Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Department of Public Health and Nursing, HUNT Research Centre, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Levanger, Norway. Medical Department, Levanger Hospital, Nord-Trøndelag Hospital Trust, Levanger, Norway. School of Cancer and Pharmaceutical Sciences, King's College London, London, UK.
Unselected screening for oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) is not justified due to the low absolute risk in the general population. This study aimed to evaluate a risk prediction model in identifying high-risk individuals who might be considered for targeted screening.
A population-based cohort of 62,576 participants was recruited in 1995-1997 in Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway (HUNT) and followed up until 31 December 2015. A model for predicting individuals' absolute risk of OAC was developed using competing-risk regression. The Lorenz curve was used to assess the concentration of OAC patients in high-risk individuals and the feasibility of targeted screening based on individual risk assessment.
During 1,085,137 person-years of follow-up, 29 incident cases of OAC occurred. The model included risk factors for OAC, in which male sex, older age, gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms, obesity, and tobacco smoking predicted higher risk of OAC. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for 10-year risk of OAC was 0.71 (95% confidence interval 0.57-0.85) and for 15-year risk was 0.84 (95% confidence interval 0.76-0.91) after 10-fold cross-validation, with good agreements between observed and predicted risks. The Lorenz curve indicated that 33% of all OAC cases would have occurred in the 5% of the population with the highest risks within 15 years, and 61% of all cases in the top 10% of the population.
Individual risk assessment based on known risk factors for OAC has the potential to identify a selected high-risk group of individuals who may benefit from screening for early detection.
The purpose of the present research was to analyze the validity of the choice for biomedical disciplines fixed by the passport of the national project 'Science' for the following priority of the Strategy for the scientific and technological development of the Russian Federation: 'the transition to personalized medicine, high-tech medical care and health saving technologies ...'. We assessed the degree of relevance of this choice to great challenges facing the Russian Federation, as well as trends in the development of global biomedicine. The hypothesis of this study was the assumption that when determining priority areas it is necessary to proceed from the analysis and comparison of two arrays: the list of nosologies which account for the maximum morbidity, mortality, disability level of, primarily, the able-bodied population of Russia, and scientometric data identifying trends in the development of global biomedicine.
This study examined the reliability, validity and factor structure of the Swedish version of the IMPACT-III questionnaire for assessing health-related quality of life in children with inflammatory bowel disease.
We recruited 202 participants aged eight to 18 years, who were enrolled from 16 of the 23 paediatric gastroenterology clinics across Sweden during 2010-2013. This cross-sectional study compared two versions of the IMPACT-III questionnaire - one with six factors and 35 items and one with four factors and 19 items - plus the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scale. Disease activity was assessed and defined as active or inactive.
The mean total score for the six-factor IMPACT-III scale was 143.7/175, with a standard deviation (SD) of 17.9. There was a significant difference in mean total scores between the 133 children with inactive disease (147.8, SD: 14.9) and the 52 with active disease (133.0, SD: 20.3). Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the four-factor scale was more robust than the original six-factor scale. Concurrent validity and discriminant validity were high for both versions.
The Swedish version of the IMPACT-III questionnaire was valid and reliable, but the shorter, four-factor version is quicker and may be more convenient in clinical settings.
Air displacement plethysmography utilises a two-component model to assess body composition, which relies on assumptions regarding the density of fat-free mass (FFM). To date, there is no evidence as to whether Lohman's or Wells et al.'s FFM density values are more accurate in young children. Therefore, the aims of this study were to compare total body fat percentage (TBF%) assessed using the BodPod with both Lohman's and Wells et al.'s FFM density values with TBF% from the three-component (3C) model in forty healthy Swedish children aged 5·5 years. Average TBF% calculated using Lohman's FFM density values underestimated TBF% in comparison with the corresponding value assessed using the 3C model (22·2 (sd 5·7) and 25·1 (sd 5·5) %, respectively; P
To validate a picture book for estimation of food portion sizes using two approaches: (i) 'perception' of food portions by comparison with a series of food photos; and (ii) 'conceptualization and memory', using the same photos to estimate the amount of served food one hour after self-served food portions.
Each partner developed a country-specific picture book based on the so-called EPIC-Soft picture book. Representative and common photo series were chosen achieving approximately 25 % of the original picture book (n 23). Three portions from each photo series were randomly selected.
The study was performed within the Pilot study in the view of a Pan-European dietary survey - Adolescents, adults and elderly (PILOT-PANEU) project.
A sample of adolescents and adults was recruited in five countries: Bulgaria (n 103), Finland (n 34), Germany (n 69), Hungary (n 62) and Portugal (n 77).
Among the portions of the corresponding photo series and depending on the type of food, from 18 % (cheese) to 96 % (ratatouille) of participants chose the correct portions. In the perception study, agreement between the portions shown and reported was substantial (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)=0·805) and the mean difference was very low. In the memory study, agreement between the served and reported portions was lower than in the perception study (ICC=0·536). Agreement also seemed to decrease as the appearance of food on the plate differed from food in the picture.
Overall, the picture series selected can be applied in future intake surveys to quantify foods similar to those depicted in the pictures.