In the 1960s and early 1970s, coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in Finland was the highest in the world, and within Finland, mortality was particularly high in the eastern part of the country. The North Karelia Project, the first large community-based cardiovascular diseases prevention program was established in 1972 to reduce the extremely high CHD mortality through behavioral change and reduction of the main cardiovascular disease risk factors among the whole population of North Karelia, the easternmost province of Finland. During the 40-year period from 1972 to 2012, smoking prevalence, serum total cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure declined markedly, except a small increase in serum cholesterol levels between 2007 and 2012. From the early 1970s to 2012, CHD mortality decreased by 82% (from 643 to 118 per 100,000) among working-age (35 to 64 years) men. Among working-age women, the decline was 84% (from 114 to 17 per 100,000). During the first 10 years, changes in these 3 target risk factors explained nearly all of the observed mortality reduction. Since the mid-1980s, the observed reduction in mortality has been larger than the predicted reduction. In the early 1970s, premature CHD mortality (35 to 74 years) was about 37% higher among Eastern Finnish men and 23% higher among Eastern Finnish women, compared with men and women in Southwestern Finland. During the last 40 years, premature CHD mortality declined markedly in both areas, but the decline was larger in Eastern Finland and the mortality gap between the two areas nearly disappeared.
Division of Radiation Oncology, The Ottawa Hospital and the University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; Department of Radiation Oncology, Amsterdam UMC Vrije University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Cancer is a substantial health burden for Inuit populations, an Indigenous peoples who primarily inhabit the circumpolar regions of Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and Russia. Access to radiotherapy is lacking or absent in many of these regions, despite it being an essential component of cancer treatment. This Review presents an overview of factors influencing radiotherapy delivery in each of the four circumpolar Inuit regions, which include population and geography, health-systems infrastructure, and cancer epidemiology. This Review also provides insight into the complex patient pathways needed to access radiotherapy, and on radiotherapy use. The unique challenges in delivering radiotherapy to circumpolar Inuit populations are discussed, which, notably, include geographical and cultural barriers. Recommendations include models of care that have successfully addressed these barriers, and highlight the need for increased collaboration between circumpolar referral centres in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and Russia to ultimately allow for better delivery of cancer treatment.
The causes, some pathogenetic mechanisms and possibilities for correcting the decrease in male reproductive potential in Russia are discussed in the lecture. Particular attention is paid to oxidative stress as one of the main causes for subfertility and male infertility, as well as the role of trace elements (zinc, selenium) and antioxidants (vitamins A, E and C) in the pathogenesis of male infertility and opportunities for the correction of fertility issues. Some aspects of COVID-19 influence on the problems of reproductive medicine, andrology and urology are highlighted.
Meaningful engagement of Alaska Native (AN) tribes and tribal health organizations is essential in the conduct of socially responsible and ethical research. As genomics becomes increasingly important to advancements in medicine, there is a risk that populations not meaningfully included in genomic research will not benefit from the outcomes of that research. AN people have historically been underrepresented in biomedical research; AN underrepresentation in genomics research is compounded by mistrust based on past abuses, concerns about privacy and data ownership, and cultural considerations specific to this type of research. Working together, the National Human Genome Research Institute and two Alaska Native health organizations, Southcentral Foundation and the Alaska Native Health Board, cosponsored a workshop in July 2018 to engage key stakeholders in discussion, strengthen relationships, and facilitate partnership and consideration of participation of AN people in community-driven biomedical and genomic research. AN priorities related to translation of genomics research to health and health care, return of genomic results, design of research studies, and data sharing were discussed. This report summarizes the perspectives that emerged from the dialogue and offers considerations for effective and socially responsible genomic research partnerships with AN communities.
Alcohol is a major risk factor for burden of disease. However, there are known effective and cost-effective alcohol control policies that could reduce this burden. Based on reviews, international documents, and contributions to this special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), this article gives an overview of the implementation of such policies in the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region, and of best practices. Overall, there is a great deal of variability in the policies implemented between countries, but two countries, the Russian Federation and Lithuania, have both recently implemented significant increases in alcohol taxation, imposed restrictions on alcohol availability, and imposed bans on the marketing and advertising of alcohol within short time spans. Both countries subsequently saw significant decreases in consumption and all-cause mortality. Adopting the alcohol control policies of these best-practice countries should be considered by other countries. Current challenges for all countries include cross-border shopping, the impact from recent internet-based marketing practices, and international treaties.
Climate change has a disproportionally large impact on alpine soil ecosystems, leading to pronounced changes in soil microbial diversity and function associated with effects on biogeochemical processes at the local and supraregional scales. However, due to restricted accessibility, high-altitude soils remain largely understudied and a considerable heterogeneity hampers the comparability of different alpine studies. Here, we highlight differences and similarities between alpine and arctic ecosystems, and we discuss the impact of climatic variables and associated vegetation and soil properties on microbial ecology. We consider how microbial alpha-diversity, community structures and function change along altitudinal gradients and with other topographic features such as slope aspect. In addition, we focus on alpine permafrost soils, harboring a surprisingly large unknown microbial diversity and on microbial succession along glacier forefield chronosequences constituting the most thoroughly studied alpine habitat. Finally, highlighting experimental approaches, we present climate change studies showing shifts in microbial community structures and function in response to warming and altered moisture, interestingly with some contradiction. Collectively, despite harsh environmental conditions, many specially adapted microorganisms are able to thrive in alpine environments. Their community structures strongly correlate with climatic, vegetation and soil properties and thus closely mirror the complexity and small-scale heterogeneity of alpine soils.
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Kristineberg 566, SE-451 78 Fiskebäckskil, Sweden; Dept. of Natural Science, Kristianstad University, SE-291 88 Kristianstad, Sweden. Electronic address: email@example.com.
The potential for climate-related spread of infectious diseases through marine systems has been highlighted in several reports. With this review we want to draw attention to less recognized mechanisms behind vector-borne transmission pathways to humans. We have focused on how the immune systems of edible marine shellfish, the blue mussels and Norway lobsters, are affected by climate related environmental stressors. Future ocean acidification (OA) and warming due to climate change constitute a gradually increasing persistent stress with negative trade-off for many organisms. In addition, the stress of recurrent hypoxia, inducing high levels of bioavailable manganese (Mn) is likely to increase in line with climate change. We summarized that OA, hypoxia and elevated levels of Mn did have an overall negative effect on immunity, in some cases also with synergistic effects. On the other hand, moderate increase in temperature seems to have a stimulating effect on antimicrobial activity and may in a future warming scenario counteract the negative effects. However, rising sea surface temperature and climate events causing high land run-off promote the abundance of naturally occurring pathogenic Vibrio and will in addition, bring enteric pathogens which are circulating in society into coastal waters. Moreover, the observed impairments of the immune defense enhance the persistence and occurrence of pathogens in shellfish. This may increase the risk for direct transmission of pathogens to consumers. It is thus essential that in the wake of climate change, sanitary control of coastal waters and seafood must recognize and adapt to the expected alteration of host-pathogen interactions.
Federal State Budgetary Institution "Scientific Centre for Expert Evaluation of Medicinal Products" of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, 8/2 Petrovsky Blvd, Moscow, 127051, Russia. Electronic address: Prokopov@expmed.ru.
Animal-derived medicinal products (ADMP) had been extensively used in Russia and became a part of officinal medicine in 1778.
The aim of the current review was to analyse the ADMPs authorised in the Russian Federation and to identify specific aspects of quality evaluation of these medicinal products.
Information of ADMPs was extracted from the online State Register of Medicinal Products of the Russian Federation. At the next stage, we systematically searched library catalogues, E-library.ru, Medline/PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases to find data related to ADMP quality evaluation, clinically proven efficacy and safety.
For classification of ADMP, we propose an approach based on the raw material used: ADMPs derived from marine organisms, ADMPs from cattle and pigs and ADMPs from other terrestrial animals. The majority of ADMPs authorised in Russia are produced by local manufacturers. ADMPs are available in dosage forms of solution for parenteral administration (35% of all products) and lyophilisates for parenteral use (19%), tablets and capsules (17% and 11%, respectively), ointments (5%) and powders (3%). ADMPs belong to the following pharmacotherapeutic groups: medicines for tissue regeneration and repair stimulators (30%), digestive enzyme products (22%), anticoagulants (17%), proteolytic agents (6%) and medicines for the treatment of chronic prostatitis (5%). The most important approaches to standardisation of ADMPs are implementation of modern requirements for registration dossiers, development of risk-oriented approaches for evaluation of impurities, elaboration of advanced instrumental and in vitro test methods capable of replacing in vivo methods and harmonisation of the potency units used for standardisation.
The key features of ADMPs that help them retain their leading position in the pharmaceutical market are as follows: (i) their unique composition usually represented by a complex of biologically active substances; (ii) a high degree of affinity of the active ingredient of an ADMP to the human body and (iii) proved safety and clinical efficiency. Variability in the quality of raw ingredients, epidemiological situation and other conditions pose additional challenges for the development of ADMPs and for the standardisation.
Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, Translational Research Centre in Oncohaematology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Rue Michel-Servet 1, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland. firstname.lastname@example.org.
Despite huge efforts by academia and pharmaceutical industry, cancer remains the second cause of disease-related death in developed countries. Novel sources and principles of anticancer drug discovery are in urgent demand. Marine-derived natural products represent a largely untapped source of future drug candidates. This review focuses on the anticancer drug discovery potential of marine invertebrates from the North-West Pacific. The issues of biodiversity, chemodiversity, and the anticancer pharmacophore diversity this region hides are consecutively discussed. These three levels of diversity are analyzed from the point of view of the already discovered compounds, as well as from the assessment of the overall, still undiscovered and enormous potential. We further go into the predictions of the economic and societal benefits the full-scale exploration of this potential offers, and suggest strategic measures to be taken on the national level in order to unleash such full-scale exploration. The transversal and multi-discipline approach we attempt to build for the case of marine invertebrate-based anticancer drug discovery from a given region can be applied to other regions and disease conditions, as well as up-scaled to global dimensions.
Center for Life Course Health Research, University of Oulu, Finland; Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Finland; Department of Psychiatry, Research Unit of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Oulu, Finland. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging. 2018 11 30; 281:43-52
The aim of this paper was to investigate differences in brain structure volumes between schizophrenia and affective psychoses, and whether cumulative lifetime antipsychotic or benzodiazepine doses relate to brain morphology in these groups. We conducted two systematic reviews on the topic and investigated 44 schizophrenia cases and 19 with affective psychoses from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. The association between lifetime antipsychotic and benzodiazepine dose and brain MRI scans at the age of 43 was investigated using linear regression. Intracranial volume, sex, illness severity, and antipsychotic/benzodiazepine doses were used as covariates. There were no differences between the groups in brain structure volumes. In schizophrenia, after adjusting for benzodiazepine dose and symptoms, a negative association between lifetime antipsychotic dose and the nucleus accumbens volume remained. In affective psychoses, higher lifetime benzodiazepine dose associated with larger volumes of total gray matter and hippocampal volume after controlling for antipsychotic use and symptoms. It seems that in addition to antipsychotics, the severity of symptoms and benzodiazepine dose are also associated with brain structure volumes. These results suggest, that benzodiazepine effects should also be investigated also independently and not only as a confounder.