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40-Year CHD Mortality Trends and the Role of Risk Factors in Mortality Decline: The North Karelia Project Experience.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289324
Source
Glob Heart. 2016 06; 11(2):207-12
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
06-2016
Author
Pekka Jousilahti
Tiina Laatikainen
Veikko Salomaa
Arto Pietilä
Erkki Vartiainen
Pekka Puska
Author Affiliation
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Health, Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address: pekka.jousilahti@thl.fi.
Source
Glob Heart. 2016 06; 11(2):207-12
Date
06-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Keywords
Cardiovascular Diseases - mortality - prevention & control
Finland - epidemiology
Forecasting
Public Health
Risk Assessment - methods
Risk factors
Survival Rate - trends
Abstract
In the 1960s and early 1970s, coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in Finland was the highest in the world, and within Finland, mortality was particularly high in the eastern part of the country. The North Karelia Project, the first large community-based cardiovascular diseases prevention program was established in 1972 to reduce the extremely high CHD mortality through behavioral change and reduction of the main cardiovascular disease risk factors among the whole population of North Karelia, the easternmost province of Finland. During the 40-year period from 1972 to 2012, smoking prevalence, serum total cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure declined markedly, except a small increase in serum cholesterol levels between 2007 and 2012. From the early 1970s to 2012, CHD mortality decreased by 82% (from 643 to 118 per 100,000) among working-age (35 to 64 years) men. Among working-age women, the decline was 84% (from 114 to 17 per 100,000). During the first 10 years, changes in these 3 target risk factors explained nearly all of the observed mortality reduction. Since the mid-1980s, the observed reduction in mortality has been larger than the predicted reduction. In the early 1970s, premature CHD mortality (35 to 74 years) was about 37% higher among Eastern Finnish men and 23% higher among Eastern Finnish women, compared with men and women in Southwestern Finland. During the last 40 years, premature CHD mortality declined markedly in both areas, but the decline was larger in Eastern Finland and the mortality gap between the two areas nearly disappeared.
PubMed ID
27242088 View in PubMed
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Alpine soil microbial ecology in a changing world.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301151
Source
FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2018 09 01; 94(9):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review
Date
09-01-2018
Author
Johanna Donhauser
Beat Frey
Author Affiliation
Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Birmensdorf, Switzerland.
Source
FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2018 09 01; 94(9):
Date
09-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Biodiversity
Climate change
Ice Cover
Permafrost - chemistry - microbiology
Soil Microbiology
Tundra
Abstract
Climate change has a disproportionally large impact on alpine soil ecosystems, leading to pronounced changes in soil microbial diversity and function associated with effects on biogeochemical processes at the local and supraregional scales. However, due to restricted accessibility, high-altitude soils remain largely understudied and a considerable heterogeneity hampers the comparability of different alpine studies. Here, we highlight differences and similarities between alpine and arctic ecosystems, and we discuss the impact of climatic variables and associated vegetation and soil properties on microbial ecology. We consider how microbial alpha-diversity, community structures and function change along altitudinal gradients and with other topographic features such as slope aspect. In addition, we focus on alpine permafrost soils, harboring a surprisingly large unknown microbial diversity and on microbial succession along glacier forefield chronosequences constituting the most thoroughly studied alpine habitat. Finally, highlighting experimental approaches, we present climate change studies showing shifts in microbial community structures and function in response to warming and altered moisture, interestingly with some contradiction. Collectively, despite harsh environmental conditions, many specially adapted microorganisms are able to thrive in alpine environments. Their community structures strongly correlate with climatic, vegetation and soil properties and thus closely mirror the complexity and small-scale heterogeneity of alpine soils.
PubMed ID
30032189 View in PubMed
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Antipsychotic and benzodiazepine use and brain morphology in schizophrenia and affective psychoses - Systematic reviews and birth cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302040
Source
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging. 2018 11 30; 281:43-52
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Systematic Review
Date
11-30-2018
Author
Sanna Huhtaniska
Iikka Korkala
Tuomas Heikka
Lassi Björnholm
Heli Lehtiniemi
Anja P Hulkko
Jani Moilanen
Jussi Tohka
José Manjón
Pierrick Coupé
Vesa Kiviniemi
Matti Isohanni
Hannu Koponen
Graham K Murray
Jouko Miettunen
Erika Jääskeläinen
Author Affiliation
Center for Life Course Health Research, University of Oulu, Finland; Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Finland; Department of Psychiatry, Research Unit of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Oulu, Finland. Electronic address: sanna.huhtaniska@oulu.fi.
Source
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging. 2018 11 30; 281:43-52
Date
11-30-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Systematic Review
Keywords
Adult
Affective Disorders, Psychotic - diagnostic imaging - drug therapy - pathology
Antipsychotic Agents - therapeutic use
Benzodiazepines - therapeutic use
Brain - pathology
Cohort Studies
Female
Finland
Humans
Linear Models
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Organ Size - drug effects
Schizophrenia - diagnostic imaging - drug therapy - pathology
Abstract
The aim of this paper was to investigate differences in brain structure volumes between schizophrenia and affective psychoses, and whether cumulative lifetime antipsychotic or benzodiazepine doses relate to brain morphology in these groups. We conducted two systematic reviews on the topic and investigated 44 schizophrenia cases and 19 with affective psychoses from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. The association between lifetime antipsychotic and benzodiazepine dose and brain MRI scans at the age of 43 was investigated using linear regression. Intracranial volume, sex, illness severity, and antipsychotic/benzodiazepine doses were used as covariates. There were no differences between the groups in brain structure volumes. In schizophrenia, after adjusting for benzodiazepine dose and symptoms, a negative association between lifetime antipsychotic dose and the nucleus accumbens volume remained. In affective psychoses, higher lifetime benzodiazepine dose associated with larger volumes of total gray matter and hippocampal volume after controlling for antipsychotic use and symptoms. It seems that in addition to antipsychotics, the severity of symptoms and benzodiazepine dose are also associated with brain structure volumes. These results suggest, that benzodiazepine effects should also be investigated also independently and not only as a confounder.
PubMed ID
30219591 View in PubMed
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An update on risk communication in the Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289269
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016; 75:33822
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
2016
Author
Eva-Maria Krümmel
Andrew Gilman
Author Affiliation
Inuit Circumpolar Council, Ottawa, Canada; ekruemmel@scientissime.com.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016; 75:33822
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Communicable Disease Control - organization & administration
Environmental Exposure - prevention & control
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - analysis
Food Contamination
Health Communication
Humans
Inuits
Needs Assessment - organization & administration
Public Health
Abstract
Arctic residents can be exposed to a wide range of contaminants through consumption of traditional (country) foods (i.e. food from wild animals and plants that are hunted, caught or collected locally in the Arctic). Yet these foods provide excellent nutrition, promote social cohesion, meet some spiritual needs for connectedness to the land and water, reinforce cultural ties, are economically important and promote overall good health for many. The risk and benefit balance associated with the consumption of traditional Arctic foods is complicated to communicate and has been referred to as the "Arctic Dilemma". This article gives an update on health risk communication in the Arctic region. It briefly summarizes some research on risk communication methodologies as well as approaches to an evaluation of the outcomes of risk communication initiatives. It provides information on specific initiatives in several Arctic countries, and particularly those that were directed at Indigenous populations. This article also summarizes some international versus local risk communication activities and the complexity of developing and delivering messages designed for different audiences. Finally, the potential application of social media for risk communication and a summary of "best practices" based on published literature and a survey of Inuit in a few Arctic countries are described.
Several of the risk communication initiatives portrayed in this article indicate that there is only limited awareness of the outcome of risk communication messages. In some cases, risk communication efforts appear to have been successful, at least when effectiveness is measured in an indirect way, for example, by lower contaminant levels. However, due to missing effectiveness evaluation studies, uncertainty remains as to whether a specific risk communication method was successful and could be clearly linked to behavioural changes that resulted in decreased contaminant exposure.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27974140 View in PubMed
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APPROACHES TO THE EVALUATION OF CULTURAL ADAPTATIONS OF HOME VISITING IN TRIBAL COMMUNITIES.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299178
Source
Infant Ment Health J. 2018 05; 39(3):347-357
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Review
Date
05-2018
Author
Aleta Meyer
Erin Geary
Debra Heath
Vanessa Hiratsuka
Melina Salvador
Jenae Sanchez
Nancy Whitesell
Author Affiliation
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Administration for Children and Families.
Source
Infant Ment Health J. 2018 05; 39(3):347-357
Date
05-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Review
Keywords
Adult
Alaska
Alaska Natives
Child Health Services
Child, Preschool
Culturally Competent Care - methods
Female
Health Services, Indigenous
House Calls
Humans
Indians, North American
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Maternal health services
Needs Assessment
New Mexico
Pregnancy
Washington
Young Adult
Abstract
The research that underlies evidence-based practices is often based on relatively homogenous study samples, thus limiting our ability to understand how the study findings apply in new situations as well as our understanding of what might need to be adapted. In a preliminary effort to address those gaps, the requirements for the Tribal Maternal Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program (MIECHV) included the expectation that grantees design and implement rigorous evaluations to address local priorities and to help build the knowledge base regarding the use of evidence-based home-visiting programs in tribal communities. A priority that emerged across many Tribal MIECHV grantees was to determine the added benefit of the cultural adaptations that they were making to their home-visiting programs. While there is literature to describe recommended processes for making cultural adaptations to evidence-based programs themselves, there are very few guidelines for evaluating these adaptations. In this article, we review the varied evaluation approaches utilized by Tribal MIECHV grantees and provide three case examples of how evaluators and tribal communities worked together to articulate evaluation questions and choose appropriate and feasible evaluation designs. The lessons derived from these Tribal MIECHV evaluation experiences have implications for the role of the evaluator in diverse communities across the country evaluating home visiting and other evidence-based practices in settings characterized by unique cultural contexts.
PubMed ID
29767435 View in PubMed
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The Arctic's sea ice cover: trends, variability, predictability, and comparisons to the Antarctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292049
Source
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2018 May 28; :
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
May-28-2018
Author
Mark C Serreze
Walter N Meier
Author Affiliation
National Snow and Ice Data Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.
Source
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2018 May 28; :
Date
May-28-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Abstract
As assessed over the period of satellite observations, October 1978 to present, there are downward linear trends in Arctic sea ice extent for all months, largest at the end of the melt season in September. The ice cover is also thinning. Downward trends in extent and thickness have been accompanied by pronounced interannual and multiyear variability, forced by both the atmosphere and ocean. As the ice thins, its response to atmospheric and oceanic forcing may be changing. In support of a busier Arctic, there is a growing need to predict ice conditions on a variety of time and space scales. A major challenge to providing seasonal scale predictions is the 7-10 days limit of numerical weather prediction. While a seasonally ice-free Arctic Ocean is likely well within this century, there is much uncertainty in the timing. This reflects differences in climate model structure, the unknown evolution of anthropogenic forcing, and natural climate variability. In sharp contrast to the Arctic, Antarctic sea ice extent, while highly variable, has increased slightly over the period of satellite observations. The reasons for this different behavior remain to be resolved, but responses to changing atmospheric circulation patterns appear to play a strong role.
PubMed ID
29806697 View in PubMed
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Arthroplasty implant registries over the past five decades: Development, current, and future impact.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300373
Source
J Orthop Res. 2018 09; 36(9):2319-2330
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
09-2018
Author
Henrik Malchau
Göran Garellick
Daniel Berry
William H Harris
Otto Robertson
Johan Kärrlholm
David Lewallen
Charles R Bragdon
Lars Lidgren
Peter Herberts
Author Affiliation
Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Molndal, Sweden.
Source
J Orthop Res. 2018 09; 36(9):2319-2330
Date
09-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Keywords
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Elbow - methods - statistics & numerical data
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip - methods - statistics & numerical data
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee - methods - statistics & numerical data
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Shoulder - methods - statistics & numerical data
Data Collection
Elbow Prosthesis
Evidence-Based Medicine
Hip Prosthesis
Humans
International Cooperation
Knee Prosthesis
Orthopedics
Prosthesis Design
Prosthesis Failure
Registries
Shoulder Prosthesis
Societies, Medical
Sweden
United States
Abstract
Local, regional, and national registries have played an important role in the development of hip and knee arthroplasty and the treatment of patients with various maladies of these joints. Four arthroplasty registries stand out as leading forces behind the drive to popularize the use of registries and pursue the concept of evidence based medicine. The Mayo registry, started by Mark Coventry, is recognized as the oldest continuing registry for arthroplasty. The Harris Registry at Massachusetts General Hospital, along with the Mayo Registry, has greatly contributed to the advancement of arthroplasty surgery and have served an important role of identifying poorly performing implants and techniques in the United States. The Swedish Knee Arthroplasty Registry is the oldest national registry dedicated to joint arthroplasty and along with the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Registry have established the infrastructure, analysis and reporting mechanisms, and leadership that has enabled other countries to subsequently develop national registries around the world. As more countries have adopted the concept of national registries, a new area of research is possible by pooling the resources of large registries as is now occurring with the Nordic countries. Several international organizations have been formed to promote future collaboration and develop international standards. The process of globalization of registries is a result of continued efforts over the past 50 years in improving and disseminating the knowledge gained from the early registries. © 2018 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 36:2319-2330, 2018.
PubMed ID
29663575 View in PubMed
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Assessment of Cardiac Autonomic Function in Relation to Methylmercury Neurotoxicity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature293409
Source
Toxics. 2018 Jul 20; 6(3):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
Jul-20-2018
Author
Kanae Karita
Toyoto Iwata
Eri Maeda
Mineshi Sakamoto
Katsuyuki Murata
Author Affiliation
Department of Hygiene and Public Health, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611, Japan. kanae@ks.kyorin-u.ac.jp.
Source
Toxics. 2018 Jul 20; 6(3):
Date
Jul-20-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Abstract
After the European Food Safety Authority reviewed reports of methylmercury and heart rate variability (HRV) in 2012, the panel concluded that, although some studies of cardiac autonomy suggested an autonomic effect of methylmercury, the results were inconsistent among studies and the implications for health were unclear. In this study, we reconsider this association by adding a perspective on the physiological context. Cardiovascular rhythmicity is usually studied within different frequency domains of HRV. Three spectral components are usually detected; in humans these are centered at
PubMed ID
30036985 View in PubMed
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Association between prescribed antidepressants and other prescribed drugs differ by gender: a nationwide register-based study in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300034
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2019 Jan; 73(1):73-79
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
Jan-2019
Author
Lena Thunander Sundbom
Kerstin Hedborg
Author Affiliation
a Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences , University of Gävle , Gävle , Sweden.
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2019 Jan; 73(1):73-79
Date
Jan-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Antidepressive Agents - therapeutic use
Comorbidity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depressive Disorder - drug therapy - epidemiology
Drug Prescriptions - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Polypharmacy
Registries
Sex Factors
Sweden
Abstract
People with depression are prescribed more drugs than people in general, partly due to comorbidity with other conditions. However, little research has been done on depression-related drug use from a gender perspective.
Examine the association between antidepressants, other types of prescribed drugs, and polypharmacy, by gender.
Data on drugs dispensed October to December 2016 to all Swedish citizens aged 18-84 years were collected from the Swedish prescribed drug register. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations between antidepressants and other drugs, by gender.
For both men and women, associations were found between antidepressants and drugs for alimentary tract problems, respiratory problems, blood, nervous system, analgesics, and polypharmacy. However, for women, but not men, associations were also found for drugs for diabetes, musculoskeletal problems, dermatological problems, and systemic hormones.
Associations were found between antidepressants and many other types of drugs for both men and women; indicating comorbidity between depression and other conditions. Further, some of the associations between antidepressants and other drugs were found to be specific among women. Whether this indicates that men and women differ in comorbidity between depression and other conditions cannot be concluded based on this cross-sectional study. However, comorbidity impairs the possibility of recovery; in the somatic condition as well as the depression. Thus, physicians need to be aware that the association between antidepressants and other types of drugs are more common among women than men.
PubMed ID
30661437 View in PubMed
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Atopic Dermatitis: Racial and Ethnic Differences.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290693
Source
Dermatol Clin. 2017 Jul; 35(3):395-402
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
Jul-2017
Author
Adeline Mei-Yen Yong
Yong-Kwang Tay
Author Affiliation
Department of Dermatology, National University Health System, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119074, Singapore.
Source
Dermatol Clin. 2017 Jul; 35(3):395-402
Date
Jul-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Keywords
Age Factors
China - epidemiology
Dermatitis, Atopic - diagnosis - ethnology - genetics - pathology
Health Status Disparities
Humans
Malaysia - epidemiology
Phenotype
Prevalence
Singapore - epidemiology
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic inflammatory skin condition affecting up to 20% of children and 3% of adults worldwide. There is wide variation in the prevalence of AD among different countries. Although the frequency of AD is increasing in developing countries, it seems to have stabilized in developed countries, affecting approximately 1 in 5 schoolchildren. Adult-onset AD is not uncommon and is significantly higher, affecting between 11% and 13% of adults in some countries, for example, Singapore, Malaysia, and Sweden. AD is thus associated with significant health care economic burden in all age groups.
PubMed ID
28577807 View in PubMed
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245 records – page 1 of 25.