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Gene-environment interactions between education and body mass: Evidence from the UK and Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292687
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2017 Dec; 195:12-16
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-2017
Author
Vikesh Amin
Petri Böckerman
Jutta Viinikainen
Melissa C Smart
Yanchun Bao
Meena Kumari
Niina Pitkänen
Terho Lehtimäki
Olli Raitakari
Jaakko Pehkonen
Author Affiliation
Department of Economics, Central Michigan University, United States. Electronic address: amin1v@cmich.edu.
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2017 Dec; 195:12-16
Date
Dec-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Body mass index
Educational Status
Female
Finland
Gene-Environment Interaction
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Overweight - genetics
United Kingdom
Abstract
More education is associated with a lower body mass index (BMI) and likelihood of being overweight. However, since a large proportion of the variation in body mass is due to genetic makeup, it has been hypothesized that education may moderate the genetic risk. We estimate main associations between (i) education, (ii) genetic risk, and (iii) interactions between education and genetic risk on BMI and the probability of being overweight in the UK and Finland. The estimates show that education is negatively associated with BMI and overweightness, and genetic risk is positively associated. However, the interactions between education and genetic risk are small and statistically insignificant.
PubMed ID
29102742 View in PubMed
Less detail

Positive Psychosocial Factors in Childhood Predicting Lower Risk for Adult Type 2 Diabetes: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, 1980-2012.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291491
Source
Am J Prev Med. 2017 Jun; 52(6):e157-e164
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jun-2017
Author
Laura Pulkki-Råback
Marko Elovainio
Christian Hakulinen
Jari Lipsanen
Laura D Kubzansky
Mirka Hintsanen
Kateryna Savelieva
Anna Serlachius
Costan G Magnussen
Matthew A Sabin
David P Burgner
Terho Lehtimäki
Eero Jokinen
Tapani Rönnemaa
Vera Mikkilä
Antti Jula
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Jorma Viikari
Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen
Olli Raitakari
Markus Juonala
Author Affiliation
Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Psychology and Logopedics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address: laura.pulkki-raback@helsinki.fi.
Source
Am J Prev Med. 2017 Jun; 52(6):e157-e164
Date
Jun-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Body mass index
Cardiovascular Diseases - etiology
Child
Child Behavior - psychology
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology - etiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Health Behavior
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Risk factors
Social Class
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes is a public health concern, but psychosocial factors that may protect against the disease are unknown. This study examines whether a positive psychosocial environment in childhood is associated with lower risk for Type 2 diabetes in adulthood or healthier glucose trajectories over the life course, and whether BMI mediates the associations.
A cohort of 3,596 Finnish children was followed into adulthood over 32 years. An overall positive psychosocial score, consisting of six subdomains, was measured at study baseline (1980). Relative risk ratios and multilevel growth curve modeling were used to examine associations of the psychosocial score with Type 2 diabetes (2012) and glucose trajectories (1986-2012). The mediating effect by BMI was examined using mediation analysis. The analyses were conducted between June 2015 and January 2016.
There was a 21% decrease in the rate of Type 2 diabetes (relative risk ratio, 0.79; 95% CI=0.66, 0.94) for each 1-SD increase in the positive psychosocial score after adjustment for childhood cardiovascular risk factors and dietary behaviors. Adult BMI mediated 52% and weight gain mediated 25% of the association. The growth curve model showed healthier glucose trajectories (age X psychosocial score interaction, b= -0.01; p=0.010) for participants with higher versus lower positive psychosocial score in childhood.
Positive psychosocial environment in childhood seems to have beneficial influences on the risk for Type 2 diabetes over the life span. RCTs will be required to see if interventions directed at early-life circumstances are warranted.
PubMed ID
28284747 View in PubMed
Less detail

Childhood predictors of adult fatty liver. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291515
Source
J Hepatol. 2016 Oct; 65(4):784-790
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Oct-2016
Author
Emmi Suomela
Mervi Oikonen
Niina Pitkänen
Ari Ahola-Olli
Johanna Virtanen
Riitta Parkkola
Eero Jokinen
Tomi Laitinen
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Mika Kähönen
Terho Lehtimäki
Leena Taittonen
Päivi Tossavainen
Antti Jula
Britt-Marie Loo
Vera Mikkilä
Risto Telama
Jorma S A Viikari
Markus Juonala
Olli T Raitakari
Author Affiliation
Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland. Electronic address: emkasu@utu.fi.
Source
J Hepatol. 2016 Oct; 65(4):784-790
Date
Oct-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Cardiovascular diseases
Child
Fatty liver
Finland
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Lipase
Liver
Longitudinal Studies
Membrane Proteins
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Risk factors
Abstract
Fatty liver is a potentially preventable cause of serious liver diseases. This longitudinal study aimed to identify childhood risk factors of fatty liver in adulthood in a population-based group of Finnish adults.
Study cohort included 2,042 individuals from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study aged 3-18years at baseline in 1980. During the latest follow-up in 2011, the liver was scanned by ultrasound. In addition to physical and environmental factors related to fatty liver, we examined whether the genetic risk posed by a single nucleotide polymorphism in the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 gene (PNPLA3) (rs738409) strengthens prediction of adult fatty liver.
Independent childhood predictors of adult fatty liver were small for gestational age, (odds ratio=1.71, 95% confidence interval=1.07-2.72), variant in PNPLA3 (1.63, 1.29-2.07 per one risk allele), variant in the transmembrane 6 superfamily 2 gene (TM6SF2) (1.57, 1.08-2.30), BMI (1.30, 1.07-1.59 per standard deviation) and insulin (1.25, 1.05-1.49 per standard deviation). Childhood blood pressure, physical activity, C-reactive protein, smoking, serum lipid levels or parental lifestyle factors did not predict fatty liver. Risk assessment based on childhood age, sex, BMI, insulin levels, birth weight, TM6SF2 and PNPLA3 was superior in predicting fatty liver compared with the approach using only age, sex, BMI and insulin levels (C statistics, 0.725 vs. 0.749; p=0.002).
Childhood risk factors on the development of fatty liver were small for gestational age, high insulin and high BMI. Prediction of adult fatty liver was enhanced by taking into account genetic variants in PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 genes.
The increase in pediatric obesity emphasizes the importance of identification of children and adolescents at high risk of fatty liver in adulthood. We used data from the longitudinal Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study to examine the associations of childhood (3-18years) risk variables with fatty liver assessed in adulthood at the age of 34-49years. The findings suggest that a multifactorial approach with both lifestyle and genetic factors included would improve early identification of children with a high risk of adult fatty liver.
PubMed ID
27235307 View in PubMed
Less detail

Does higher education protect against obesity? Evidence using Mendelian randomization.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291998
Source
Prev Med. 2017 Aug; 101:195-198
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Aug-2017
Author
Petri Böckerman
Jutta Viinikainen
Laura Pulkki-Råback
Christian Hakulinen
Niina Pitkänen
Terho Lehtimäki
Jaakko Pehkonen
Olli T Raitakari
Author Affiliation
Turku School of Economics, Labour Institute for Economic Research, Helsinki, Finland; IZA, Bonn. Electronic address: petri.bockerman@labour.fi.
Source
Prev Med. 2017 Aug; 101:195-198
Date
Aug-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Body mass index
Body Weight - genetics
Educational Status
Female
Finland
Genome-Wide Association Study - methods
Humans
Male
Mendelian Randomization Analysis - methods
Obesity - genetics
Abstract
The aim of this explorative study was to examine the effect of education on obesity using Mendelian randomization.
Participants (N=2011) were from the on-going nationally representative Young Finns Study (YFS) that began in 1980 when six cohorts (aged 30, 33, 36, 39, 42 and 45 in 2007) were recruited. The average value of BMI (kg/m2) measurements in 2007 and 2011 and genetic information were linked to comprehensive register-based information on the years of education in 2007. We first used a linear regression (Ordinary Least Squares, OLS) to estimate the relationship between education and BMI. To identify a causal relationship, we exploited Mendelian randomization and used a genetic score as an instrument for education. The genetic score was based on 74 genetic variants that genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have found to be associated with the years of education. Because the genotypes are randomly assigned at conception, the instrument causes exogenous variation in the years of education and thus enables identification of causal effects.
The years of education in 2007 were associated with lower BMI in 2007/2011 (regression coefficient (b)=-0.22; 95% Confidence Intervals [CI]=-0.29, -0.14) according to the linear regression results. The results based on Mendelian randomization suggests that there may be a negative causal effect of education on BMI (b=-0.84; 95% CI=-1.77, 0.09).
The findings indicate that education could be a protective factor against obesity in advanced countries.
PubMed ID
28645627 View in PubMed
Less detail

Aortic sinus diameter in middle age is associated with body size in young adulthood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297426
Source
Heart. 2018 05; 104(9):773-778
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
05-2018
Author
Jussi A Hernesniemi
Jarkko Heiskanen
Saku Ruohonen
Noora Kartiosuo
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Mika Kähönen
Eero Jokinen
Päivi Tossavainen
Merja Kallio
Tomi Laitinen
Terho Lehtimäki
Jorma S A Viikari
Markus Juonala
Olli T Raitakari
Author Affiliation
Department of Cardiology, Tays Heart Hospital, Tampere University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
Source
Heart. 2018 05; 104(9):773-778
Date
05-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Body Size - physiology
Body surface area
Child
Child, Preschool
Echocardiography
Female
Finland
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Sinus of Valsalva - anatomy & histology
Young Adult
Abstract
Aortic sinus dilatation can lead to aortic valve regurgitation or even aortic dissection. Our objective was to examine the association between body surface area (BSA) measures from childhood to middle age and aortic sinus diameter in middle age. Understanding the relation of these two clarifies how aortic size is normally determined.
Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study is a longitudinal study with follow-up of over 31 years (1980-2011). The study comprises information of body composition from multiple time points of 1950 subjects with cardiac ultrasound measurements made in 2011. The association between BSA in different ages and aortic sinus diameter in middle age was analysed by linear regression modelling adjusted with age, sex and diastolic blood pressure. Missing BSA values were derived for each life year (ages 3-33 years) from subject-specific curves for body weight and height estimated from longitudinal measurements using mixed model regression splines.
BSA estimates in early 20s are most strongly associated with aortic sinus diameter in middle age. Top association was observed at age 23 years with one SD increase in estimated BSA corresponding to 1.04?mm (0.87-1.21?mm) increase in aortic diameter. Increase in body weight beyond early 20s does not associate with aortic sinus diameter, and the association between middle age BSA and aortic size is substantially weaker (0.74?mm increase (0.58-0.89?mm)). These results were confirmed in a subpopulation using only measured data.
The association between aortic sinus diameter and BSA is stronger when considering BSA in young adulthood compared with BSA in middle age.
PubMed ID
29092920 View in PubMed
Less detail

Blood pathway analyses reveal differences between prediabetic subjects with or without dyslipidaemia. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292119
Source
Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2017 10; 33(7):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
10-2017
Author
Jaakko Laaksonen
Tuukka Taipale
Ilkka Seppälä
Emma Raitoharju
Nina Mononen
Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen
Melanie Waldenberger
Thomas Illig
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Tapani Rönnemaa
Markus Juonala
Jorma Viikari
Mika Kähönen
Olli Raitakari
Terho Lehtimäki
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Chemistry, Fimlab Laboratories and Finnish Cardiovascular Research Center - Tampere, Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
Source
Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2017 10; 33(7):
Date
10-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Blood glucose
Cardiovascular Diseases - etiology - genetics
Cholesterol - biosynthesis
Dyslipidemias - blood - complications - genetics
Female
Finland
Gene Expression
Gene Expression Profiling
Humans
Insulin Resistance
Male
Middle Aged
Prediabetic State - blood - complications - genetics
Signal Transduction - genetics
Up-Regulation
Waist Circumference
Abstract
Prediabetes often occurs together with dyslipidaemia, which is paradoxically treated with statins predisposing to type 2 diabetes mellitus. We examined peripheral blood pathway profiles in prediabetic subjects with (PRD ) and without dyslipidaemia (PR0 ) and compared these to nonprediabetic controls without dyslipidaemia (C0 ).
The participants were from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, including 1240 subjects aged 34 to 49 years. Genome-wide expression data of peripheral blood and gene set enrichment analysis were used to investigate the differentially expressed genes and enriched pathways between different subtypes of prediabetes.
Pathways for cholesterol synthesis, interleukin-12-mediated signalling events, and downstream signalling in naïve CD8+ T-cells were upregulated in the PR0 group in comparison with controls (C0 ). The upregulation of these pathways was independent of waist circumference, blood pressure, smoking status, and insulin. Adjustment for CRP left the CD8+ T-cell signalling and interleukin-12-mediated signalling event pathway upregulated. The cholesterol synthesis pathway was also upregulated when all prediabetic subjects (PR0 and PRD ) were compared with the nonprediabetic control group. No pathways were upregulated or downregulated when the PRD group was compared with the C0 group. Five genes in the PR0 group and 1 in the PRD group were significantly differentially expressed in comparison with the C0 group.
Blood cell gene expression profiles differ significantly between prediabetic subjects with and without dyslipidaemia. Whether this classification may be used in detection of prediabetic individuals at a high risk of cardiovascular complications remains to be examined.
PubMed ID
28609607 View in PubMed
Less detail

Fasting Glucose and the Risk of Depressive Symptoms: Instrumental-Variable Regression in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292244
Source
Int J Behav Med. 2017 12; 24(6):901-907
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
12-2017
Author
Karolina Wesolowska
Marko Elovainio
Taina Hintsa
Markus Jokela
Laura Pulkki-Råback
Niina Pitkänen
Jari Lipsanen
Janne Tukiainen
Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen
Terho Lehtimäki
Markus Juonala
Olli Raitakari
Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Behavioral Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 9, (Siltavuorenpenger 1 A), 00014, Helsinki, Finland. karolina.wesolowska@helsinki.fi.
Source
Int J Behav Med. 2017 12; 24(6):901-907
Date
12-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Cardiovascular Diseases - etiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depression - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - diagnosis - psychology
Fasting
Female
Finland
Glucose
Humans
Male
Risk factors
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been associated with depressive symptoms, but the causal direction of this association and the underlying mechanisms, such as increased glucose levels, remain unclear. We used instrumental-variable regression with a genetic instrument (Mendelian randomization) to examine a causal role of increased glucose concentrations in the development of depressive symptoms.
Data were from the population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (n = 1217). Depressive symptoms were assessed in 2012 using a modified Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-I). Fasting glucose was measured concurrently with depressive symptoms. A genetic risk score for fasting glucose (with 35 single nucleotide polymorphisms) was used as an instrumental variable for glucose.
Glucose was not associated with depressive symptoms in the standard linear regression (B = -0.04, 95% CI [-0.12, 0.04], p = .34), but the instrumental-variable regression showed an inverse association between glucose and depressive symptoms (B = -0.43, 95% CI [-0.79, -0.07], p = .020). The difference between the estimates of standard linear regression and instrumental-variable regression was significant (p = .026) CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the association between T2D and depressive symptoms is unlikely to be caused by increased glucose concentrations. It seems possible that T2D might be linked to depressive symptoms due to low glucose levels.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28779468 View in PubMed
Less detail

Effects of hormonal contraception on systemic metabolism: cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289536
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2016 10; 45(5):1445-1457
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
10-2016
Author
Qin Wang
Peter Würtz
Kirsi Auro
Laure Morin-Papunen
Antti J Kangas
Pasi Soininen
Mika Tiainen
Tuulia Tynkkynen
Anni Joensuu
Aki S Havulinna
Kristiina Aalto
Marko Salmi
Stefan Blankenberg
Tanja Zeller
Jorma Viikari
Mika Kähönen
Terho Lehtimäki
Veikko Salomaa
Sirpa Jalkanen
Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
Markus Perola
Olli T Raitakari
Debbie A Lawlor
Johannes Kettunen
Mika Ala-Korpela
Author Affiliation
Computational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu & Biocenter Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2016 10; 45(5):1445-1457
Date
10-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Cholesterol, HDL - blood
Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal - pharmacology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Cytokines - blood
Fatty Acids - blood
Female
Finland
Humans
Linear Models
Longitudinal Studies
Metabolome - drug effects
Metabolomics
Progestins - pharmacology
Risk factors
Triglycerides - blood
Young Adult
Abstract
Hormonal contraception is commonly used worldwide, but its systemic effects across lipoprotein subclasses, fatty acids, circulating metabolites and cytokines remain poorly understood.
A comprehensive molecular profile (75 metabolic measures and 37 cytokines) was measured for up to 5841 women (age range 24-49 years) from three population-based cohorts. Women using combined oral contraceptive pills (COCPs) or progestin-only contraceptives (POCs) were compared with those who did not use hormonal contraception. Metabolomics profiles were reassessed for 869 women after 6 years to uncover the metabolic effects of starting, stopping and persistently using hormonal contraception.
The comprehensive molecular profiling allowed multiple new findings on the metabolic associations with the use of COCPs. They were positively associated with lipoprotein subclasses, including all high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses. The associations with fatty acids and amino acids were strong and variable in direction. COCP use was negatively associated with albumin and positively associated with creatinine and inflammatory markers, including glycoprotein acetyls and several growth factors and interleukins. Our findings also confirmed previous results e.g. for increased circulating triglycerides and HDL cholesterol. Starting COCPs caused similar metabolic changes to those observed cross-sectionally: the changes were maintained in consistent users and normalized in those who stopped using. In contrast, POCs were only weakly associated with metabolic and inflammatory markers. Results were consistent across all cohorts and for different COCP preparations and different types of POC delivery.
Use of COCPs causes widespread metabolic and inflammatory effects. However, persistent use does not appear to accumulate the effects over time and the metabolic perturbations are reversed upon discontinuation. POCs have little effect on systemic metabolism and inflammation.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27538888 View in PubMed
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Neighbourhood effects in health behaviours: a test of social causation with repeat-measurement longitudinal data.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289573
Source
Eur J Public Health. 2016 06; 26(3):417-21
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-2016
Author
Jaakko Airaksinen
Christian Hakulinen
Laura Pulkki-Råback
Terho Lehtimäki
Olli T Raitakari
Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen
Markus Jokela
Author Affiliation
Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland jaakko.airaksinen@helsinki.fi.
Source
Eur J Public Health. 2016 06; 26(3):417-21
Date
06-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Female
Finland
Health Behavior
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Prospective Studies
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Social Class
Social Environment
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Neighbourhood characteristics have been associated with health behaviours of residents. We used longitudinal data to examine whether neighbourhood characteristics (level of urbanization and socioeconomic status) are related to within-individual variations in health behaviours (alcohol consumption, smoking, exercise and self-interest in health) as people live in different neighbourhoods over time.
Participants were from the Young Finns prospective cohort study (N = 3145) with four repeated measurement times (1992, 2001, 2007 and 2011/2012). Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and level of urbanization were measured on the level of municipality and zip code area. Within-individual (i.e. fixed-effect) regression was used to examine whether these associations were observed within individuals who lived in different neighbourhood in different measurement times.
People living in more urban zip code areas were more likely to smoke (b = 0.06; CI = 0.03-0.09) and drink alcohol (b = 0.11; CI = 0.08-0.14), and these associations were replicated in within-individual analysis-supporting social causation. Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and urbanization were associated with higher interest in maintaining personal health (b = 0.05; CI = 0.03-0.08 and b = 0.05; CI = 0.02-0.07, respectively), and these associations were also similar in within-individual analysis. Physical exercise was not associated with neighbourhood characteristics.
These data lend partial support for the hypothesis that neighbourhood differences influence people's health behaviours.
PubMed ID
26568621 View in PubMed
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Effects of hormonal contraception on systemic metabolism: cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289694
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2016 10; 45(5):1445-1457
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
10-2016
Author
Qin Wang
Peter Würtz
Kirsi Auro
Laure Morin-Papunen
Antti J Kangas
Pasi Soininen
Mika Tiainen
Tuulia Tynkkynen
Anni Joensuu
Aki S Havulinna
Kristiina Aalto
Marko Salmi
Stefan Blankenberg
Tanja Zeller
Jorma Viikari
Mika Kähönen
Terho Lehtimäki
Veikko Salomaa
Sirpa Jalkanen
Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
Markus Perola
Olli T Raitakari
Debbie A Lawlor
Johannes Kettunen
Mika Ala-Korpela
Author Affiliation
Computational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu & Biocenter Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2016 10; 45(5):1445-1457
Date
10-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Cholesterol, HDL - blood
Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal - pharmacology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Cytokines - blood
Fatty Acids - blood
Female
Finland
Humans
Linear Models
Longitudinal Studies
Metabolome - drug effects
Metabolomics
Progestins - pharmacology
Risk factors
Triglycerides - blood
Young Adult
Abstract
Hormonal contraception is commonly used worldwide, but its systemic effects across lipoprotein subclasses, fatty acids, circulating metabolites and cytokines remain poorly understood.
A comprehensive molecular profile (75 metabolic measures and 37 cytokines) was measured for up to 5841 women (age range 24-49 years) from three population-based cohorts. Women using combined oral contraceptive pills (COCPs) or progestin-only contraceptives (POCs) were compared with those who did not use hormonal contraception. Metabolomics profiles were reassessed for 869 women after 6 years to uncover the metabolic effects of starting, stopping and persistently using hormonal contraception.
The comprehensive molecular profiling allowed multiple new findings on the metabolic associations with the use of COCPs. They were positively associated with lipoprotein subclasses, including all high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses. The associations with fatty acids and amino acids were strong and variable in direction. COCP use was negatively associated with albumin and positively associated with creatinine and inflammatory markers, including glycoprotein acetyls and several growth factors and interleukins. Our findings also confirmed previous results e.g. for increased circulating triglycerides and HDL cholesterol. Starting COCPs caused similar metabolic changes to those observed cross-sectionally: the changes were maintained in consistent users and normalized in those who stopped using. In contrast, POCs were only weakly associated with metabolic and inflammatory markers. Results were consistent across all cohorts and for different COCP preparations and different types of POC delivery.
Use of COCPs causes widespread metabolic and inflammatory effects. However, persistent use does not appear to accumulate the effects over time and the metabolic perturbations are reversed upon discontinuation. POCs have little effect on systemic metabolism and inflammation.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27538888 View in PubMed
Less detail

24 records – page 1 of 3.