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40-Year CHD Mortality Trends and the Role of Risk Factors in Mortality Decline: The North Karelia Project Experience.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289324
Source
Glob Heart. 2016 06; 11(2):207-12
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
06-2016
Author
Pekka Jousilahti
Tiina Laatikainen
Veikko Salomaa
Arto Pietilä
Erkki Vartiainen
Pekka Puska
Author Affiliation
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Health, Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address: pekka.jousilahti@thl.fi.
Source
Glob Heart. 2016 06; 11(2):207-12
Date
06-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Keywords
Cardiovascular Diseases - mortality - prevention & control
Finland - epidemiology
Forecasting
Public Health
Risk Assessment - methods
Risk factors
Survival Rate - trends
Abstract
In the 1960s and early 1970s, coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in Finland was the highest in the world, and within Finland, mortality was particularly high in the eastern part of the country. The North Karelia Project, the first large community-based cardiovascular diseases prevention program was established in 1972 to reduce the extremely high CHD mortality through behavioral change and reduction of the main cardiovascular disease risk factors among the whole population of North Karelia, the easternmost province of Finland. During the 40-year period from 1972 to 2012, smoking prevalence, serum total cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure declined markedly, except a small increase in serum cholesterol levels between 2007 and 2012. From the early 1970s to 2012, CHD mortality decreased by 82% (from 643 to 118 per 100,000) among working-age (35 to 64 years) men. Among working-age women, the decline was 84% (from 114 to 17 per 100,000). During the first 10 years, changes in these 3 target risk factors explained nearly all of the observed mortality reduction. Since the mid-1980s, the observed reduction in mortality has been larger than the predicted reduction. In the early 1970s, premature CHD mortality (35 to 74 years) was about 37% higher among Eastern Finnish men and 23% higher among Eastern Finnish women, compared with men and women in Southwestern Finland. During the last 40 years, premature CHD mortality declined markedly in both areas, but the decline was larger in Eastern Finland and the mortality gap between the two areas nearly disappeared.
PubMed ID
27242088 View in PubMed
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An update on risk communication in the Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289269
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016; 75:33822
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
2016
Author
Eva-Maria Krümmel
Andrew Gilman
Author Affiliation
Inuit Circumpolar Council, Ottawa, Canada; ekruemmel@scientissime.com.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016; 75:33822
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Communicable Disease Control - organization & administration
Environmental Exposure - prevention & control
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - analysis
Food Contamination
Health Communication
Humans
Inuits
Needs Assessment - organization & administration
Public Health
Abstract
Arctic residents can be exposed to a wide range of contaminants through consumption of traditional (country) foods (i.e. food from wild animals and plants that are hunted, caught or collected locally in the Arctic). Yet these foods provide excellent nutrition, promote social cohesion, meet some spiritual needs for connectedness to the land and water, reinforce cultural ties, are economically important and promote overall good health for many. The risk and benefit balance associated with the consumption of traditional Arctic foods is complicated to communicate and has been referred to as the "Arctic Dilemma". This article gives an update on health risk communication in the Arctic region. It briefly summarizes some research on risk communication methodologies as well as approaches to an evaluation of the outcomes of risk communication initiatives. It provides information on specific initiatives in several Arctic countries, and particularly those that were directed at Indigenous populations. This article also summarizes some international versus local risk communication activities and the complexity of developing and delivering messages designed for different audiences. Finally, the potential application of social media for risk communication and a summary of "best practices" based on published literature and a survey of Inuit in a few Arctic countries are described.
Several of the risk communication initiatives portrayed in this article indicate that there is only limited awareness of the outcome of risk communication messages. In some cases, risk communication efforts appear to have been successful, at least when effectiveness is measured in an indirect way, for example, by lower contaminant levels. However, due to missing effectiveness evaluation studies, uncertainty remains as to whether a specific risk communication method was successful and could be clearly linked to behavioural changes that resulted in decreased contaminant exposure.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27974140 View in PubMed
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The Arctic's sea ice cover: trends, variability, predictability, and comparisons to the Antarctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292049
Source
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2018 May 28; :
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
May-28-2018
Author
Mark C Serreze
Walter N Meier
Author Affiliation
National Snow and Ice Data Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.
Source
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2018 May 28; :
Date
May-28-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Abstract
As assessed over the period of satellite observations, October 1978 to present, there are downward linear trends in Arctic sea ice extent for all months, largest at the end of the melt season in September. The ice cover is also thinning. Downward trends in extent and thickness have been accompanied by pronounced interannual and multiyear variability, forced by both the atmosphere and ocean. As the ice thins, its response to atmospheric and oceanic forcing may be changing. In support of a busier Arctic, there is a growing need to predict ice conditions on a variety of time and space scales. A major challenge to providing seasonal scale predictions is the 7-10 days limit of numerical weather prediction. While a seasonally ice-free Arctic Ocean is likely well within this century, there is much uncertainty in the timing. This reflects differences in climate model structure, the unknown evolution of anthropogenic forcing, and natural climate variability. In sharp contrast to the Arctic, Antarctic sea ice extent, while highly variable, has increased slightly over the period of satellite observations. The reasons for this different behavior remain to be resolved, but responses to changing atmospheric circulation patterns appear to play a strong role.
PubMed ID
29806697 View in PubMed
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Assessment of Cardiac Autonomic Function in Relation to Methylmercury Neurotoxicity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature293409
Source
Toxics. 2018 Jul 20; 6(3):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
Jul-20-2018
Author
Kanae Karita
Toyoto Iwata
Eri Maeda
Mineshi Sakamoto
Katsuyuki Murata
Author Affiliation
Department of Hygiene and Public Health, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611, Japan. kanae@ks.kyorin-u.ac.jp.
Source
Toxics. 2018 Jul 20; 6(3):
Date
Jul-20-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Abstract
After the European Food Safety Authority reviewed reports of methylmercury and heart rate variability (HRV) in 2012, the panel concluded that, although some studies of cardiac autonomy suggested an autonomic effect of methylmercury, the results were inconsistent among studies and the implications for health were unclear. In this study, we reconsider this association by adding a perspective on the physiological context. Cardiovascular rhythmicity is usually studied within different frequency domains of HRV. Three spectral components are usually detected; in humans these are centered at
PubMed ID
30036985 View in PubMed
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Atopic Dermatitis: Racial and Ethnic Differences.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290693
Source
Dermatol Clin. 2017 Jul; 35(3):395-402
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
Jul-2017
Author
Adeline Mei-Yen Yong
Yong-Kwang Tay
Author Affiliation
Department of Dermatology, National University Health System, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119074, Singapore.
Source
Dermatol Clin. 2017 Jul; 35(3):395-402
Date
Jul-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Keywords
Age Factors
China - epidemiology
Dermatitis, Atopic - diagnosis - ethnology - genetics - pathology
Health Status Disparities
Humans
Malaysia - epidemiology
Phenotype
Prevalence
Singapore - epidemiology
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic inflammatory skin condition affecting up to 20% of children and 3% of adults worldwide. There is wide variation in the prevalence of AD among different countries. Although the frequency of AD is increasing in developing countries, it seems to have stabilized in developed countries, affecting approximately 1 in 5 schoolchildren. Adult-onset AD is not uncommon and is significantly higher, affecting between 11% and 13% of adults in some countries, for example, Singapore, Malaysia, and Sweden. AD is thus associated with significant health care economic burden in all age groups.
PubMed ID
28577807 View in PubMed
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Avoiding a crisis of motivation for ocean management under global environmental change.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294930
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2017 11; 23(11):4483-4496
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
11-2017
Author
Peter J Mumby
James N Sanchirico
Kenneth Broad
Michael W Beck
Peter Tyedmers
Megan Morikawa
Thomas A Okey
Larry B Crowder
Elizabeth A Fulton
Denny Kelso
Joanie A Kleypas
Stephan B Munch
Polita Glynn
Kathryn Matthews
Jane Lubchenco
Author Affiliation
Marine Spatial Ecology Lab & ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld, Australia.
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2017 11; 23(11):4483-4496
Date
11-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Climate change
Conservation of Natural Resources
Coral Reefs
Ecosystem
Fishes
Humans
Motivation
Oceans and Seas
Abstract
Climate change and ocean acidification are altering marine ecosystems and, from a human perspective, creating both winners and losers. Human responses to these changes are complex, but may result in reduced government investments in regulation, resource management, monitoring and enforcement. Moreover, a lack of peoples' experience of climate change may drive some towards attributing the symptoms of climate change to more familiar causes such as management failure. Taken together, we anticipate that management could become weaker and less effective as climate change continues. Using diverse case studies, including the decline of coral reefs, coastal defences from flooding, shifting fish stocks and the emergence of new shipping opportunities in the Arctic, we argue that human interests are better served by increased investments in resource management. But greater government investment in management does not simply mean more of "business-as-usual." Management needs to become more flexible, better at anticipating and responding to surprise, and able to facilitate change where it is desirable. A range of technological, economic, communication and governance solutions exists to help transform management. While not all have been tested, judicious application of the most appropriate solutions should help humanity adapt to novel circumstances and seek opportunity where possible.
PubMed ID
28447373 View in PubMed
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Background, Principles, Implementation, and General Experiences of the North Karelia Project.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289329
Source
Glob Heart. 2016 06; 11(2):173-8
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
06-2016
Author
Pekka Puska
Erkki Vartiainen
Aulikki Nissinen
Tiina Laatikainen
Pekka Jousilahti
Author Affiliation
Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address: Pekka.Puska@thl.fi.
Source
Glob Heart. 2016 06; 11(2):173-8
Date
06-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Keywords
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - prevention & control
Finland
Health promotion
Humans
Morbidity - trends
Public Health
Survival Rate - trends
Abstract
The extremely high mortality of cardiovascular diseases in the 1960s in Finland, particularly in the Eastern Province of North Karelia and especially that of coronary heart disease in men, caused great concern among the local population. Action to reduce the problem was demanded in a petition signed in 1971 by the representatives of the population. In response, the North Karelia Project was launched in 1972 to carry out a comprehensive preventive project, first only in North Karelia as a national pilot (1972 to 1977), and thereafter continuing in North Karelia but at the same time transferring the experiences to a national level. The intervention was based on the at-that-time relatively new scientific information on the main causal risk factors. A comprehensive population-based intervention was carried out, aiming especially at the reduction of the high levels of serum cholesterol, blood pressure, and tobacco use, emphasizing general dietary changes and smoking reduction. A comprehensive monitoring and evaluation program was designed and implemented to learn from the experience in preparation for national and international use. Presented here are the background, principles, and general experiences of this project, which has made major contributions both to the contemporary public health work for the prevention and control of heart disease and noncommunicable diseases and for research in the area.
PubMed ID
27242083 View in PubMed
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"Back to the Future": Time for a Renaissance of Public Health Engineering.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297792
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Jan 29; 16(3):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
Jan-29-2019
Author
Richard J Gelting
Steven C Chapra
Paul E Nevin
David E Harvey
David M Gute
Author Affiliation
Division of Global Health Protection, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA. rug7@cdc.gov.
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Jan 29; 16(3):
Date
Jan-29-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Abstract
Public health has always been, and remains, an interdisciplinary field, and engineering was closely aligned with public health for many years. Indeed, the branch of engineering that has been known at various times as sanitary engineering, public health engineering, or environmental engineering was integral to the emergence of public health as a distinct discipline. However, in the United States (U.S.) during the 20th century, the academic preparation and practice of this branch of engineering became largely separated from public health. Various factors contributed to this separation, including an evolution in leadership roles within public health; increasing specialization within public health; and the emerging environmental movement, which led to the creation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with its emphasis on the natural environment. In this paper, we consider these factors in turn. We also present a case study example of public health engineering in current practice in the U.S. that has had large-scale positive health impacts through improving water and sanitation services in Native American and Alaska Native communities. We also consider briefly how to educate engineers to work in public health in the modern world, and the benefits and challenges associated with that process. We close by discussing the global implications of public health engineering and the need to re-integrate engineering into public health practice and strengthen the connection between the two fields.
PubMed ID
30700061 View in PubMed
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Barriers, supports, and effective interventions for uptake of human papillomavirus- and other vaccines within global and Canadian Indigenous peoples: a systematic review protocol.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296896
Source
Syst Rev. 2018 03 02; 7(1):40
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review
Date
03-02-2018
Author
Kelly J Mrklas
Shannon MacDonald
Melissa A Shea-Budgell
Nancy Bedingfield
Heather Ganshorn
Sarah Glaze
Lea Bill
Bonnie Healy
Chyloe Healy
Juliet Guichon
Amy Colquhoun
Christopher Bell
Ruth Richardson
Rita Henderson
James Kellner
Cheryl Barnabe
Robert A Bednarczyk
Angeline Letendre
Gregg S Nelson
Author Affiliation
Research Innovation and Analytics, Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, Canada.
Source
Syst Rev. 2018 03 02; 7(1):40
Date
03-02-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review
Keywords
Canada
Female
Health Services, Indigenous
Humans
Papillomavirus Infections - prevention & control
Papillomavirus Vaccines - administration & dosage
Patient Acceptance of Health Care - ethnology
Population Groups - ethnology
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms - prevention & control
Vaccination
Abstract
Despite the existence of human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines with demonstrated safety and effectiveness and funded HPV vaccination programs, coverage rates are persistently lower and cervical cancer burden higher among Canadian Indigenous peoples. Barriers and supports to HPV vaccination in Indigenous peoples have not been systematically documented, nor have interventions to increase uptake in this population. This protocol aims to appraise the literature in Canadian and global Indigenous peoples, relating to documented barriers and supports to vaccination and interventions to increase acceptability/uptake or reduce hesitancy of vaccination. Although HPV vaccination is the primary focus, we anticipate only a small number of relevant studies to emerge from the search and will, therefore, employ a broad search strategy to capture literature related to both HPV vaccination and vaccination in general in global Indigenous peoples.
Eligible studies will include global Indigenous peoples and discuss barriers or supports and/or interventions to improve uptake or to reduce hesitancy, for the HPV vaccine and/or other vaccines. Primary outcomes are documented barriers or supports or interventions. All study designs meeting inclusion criteria will be considered, without restricting by language, location, or data type. We will use an a priori search strategy, comprised of key words and controlled vocabulary terms, developed in consultation with an academic librarian, and reviewed by a second academic librarian using the PRESS checklist. We will search several electronic databases from date of inception, without restrictions. A pre-defined group of global Indigenous websites will be reviewed for relevant gray literature. Bibliographic searches will be conducted for all included studies to identify relevant reviews. Data analysis will include an inductive, qualitative, thematic synthesis and a quantitative analysis of measured barriers and supports, as well as a descriptive synthesis and quantitative summary of measures for interventions.
To our knowledge, this study will contribute the first systematic review of documented barriers, supports, and interventions for vaccination in general and for HPV vaccination. The results of this study are expected to inform future research, policies, programs, and community-driven initiatives to enhance acceptability and uptake of HPV vaccination among Indigenous peoples.
PROSPERO Registration Number: CRD42017048844.
PubMed ID
29499749 View in PubMed
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Source
Lakartidningen. 2018 03 06; 115:
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
03-06-2018
Author
Claude Marcus
Author Affiliation
Karolinska Institutet - CLINTEC enheten för pediatrik Stockholm, Sweden Karolinska Institutet - CLINTEC enheten för pediatrik Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Lakartidningen. 2018 03 06; 115:
Date
03-06-2018
Language
Swedish
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Keywords
Adolescent
Autoantibodies - blood
C-Peptide - blood
Child
Child, Preschool
Diabetes Mellitus - diagnosis
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - diagnosis - epidemiology - genetics - immunology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - diagnosis
Diagnostic Tests, Routine
Histocompatibility testing
Humans
Infant
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The Swedish study Better Diabetes Diagnosis (BDD) has now been ongoing for ten years and detailed information and blood samples have been collected from more than 8000 children and adolescents with newly diagnosed diabetes. We have been able to demonstrate that by means of HLA diabetes antibodies and C-peptide the discrimination between type one and type 2 diabetes is improved. These analyses are therefore included in the clinical check-up for all children and adolescents in Sweden who are diagnosed with diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is by far the most prevalent type of diabetes among Swedish children and adolescents. Type 2 diabetes is still relatively rare in Sweden but it is urgent to obtain a correct diagnosis as the long-term prognosis depends on a prompt pharmacological treatment. Monogenic diabetes (MODY) is also important to identify early. We therefore recommend that sequencing of MODY genes should be performed if an individual with newly-diagnosed diabetes is auto-antibody negative and has an HLA pattern associated with low risk for type 1 diabetes. However, despite these analytical tools it can be difficult to make the correct diabetes diagnosis initially. It is therefore prudent to re-evaluate the diabetes diagnosis after one year.
PubMed ID
29509210 View in PubMed
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175 records – page 1 of 18.