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40-Year CHD Mortality Trends and the Role of Risk Factors in Mortality Decline: The North Karelia Project Experience.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289324
Source
Glob Heart. 2016 06; 11(2):207-12
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
06-2016
Author
Pekka Jousilahti
Tiina Laatikainen
Veikko Salomaa
Arto Pietilä
Erkki Vartiainen
Pekka Puska
Author Affiliation
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Health, Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address: pekka.jousilahti@thl.fi.
Source
Glob Heart. 2016 06; 11(2):207-12
Date
06-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Keywords
Cardiovascular Diseases - mortality - prevention & control
Finland - epidemiology
Forecasting
Public Health
Risk Assessment - methods
Risk factors
Survival Rate - trends
Abstract
In the 1960s and early 1970s, coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in Finland was the highest in the world, and within Finland, mortality was particularly high in the eastern part of the country. The North Karelia Project, the first large community-based cardiovascular diseases prevention program was established in 1972 to reduce the extremely high CHD mortality through behavioral change and reduction of the main cardiovascular disease risk factors among the whole population of North Karelia, the easternmost province of Finland. During the 40-year period from 1972 to 2012, smoking prevalence, serum total cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure declined markedly, except a small increase in serum cholesterol levels between 2007 and 2012. From the early 1970s to 2012, CHD mortality decreased by 82% (from 643 to 118 per 100,000) among working-age (35 to 64 years) men. Among working-age women, the decline was 84% (from 114 to 17 per 100,000). During the first 10 years, changes in these 3 target risk factors explained nearly all of the observed mortality reduction. Since the mid-1980s, the observed reduction in mortality has been larger than the predicted reduction. In the early 1970s, premature CHD mortality (35 to 74 years) was about 37% higher among Eastern Finnish men and 23% higher among Eastern Finnish women, compared with men and women in Southwestern Finland. During the last 40 years, premature CHD mortality declined markedly in both areas, but the decline was larger in Eastern Finland and the mortality gap between the two areas nearly disappeared.
PubMed ID
27242088 View in PubMed
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Alpine soil microbial ecology in a changing world.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301151
Source
FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2018 09 01; 94(9):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review
Date
09-01-2018
Author
Johanna Donhauser
Beat Frey
Author Affiliation
Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Birmensdorf, Switzerland.
Source
FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2018 09 01; 94(9):
Date
09-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Biodiversity
Climate change
Ice Cover
Permafrost - chemistry - microbiology
Soil Microbiology
Tundra
Abstract
Climate change has a disproportionally large impact on alpine soil ecosystems, leading to pronounced changes in soil microbial diversity and function associated with effects on biogeochemical processes at the local and supraregional scales. However, due to restricted accessibility, high-altitude soils remain largely understudied and a considerable heterogeneity hampers the comparability of different alpine studies. Here, we highlight differences and similarities between alpine and arctic ecosystems, and we discuss the impact of climatic variables and associated vegetation and soil properties on microbial ecology. We consider how microbial alpha-diversity, community structures and function change along altitudinal gradients and with other topographic features such as slope aspect. In addition, we focus on alpine permafrost soils, harboring a surprisingly large unknown microbial diversity and on microbial succession along glacier forefield chronosequences constituting the most thoroughly studied alpine habitat. Finally, highlighting experimental approaches, we present climate change studies showing shifts in microbial community structures and function in response to warming and altered moisture, interestingly with some contradiction. Collectively, despite harsh environmental conditions, many specially adapted microorganisms are able to thrive in alpine environments. Their community structures strongly correlate with climatic, vegetation and soil properties and thus closely mirror the complexity and small-scale heterogeneity of alpine soils.
PubMed ID
30032189 View in PubMed
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Alteration of host-pathogen interactions in the wake of climate change - Increasing risk for shellfish associated infections?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302902
Source
Environ Res. 2018 02; 161:425-438
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review
Date
02-2018
Author
Bodil E Hernroth
Susanne P Baden
Author Affiliation
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Kristineberg 566, SE-451 78 Fiskebäckskil, Sweden; Dept. of Natural Science, Kristianstad University, SE-291 88 Kristianstad, Sweden. Electronic address: bodil.hernroth@kva.se.
Source
Environ Res. 2018 02; 161:425-438
Date
02-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review
Keywords
Climate change
Host-Pathogen Interactions
Humans
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Norway
Seawater
Shellfish - parasitology
Abstract
The potential for climate-related spread of infectious diseases through marine systems has been highlighted in several reports. With this review we want to draw attention to less recognized mechanisms behind vector-borne transmission pathways to humans. We have focused on how the immune systems of edible marine shellfish, the blue mussels and Norway lobsters, are affected by climate related environmental stressors. Future ocean acidification (OA) and warming due to climate change constitute a gradually increasing persistent stress with negative trade-off for many organisms. In addition, the stress of recurrent hypoxia, inducing high levels of bioavailable manganese (Mn) is likely to increase in line with climate change. We summarized that OA, hypoxia and elevated levels of Mn did have an overall negative effect on immunity, in some cases also with synergistic effects. On the other hand, moderate increase in temperature seems to have a stimulating effect on antimicrobial activity and may in a future warming scenario counteract the negative effects. However, rising sea surface temperature and climate events causing high land run-off promote the abundance of naturally occurring pathogenic Vibrio and will in addition, bring enteric pathogens which are circulating in society into coastal waters. Moreover, the observed impairments of the immune defense enhance the persistence and occurrence of pathogens in shellfish. This may increase the risk for direct transmission of pathogens to consumers. It is thus essential that in the wake of climate change, sanitary control of coastal waters and seafood must recognize and adapt to the expected alteration of host-pathogen interactions.
PubMed ID
29202413 View in PubMed
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Antipsychotic and benzodiazepine use and brain morphology in schizophrenia and affective psychoses - Systematic reviews and birth cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302040
Source
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging. 2018 11 30; 281:43-52
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Systematic Review
Date
11-30-2018
Author
Sanna Huhtaniska
Iikka Korkala
Tuomas Heikka
Lassi Björnholm
Heli Lehtiniemi
Anja P Hulkko
Jani Moilanen
Jussi Tohka
José Manjón
Pierrick Coupé
Vesa Kiviniemi
Matti Isohanni
Hannu Koponen
Graham K Murray
Jouko Miettunen
Erika Jääskeläinen
Author Affiliation
Center for Life Course Health Research, University of Oulu, Finland; Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Finland; Department of Psychiatry, Research Unit of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Oulu, Finland. Electronic address: sanna.huhtaniska@oulu.fi.
Source
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging. 2018 11 30; 281:43-52
Date
11-30-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Systematic Review
Keywords
Adult
Affective Disorders, Psychotic - diagnostic imaging - drug therapy - pathology
Antipsychotic Agents - therapeutic use
Benzodiazepines - therapeutic use
Brain - pathology
Cohort Studies
Female
Finland
Humans
Linear Models
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Organ Size - drug effects
Schizophrenia - diagnostic imaging - drug therapy - pathology
Abstract
The aim of this paper was to investigate differences in brain structure volumes between schizophrenia and affective psychoses, and whether cumulative lifetime antipsychotic or benzodiazepine doses relate to brain morphology in these groups. We conducted two systematic reviews on the topic and investigated 44 schizophrenia cases and 19 with affective psychoses from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. The association between lifetime antipsychotic and benzodiazepine dose and brain MRI scans at the age of 43 was investigated using linear regression. Intracranial volume, sex, illness severity, and antipsychotic/benzodiazepine doses were used as covariates. There were no differences between the groups in brain structure volumes. In schizophrenia, after adjusting for benzodiazepine dose and symptoms, a negative association between lifetime antipsychotic dose and the nucleus accumbens volume remained. In affective psychoses, higher lifetime benzodiazepine dose associated with larger volumes of total gray matter and hippocampal volume after controlling for antipsychotic use and symptoms. It seems that in addition to antipsychotics, the severity of symptoms and benzodiazepine dose are also associated with brain structure volumes. These results suggest, that benzodiazepine effects should also be investigated also independently and not only as a confounder.
PubMed ID
30219591 View in PubMed
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An update on risk communication in the Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289269
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016; 75:33822
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
2016
Author
Eva-Maria Krümmel
Andrew Gilman
Author Affiliation
Inuit Circumpolar Council, Ottawa, Canada; ekruemmel@scientissime.com.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016; 75:33822
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Communicable Disease Control - organization & administration
Environmental Exposure - prevention & control
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - analysis
Food Contamination
Health Communication
Humans
Inuits
Needs Assessment - organization & administration
Public Health
Abstract
Arctic residents can be exposed to a wide range of contaminants through consumption of traditional (country) foods (i.e. food from wild animals and plants that are hunted, caught or collected locally in the Arctic). Yet these foods provide excellent nutrition, promote social cohesion, meet some spiritual needs for connectedness to the land and water, reinforce cultural ties, are economically important and promote overall good health for many. The risk and benefit balance associated with the consumption of traditional Arctic foods is complicated to communicate and has been referred to as the "Arctic Dilemma". This article gives an update on health risk communication in the Arctic region. It briefly summarizes some research on risk communication methodologies as well as approaches to an evaluation of the outcomes of risk communication initiatives. It provides information on specific initiatives in several Arctic countries, and particularly those that were directed at Indigenous populations. This article also summarizes some international versus local risk communication activities and the complexity of developing and delivering messages designed for different audiences. Finally, the potential application of social media for risk communication and a summary of "best practices" based on published literature and a survey of Inuit in a few Arctic countries are described.
Several of the risk communication initiatives portrayed in this article indicate that there is only limited awareness of the outcome of risk communication messages. In some cases, risk communication efforts appear to have been successful, at least when effectiveness is measured in an indirect way, for example, by lower contaminant levels. However, due to missing effectiveness evaluation studies, uncertainty remains as to whether a specific risk communication method was successful and could be clearly linked to behavioural changes that resulted in decreased contaminant exposure.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27974140 View in PubMed
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APPROACHES TO THE EVALUATION OF CULTURAL ADAPTATIONS OF HOME VISITING IN TRIBAL COMMUNITIES.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299178
Source
Infant Ment Health J. 2018 05; 39(3):347-357
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Review
Date
05-2018
Author
Aleta Meyer
Erin Geary
Debra Heath
Vanessa Hiratsuka
Melina Salvador
Jenae Sanchez
Nancy Whitesell
Author Affiliation
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Administration for Children and Families.
Source
Infant Ment Health J. 2018 05; 39(3):347-357
Date
05-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Review
Keywords
Adult
Alaska
Alaska Natives
Child Health Services
Child, Preschool
Culturally Competent Care - methods
Female
Health Services, Indigenous
House Calls
Humans
Indians, North American
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Maternal health services
Needs Assessment
New Mexico
Pregnancy
Washington
Young Adult
Abstract
The research that underlies evidence-based practices is often based on relatively homogenous study samples, thus limiting our ability to understand how the study findings apply in new situations as well as our understanding of what might need to be adapted. In a preliminary effort to address those gaps, the requirements for the Tribal Maternal Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program (MIECHV) included the expectation that grantees design and implement rigorous evaluations to address local priorities and to help build the knowledge base regarding the use of evidence-based home-visiting programs in tribal communities. A priority that emerged across many Tribal MIECHV grantees was to determine the added benefit of the cultural adaptations that they were making to their home-visiting programs. While there is literature to describe recommended processes for making cultural adaptations to evidence-based programs themselves, there are very few guidelines for evaluating these adaptations. In this article, we review the varied evaluation approaches utilized by Tribal MIECHV grantees and provide three case examples of how evaluators and tribal communities worked together to articulate evaluation questions and choose appropriate and feasible evaluation designs. The lessons derived from these Tribal MIECHV evaluation experiences have implications for the role of the evaluator in diverse communities across the country evaluating home visiting and other evidence-based practices in settings characterized by unique cultural contexts.
PubMed ID
29767435 View in PubMed
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The Arctic's sea ice cover: trends, variability, predictability, and comparisons to the Antarctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292049
Source
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2018 May 28; :
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
May-28-2018
Author
Mark C Serreze
Walter N Meier
Author Affiliation
National Snow and Ice Data Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.
Source
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2018 May 28; :
Date
May-28-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Abstract
As assessed over the period of satellite observations, October 1978 to present, there are downward linear trends in Arctic sea ice extent for all months, largest at the end of the melt season in September. The ice cover is also thinning. Downward trends in extent and thickness have been accompanied by pronounced interannual and multiyear variability, forced by both the atmosphere and ocean. As the ice thins, its response to atmospheric and oceanic forcing may be changing. In support of a busier Arctic, there is a growing need to predict ice conditions on a variety of time and space scales. A major challenge to providing seasonal scale predictions is the 7-10 days limit of numerical weather prediction. While a seasonally ice-free Arctic Ocean is likely well within this century, there is much uncertainty in the timing. This reflects differences in climate model structure, the unknown evolution of anthropogenic forcing, and natural climate variability. In sharp contrast to the Arctic, Antarctic sea ice extent, while highly variable, has increased slightly over the period of satellite observations. The reasons for this different behavior remain to be resolved, but responses to changing atmospheric circulation patterns appear to play a strong role.
PubMed ID
29806697 View in PubMed
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Arthroplasty implant registries over the past five decades: Development, current, and future impact.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300373
Source
J Orthop Res. 2018 09; 36(9):2319-2330
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
09-2018
Author
Henrik Malchau
Göran Garellick
Daniel Berry
William H Harris
Otto Robertson
Johan Kärrlholm
David Lewallen
Charles R Bragdon
Lars Lidgren
Peter Herberts
Author Affiliation
Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Molndal, Sweden.
Source
J Orthop Res. 2018 09; 36(9):2319-2330
Date
09-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Keywords
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Elbow - methods - statistics & numerical data
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip - methods - statistics & numerical data
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee - methods - statistics & numerical data
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Shoulder - methods - statistics & numerical data
Data Collection
Elbow Prosthesis
Evidence-Based Medicine
Hip Prosthesis
Humans
International Cooperation
Knee Prosthesis
Orthopedics
Prosthesis Design
Prosthesis Failure
Registries
Shoulder Prosthesis
Societies, Medical
Sweden
United States
Abstract
Local, regional, and national registries have played an important role in the development of hip and knee arthroplasty and the treatment of patients with various maladies of these joints. Four arthroplasty registries stand out as leading forces behind the drive to popularize the use of registries and pursue the concept of evidence based medicine. The Mayo registry, started by Mark Coventry, is recognized as the oldest continuing registry for arthroplasty. The Harris Registry at Massachusetts General Hospital, along with the Mayo Registry, has greatly contributed to the advancement of arthroplasty surgery and have served an important role of identifying poorly performing implants and techniques in the United States. The Swedish Knee Arthroplasty Registry is the oldest national registry dedicated to joint arthroplasty and along with the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Registry have established the infrastructure, analysis and reporting mechanisms, and leadership that has enabled other countries to subsequently develop national registries around the world. As more countries have adopted the concept of national registries, a new area of research is possible by pooling the resources of large registries as is now occurring with the Nordic countries. Several international organizations have been formed to promote future collaboration and develop international standards. The process of globalization of registries is a result of continued efforts over the past 50 years in improving and disseminating the knowledge gained from the early registries. © 2018 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 36:2319-2330, 2018.
PubMed ID
29663575 View in PubMed
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Assessment of Cardiac Autonomic Function in Relation to Methylmercury Neurotoxicity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature293409
Source
Toxics. 2018 Jul 20; 6(3):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
Jul-20-2018
Author
Kanae Karita
Toyoto Iwata
Eri Maeda
Mineshi Sakamoto
Katsuyuki Murata
Author Affiliation
Department of Hygiene and Public Health, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611, Japan. kanae@ks.kyorin-u.ac.jp.
Source
Toxics. 2018 Jul 20; 6(3):
Date
Jul-20-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Abstract
After the European Food Safety Authority reviewed reports of methylmercury and heart rate variability (HRV) in 2012, the panel concluded that, although some studies of cardiac autonomy suggested an autonomic effect of methylmercury, the results were inconsistent among studies and the implications for health were unclear. In this study, we reconsider this association by adding a perspective on the physiological context. Cardiovascular rhythmicity is usually studied within different frequency domains of HRV. Three spectral components are usually detected; in humans these are centered at
PubMed ID
30036985 View in PubMed
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Association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis and a Swedish population-based study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302540
Source
Lancet Psychiatry. 2018 09; 5(9):717-726
Publication Type
Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Systematic Review
Date
09-2018
Author
Samuele Cortese
Shihua Sun
Junhua Zhang
Esha Sharma
Zheng Chang
Ralf Kuja-Halkola
Catarina Almqvist
Henrik Larsson
Stephen V Faraone
Author Affiliation
Center for Innovation in Mental Health, Academic Unit of Psychology, and Clinical and Experimental Sciences (CNS and Psychiatry), Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; Solent NHS Trust, Southampton, UK; New York University Child Study Center, New York, NY, USA; Division of Psychiatry and Applied Psychology, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK. Electronic address: samuele.cortese@soton.ac.uk.
Source
Lancet Psychiatry. 2018 09; 5(9):717-726
Date
09-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Systematic Review
Keywords
Asthma - epidemiology
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Humans
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Several studies have assessed the possible association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and asthma. However, existing evidence is inconclusive as to whether this association remains after controlling for possible important confounders. To fill this knowledge gap, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis, followed by a population-based study.
For the systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, Embase Classic, Ovid MEDLINE, and Web of Knowledge databases up to Oct 31, 2017, for observational studies allowing estimation of the association between asthma and ADHD. No restrictions to date, language, or article type were applied. Unpublished data were collected from authors of the identified studies. We extracted unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) from the identified studies and calculated ORs when they were not reported. We assessed study quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and study heterogeneity using I2 statistics. A random-effects model was used to calculate pooled ORs. The systematic review is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42017073368). To address the fact that the ORs obtained in the meta-analysis were adjusted for confounders that inevitably varied across studies, we did a population-based study of individuals in multiple national registers in Sweden. We calculated an unadjusted OR and an OR that was simultaneously adjusted for all confounders identified in a directed acyclic graph based on the studies of asthma and ADHD identified in our systematic review.
We identified 2649 potentially eligible citations, from which we obtained 49 datasets including a total of 210?363 participants with ADHD and 3?115?168 without. The pooled unadjusted OR was 1·66 (95% CI 1·22-2·26; I2 =99·47) and the pooled adjusted OR was 1·53 (1·41-1·65; I2 =50·76), indicating a significant association between asthma and ADHD. Possible lack of representativeness of the study population was detected with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale in 42 of 49 datasets. In the population-based study, we included 1?575?377 individuals born between Jan 1, 1992, and Dec 31, 2006, of whom 259?253 (16·5%) had asthma and 57?957 (3·7%) had ADHD. Asthma was significantly associated with ADHD (OR 1·60, 95% CI 1·57-1·63) in the crude model adjusting for sex and year of birth, and this association remained significant after simultaneous adjustment for all covariates (1·45, 1·41-1·48).
The combined results of the meta-analysis and the population-based study support a significant association between asthma and ADHD, which remained even after simultaneously controlling for several possible confounders in the population-based study. Awareness of this association might help to reduce delay in the diagnosis of both ADHD and asthma.
Swedish Research Council and Shire International GmbH.
Notes
CommentIn: Lancet Psychiatry. 2018 Sep;5(9):689-690 PMID 30054260
CommentIn: Lancet Psychiatry. 2018 Dec;5(12):963 PMID 30477653
PubMed ID
30054261 View in PubMed
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259 records – page 1 of 26.