
Department of Bacteriology, National Veterinary Institute, SE-751 89 Uppsala, Sweden. anders.johansson@sva.se
Source
Vet Microbiol. 2004 Apr 19;99(3-4):251-7
Date
Apr-19-2004
Language
English
Geographic Location
Denmark
Norway
Sweden
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
Base Sequence
Chickens
Clostridium Infections - microbiology - veterinary
Clostridium perfringens - drug effects - isolation & purification
DNA, Bacterial - chemistry - genetics
Female
Microbial Sensitivity Tests - veterinary
Molecular Sequence Data
Polymerase Chain Reaction - veterinary
Poultry Diseases - microbiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Tetracycline Resistance - genetics
Turkeys
Abstract
This study was undertaken to determine the in vitro susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens, isolated from poultry to antimicrobials used in poultry production. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of eight antimicrobials, including the ionophoric coccidiostat narasin, was determined for 102 C. perfringens isolates, 58 from Sweden, 24 from Norway and 20 from Denmark. Susceptibility to each antimicrobial compound was determined by broth microdilution. The isolates were obtained from broilers (89), laying hens (9) and turkeys (4), affected by necrotic enteritis (NE) or by C. perfringens associated hepatitis (CPH), and from healthy broilers. All strains, regardless of origin, proved inherently susceptible to ampicillin, narasin, avilamycin, erythromycin and vancomycin. A low frequency of resistance to virginiamycin and bacitracin was also found. Resistance to tetracycline was found in strains isolated in all three countries; Sweden (76%), Denmark (10%) and Norway (29%). In 80% of the tetracycline-resistant isolates, the two resistance genes tetA(P) and tetB(P) were amplified by PCR whereas in 20% only the tetA(P) gene was detected. No tetM gene amplicon was obtained from any of the tetracycline-resistant isolates. The uniform susceptibility to narasin revealed in this study shows that the substance can still be used to control clostridiosis. In this study, C. perfringens also showed a low degree of resistance to most other antimicrobials tested. Despite the small amounts of tetracycline used in poultry, a considerable degree of resistance to tetracycline was found in C. perfringens isolates from Swedish broilers.
PubMed ID
15066727 View in PubMed
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The Arctic as a food producing region. Phase 1: Current status in five Arctic countries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295345
Source
Nofima. Report 10/2018. 99 pp.
Publication Type
Report
Date
April 2018
  1 document  
Author
Silje Elde
Ingrid Kvalvik
Bjørg Helen Nøstvold
Rune Rødbotten
Sigridur Dalmannsdottir
Hilde Halland
Eivind Uleberg
Ólafur Reykdal
Jón Árnason
Páll Gunnar Pálsson
Rakel Halldórsdóttir
Óli Þór Hilmarsson
Gunnar Þórðarson
Þóra Valsdóttir
Rebekka Knudsen
David Natcher
Daria Sidorova
Source
Nofima. Report 10/2018. 99 pp.
Date
April 2018
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Denmark
Greenland
Iceland
Norway
Russia
Publication Type
Report
File Size
5515073
Keywords
Arctic
Food
Production
Industry and market
Possibilities
Challenges
Abstract
The "Arctic as a food producing region" is a project funded by the Nordic Council of Ministries, the Canadian Arctic Council office, the University of Saskatchewan (Canada), the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Nofima – Norwegian Institute of Food, fisheries and Aquaculture Research, the Icelandic Foreign Ministry, and endorsed by the Arctic Council Sustainable Development Working Group (SDWG). The project has participation from Canada, Denmark, Greenland, Iceland, Norway and Russia. The aim of the "Arctic as a food producing region" - project is to assess the potential for increased production and added value of food from the Arctic region, with the overarching aim of improving economic and social conditions of Arctic communities. This report is the output from the first phase of the project, providing a description of the main food production and examples of conditions for food production in the Arctic areas of the countries involved.
Documents
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Are mid-pregnancy androgen levels negatively associated with breastfeeding?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature97810
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2010 May;89(5):722-3; author reply 723-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2010
Author
Petter Laake
Dag S Thelle
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2010 May;89(5):722-3; author reply 723-5
Date
May-2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Norway
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Androgens - blood
Androstenedione - blood
Breast Feeding
Dehydroepiandrosterone - blood
Female
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Linear Models
Norway
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Trimester, Second - physiology
Probability
Risk assessment
Testosterone - blood
Notes
RefSource: Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2010;89(1):87-94
PubMed ID
20205609 View in PubMed
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228 records – page 1 of 23.