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21st-century modeled permafrost carbon emissions accelerated by abrupt thaw beneath lakes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297387
Source
Nat Commun. 2018 08 15; 9(1):3262
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
08-15-2018
Author
Katey Walter Anthony
Thomas Schneider von Deimling
Ingmar Nitze
Steve Frolking
Abraham Emond
Ronald Daanen
Peter Anthony
Prajna Lindgren
Benjamin Jones
Guido Grosse
Author Affiliation
Water and Environmental Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK, 99775, USA. kmwalteranthony@alaska.edu.
Source
Nat Commun. 2018 08 15; 9(1):3262
Date
08-15-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Alaska
Carbon - chemistry
Carbon Cycle
Carbon Dioxide - chemistry
Conservation of Natural Resources - methods - trends
Freezing
Geography
Geologic Sediments - chemistry
Global warming
Lakes - chemistry
Methane - chemistry
Models, Theoretical
Permafrost - chemistry
Soil - chemistry
Abstract
Permafrost carbon feedback (PCF) modeling has focused on gradual thaw of near-surface permafrost leading to enhanced carbon dioxide and methane emissions that accelerate global climate warming. These state-of-the-art land models have yet to incorporate deeper, abrupt thaw in the PCF. Here we use model data, supported by field observations, radiocarbon dating, and remote sensing, to show that methane and carbon dioxide emissions from abrupt thaw beneath thermokarst lakes will more than double radiative forcing from circumpolar permafrost-soil carbon fluxes this century. Abrupt thaw lake emissions are similar under moderate and high representative concentration pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5), but their relative contribution to the PCF is much larger under the moderate warming scenario. Abrupt thaw accelerates mobilization of deeply frozen, ancient carbon, increasing 14C-depleted permafrost soil carbon emissions by ~125-190% compared to gradual thaw alone. These findings demonstrate the need to incorporate abrupt thaw processes in earth system models for more comprehensive projection of the PCF this century.
PubMed ID
30111815 View in PubMed
Less detail

ADDRESSING SUBSTANCE-USE PROBLEMS IN TRIBAL HOME VISITING.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299191
Source
Infant Ment Health J. 2018 05; 39(3):287-294
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Date
05-2018
Author
Douglas K Novins
Cathy Ferron
Lisa Abramson
Allison Barlow
Author Affiliation
University of Colorado, Aurora.
Source
Infant Ment Health J. 2018 05; 39(3):287-294
Date
05-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Keywords
Adult
Alaska
Alaska Natives
Culturally Competent Care - methods
Female
Health Services, Indigenous
House Calls
Humans
Indians, North American
Male
Maternal health services
Needs Assessment
New Mexico
Pregnancy
Referral and Consultation
Substance-Related Disorders - diagnosis - prevention & control - therapy
Washington
Young Adult
Abstract
Given the high rates for substance use among women and men of childbearing age, perinatal and early childhood home-visiting programs serving tribal communities must consider how they will address substance-use problems among the families they support. In this study, we explored the approaches to identifying and addressing family-based substance-use problems that were implemented by nine home-visiting programs serving American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities that are funded through the federal Tribal Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program (Tribal MIECHV). These programs demonstrated a high awareness of substance-use problems and took concrete action to address them above and beyond that included in the home-visiting model they used. All nine programs reported that they provided substance-use preventive services and screened for substance-use problems. While all programs referred to substance-use treatment programs when needed, in six programs the home visitor provided substance-use services. Through Tribal MIECHV, the intense need for substance-use education, assessment, service delivery, and referral in many AI/AN communities is pushing the home-visiting field forward to address this increasingly critical issue for low-income families across the United States and the world.
PubMed ID
29722426 View in PubMed
Less detail

Ancient human parvovirus B19 in Eurasia reveals its long-term association with humans.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294883
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 07 17; 115(29):7557-7562
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
07-17-2018
Author
Barbara Mühlemann
Ashot Margaryan
Peter de Barros Damgaard
Morten E Allentoft
Lasse Vinner
Anders J Hansen
Andrzej Weber
Vladimir I Bazaliiskii
Martyna Molak
Jette Arneborg
Wieslaw Bogdanowicz
Ceri Falys
Mikhail Sablin
Václav Smrcka
Sabine Sten
Kadicha Tashbaeva
Niels Lynnerup
Martin Sikora
Derek J Smith
Ron A M Fouchier
Christian Drosten
Karl-Göran Sjögren
Kristian Kristiansen
Eske Willerslev
Terry C Jones
Author Affiliation
Center for Pathogen Evolution, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, CB2 3EJ Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 07 17; 115(29):7557-7562
Date
07-17-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Erythema Infectiosum - genetics - history
Evolution, Molecular
Genome, Viral
Genotype
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
Humans
Parvovirus B19, Human - genetics
Phylogeny
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Abstract
Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a ubiquitous human pathogen associated with a number of conditions, such as fifth disease in children and arthritis and arthralgias in adults. B19V is thought to evolve exceptionally rapidly among DNA viruses, with substitution rates previously estimated to be closer to those typical of RNA viruses. On the basis of genetic sequences up to ~70 years of age, the most recent common ancestor of all B19V has been dated to the early 1800s, and it has been suggested that genotype 1, the most common B19V genotype, only started circulating in the 1960s. Here we present 10 genomes (63.9-99.7% genome coverage) of B19V from dental and skeletal remains of individuals who lived in Eurasia and Greenland from ~0.5 to ~6.9 thousand years ago (kya). In a phylogenetic analysis, five of the ancient B19V sequences fall within or basal to the modern genotype 1, and five fall basal to genotype 2, showing a long-term association of B19V with humans. The most recent common ancestor of all B19V is placed ~12.6 kya, and we find a substitution rate that is an order of magnitude lower than inferred previously. Further, we are able to date the recombination event between genotypes 1 and 3 that formed genotype 2 to ~5.0-6.8 kya. This study emphasizes the importance of ancient viral sequences for our understanding of virus evolution and phylogenetics.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29967156 View in PubMed
Less detail

Anomalously weak Labrador Sea convection and Atlantic overturning during the past 150 years.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294791
Source
Nature. 2018 04; 556(7700):227-230
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
04-2018
Author
David J R Thornalley
Delia W Oppo
Pablo Ortega
Jon I Robson
Chris M Brierley
Renee Davis
Ian R Hall
Paola Moffa-Sanchez
Neil L Rose
Peter T Spooner
Igor Yashayaev
Lloyd D Keigwin
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, University College London, London, UK. d.thornalley@cantab.net.
Source
Nature. 2018 04; 556(7700):227-230
Date
04-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Atlantic Ocean
Climate Change - statistics & numerical data
Convection
Fresh Water - analysis
Greenland
History, 15th Century
History, 16th Century
History, 17th Century
History, 18th Century
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
History, Medieval
Ice Cover - chemistry
Newfoundland and Labrador
Oceans and Seas
Reproducibility of Results
Seawater - analysis
Time Factors
Water Movements
Abstract
The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is a system of ocean currents that has an essential role in Earth's climate, redistributing heat and influencing the carbon cycle1, 2. The AMOC has been shown to be weakening in recent years 1 ; this decline may reflect decadal-scale variability in convection in the Labrador Sea, but short observational datasets preclude a longer-term perspective on the modern state and variability of Labrador Sea convection and the AMOC1, 3-5. Here we provide several lines of palaeo-oceanographic evidence that Labrador Sea deep convection and the AMOC have been anomalously weak over the past 150 years or so (since the end of the Little Ice Age, LIA, approximately AD 1850) compared with the preceding 1,500 years. Our palaeoclimate reconstructions indicate that the transition occurred either as a predominantly abrupt shift towards the end of the LIA, or as a more gradual, continued decline over the past 150 years; this ambiguity probably arises from non-AMOC influences on the various proxies or from the different sensitivities of these proxies to individual components of the AMOC. We suggest that enhanced freshwater fluxes from the Arctic and Nordic seas towards the end of the LIA-sourced from melting glaciers and thickened sea ice that developed earlier in the LIA-weakened Labrador Sea convection and the AMOC. The lack of a subsequent recovery may have resulted from hysteresis or from twentieth-century melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet 6 . Our results suggest that recent decadal variability in Labrador Sea convection and the AMOC has occurred during an atypical, weak background state. Future work should aim to constrain the roles of internal climate variability and early anthropogenic forcing in the AMOC weakening described here.
Notes
CommentIn: Nature. 2018 Apr;556(7700):149 PMID 29643490
CommentIn: Nature. 2018 Apr;556(7700):180-181 PMID 29636556
PubMed ID
29643484 View in PubMed
Less detail

Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in Migratory Birds Inhabiting Remote Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297943
Source
Ecohealth. 2018 03; 15(1):72-81
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
03-2018
Author
Andrew M Ramey
Jorge Hernandez
Veronica Tyrlöv
Brian D Uher-Koch
Joel A Schmutz
Clara Atterby
Josef D Järhult
Jonas Bonnedahl
Author Affiliation
U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, 4210 University Drive, Anchorage, AK, 99508, USA. aramey@usgs.gov.
Source
Ecohealth. 2018 03; 15(1):72-81
Date
03-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Alaska - epidemiology
Animals
Charadriiformes - microbiology
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Escherichia coli - isolation & purification
Abstract
We explored the abundance of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli among migratory birds at remote sites in Alaska and used a comparative approach to speculate on plausible explanations for differences in detection among species. At a remote island site, we detected antibiotic-resistant E. coli phenotypes in samples collected from glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens), a species often associated with foraging at landfills, but not in samples collected from black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), a more pelagic gull that typically inhabits remote areas year-round. We did not find evidence for antibiotic-resistant E. coli among 347 samples collected primarily from waterfowl at a second remote site in western Alaska. Our results provide evidence that glaucous-winged gulls may be more likely to be infected with antibiotic-resistant E. coli at remote breeding sites as compared to sympatric black-legged kittiwakes. This could be a function of the tendency of glaucous-winged gulls to forage at landfills where antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections may be acquired and subsequently dispersed. The low overall detection of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in migratory birds sampled at remote sites in Alaska is consistent with the premise that anthropogenic inputs into the local environment or the relative lack thereof influences the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among birds inhabiting the area.
PubMed ID
29230612 View in PubMed
Less detail

APPROACHES TO THE EVALUATION OF CULTURAL ADAPTATIONS OF HOME VISITING IN TRIBAL COMMUNITIES.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299178
Source
Infant Ment Health J. 2018 05; 39(3):347-357
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Review
Date
05-2018
Author
Aleta Meyer
Erin Geary
Debra Heath
Vanessa Hiratsuka
Melina Salvador
Jenae Sanchez
Nancy Whitesell
Author Affiliation
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Administration for Children and Families.
Source
Infant Ment Health J. 2018 05; 39(3):347-357
Date
05-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Review
Keywords
Adult
Alaska
Alaska Natives
Child Health Services
Child, Preschool
Culturally Competent Care - methods
Female
Health Services, Indigenous
House Calls
Humans
Indians, North American
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Maternal health services
Needs Assessment
New Mexico
Pregnancy
Washington
Young Adult
Abstract
The research that underlies evidence-based practices is often based on relatively homogenous study samples, thus limiting our ability to understand how the study findings apply in new situations as well as our understanding of what might need to be adapted. In a preliminary effort to address those gaps, the requirements for the Tribal Maternal Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program (MIECHV) included the expectation that grantees design and implement rigorous evaluations to address local priorities and to help build the knowledge base regarding the use of evidence-based home-visiting programs in tribal communities. A priority that emerged across many Tribal MIECHV grantees was to determine the added benefit of the cultural adaptations that they were making to their home-visiting programs. While there is literature to describe recommended processes for making cultural adaptations to evidence-based programs themselves, there are very few guidelines for evaluating these adaptations. In this article, we review the varied evaluation approaches utilized by Tribal MIECHV grantees and provide three case examples of how evaluators and tribal communities worked together to articulate evaluation questions and choose appropriate and feasible evaluation designs. The lessons derived from these Tribal MIECHV evaluation experiences have implications for the role of the evaluator in diverse communities across the country evaluating home visiting and other evidence-based practices in settings characterized by unique cultural contexts.
PubMed ID
29767435 View in PubMed
Less detail

Arctic amplification is caused by sea-ice loss under increasing CO2.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298890
Source
Nat Commun. 2019 01 10; 10(1):121
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
01-10-2019
Author
Aiguo Dai
Dehai Luo
Mirong Song
Jiping Liu
Author Affiliation
Department of Atmospheric & Environmental Sciences, University at Albany, SUNY, Albany, NY, 12222, USA. adai@albany.edu.
Source
Nat Commun. 2019 01 10; 10(1):121
Date
01-10-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Carbon Dioxide - metabolism
Climate change
Geography
Global warming
Ice Cover
Seasons
Seawater - chemistry
Solar Energy
Temperature
Abstract
Warming in the Arctic has been much faster than the rest of the world in both observations and model simulations, a phenomenon known as the Arctic amplification (AA) whose cause is still under debate. By analyzing data and model simulations, here we show that large AA occurs only from October to April and only over areas with significant sea-ice loss. AA largely disappears when Arctic sea ice is fixed or melts away. Periods with larger AA are associated with larger sea-ice loss, and models with bigger sea-ice loss produce larger AA. Increased outgoing longwave radiation and heat fluxes from the newly opened waters cause AA, whereas all other processes can only indirectly contribute to AA by melting sea-ice. We conclude that sea-ice loss is necessary for the existence of large AA and that models need to simulate Arctic sea ice realistically in order to correctly simulate Arctic warming under increasing CO2.
PubMed ID
30631051 View in PubMed
Less detail

Arctic amplification is caused by sea-ice loss under increasing CO2.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297436
Source
Nat Commun. 2019 01 10; 10(1):121
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
01-10-2019
Author
Aiguo Dai
Dehai Luo
Mirong Song
Jiping Liu
Author Affiliation
Department of Atmospheric & Environmental Sciences, University at Albany, SUNY, Albany, NY, 12222, USA. adai@albany.edu.
Source
Nat Commun. 2019 01 10; 10(1):121
Date
01-10-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
Warming in the Arctic has been much faster than the rest of the world in both observations and model simulations, a phenomenon known as the Arctic amplification (AA) whose cause is still under debate. By analyzing data and model simulations, here we show that large AA occurs only from October to April and only over areas with significant sea-ice loss. AA largely disappears when Arctic sea ice is fixed or melts away. Periods with larger AA are associated with larger sea-ice loss, and models with bigger sea-ice loss produce larger AA. Increased outgoing longwave radiation and heat fluxes from the newly opened waters cause AA, whereas all other processes can only indirectly contribute to AA by melting sea-ice. We conclude that sea-ice loss is necessary for the existence of large AA and that models need to simulate Arctic sea ice realistically in order to correctly simulate Arctic warming under increasing CO2.
PubMed ID
30631051 View in PubMed
Less detail

Arctic ground squirrel resist peroxynitrite-mediated cell death in response to oxygen glucose deprivation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294918
Source
Free Radic Biol Med. 2017 12; 113:203-211
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
12-2017
Author
Saurav Bhowmick
Kelly L Drew
Author Affiliation
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK, USA; Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK, USA.
Source
Free Radic Biol Med. 2017 12; 113:203-211
Date
12-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Animals
Brain Injuries - etiology - metabolism - physiopathology
Cell Death
Disease Models, Animal
Female
Food Deprivation
Glucose - metabolism
Hippocampus - metabolism - physiopathology
Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain - metabolism - physiopathology
Male
Nitrosative Stress
Oxidative Stress
Oxygen - metabolism
Peroxynitrous Acid - toxicity
Rats
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Reperfusion Injury - complications
Sciuridae
Abstract
Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury initiates a cascade of events, generating nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide(O2•-) to form peroxynitrite (ONOO-), a potent oxidant. Arctic ground squirrels (AGS; Urocitellus parryii) show high tolerance to I/R injury. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. We hypothesize that tolerance to I/R modeled in an acute hippocampal slice preparation in AGS is modulated by reduced oxidative and nitrative stress. Hippocampal slices (400µm) from rat and AGS were subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) using a novel microperfusion technique. Slices were exposed to NO, O2.- donors with and without OGD; pretreatment with inhibitors of NO, O2.- and ONOO- followed by OGD. Perfusates collected every 15min were analyzed for LDH release, a marker of cell death. 3-nitrotyrosine (3NT) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) were measured to assess oxidative and nitrative stress. Results show that NO/O2.- alone is not sufficient to cause ischemic-like cell death, but with OGD enhances cell death more in rat than in AGS. A NOS inhibitor, SOD mimetic and ONOO- inhibitor attenuates OGD injury in rat but has no effect in AGS. Rats also show a higher level of 3NT and 4HNE with OGD than AGS suggesting the greater level of injury in rat is via formation of ONOO-.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28962873 View in PubMed
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The association between daily concentrations of air pollution and visits to a psychiatric emergency unit: a case-crossover study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296912
Source
Environ Health. 2018 01 10; 17(1):4
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
01-10-2018
Author
Anna Oudin
Daniel Oudin Åström
Peter Asplund
Steinn Steingrimsson
Zoltan Szabo
Hanne Krage Carlsen
Author Affiliation
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Medicon Village, Byggnad 402A, Scheelevägen 2, 223 63, Lund, Sweden. anna.oudin@med.lu.se.
Source
Environ Health. 2018 01 10; 17(1):4
Date
01-10-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Cities
Cross-Over Studies
Emergency Service, Hospital - statistics & numerical data
Emergency Services, Psychiatric - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Mental Disorders - chemically induced - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Air pollution is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Experimental studies, and a few epidemiological studies, suggest that air pollution may cause acute exacerbation of psychiatric disorders, and even increase the rate of suicide attempts, but epidemiological studies on air pollution in association with psychiatric disorders are still few. Our aim was to investigate associations between daily fluctuations in air pollution concentrations and the daily number of visits to a psychiatric emergency unit.
Data from Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden, on the daily number of visits to the Psychiatric emergency unit were combined with daily data on monitored concentrations of respirable particulate matter(PM10), ozone(O3), nitrogen dioxides(NO2) and temperature between 1st July 2012 and 31st December 2016. We used a case-crossover design to analyze data with conditional Poisson regression models allowing for over-dispersion. We stratified data on season.
Visits increased with increasing PM10 levels during the warmer season (April to September) in both single-pollutant and two-pollutant models. For example, an increase of 3.6% (95% Confidence Interval, CI, 0.4-7.0%) was observed with a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM10 adjusted for NO2. In the three-pollutant models (adjusting for NO2 and O3 simultaneously) the increase was 3.3% (95% CI, -0.2-6.9). There were no clear associations between the outcome and NO2, O3, or PM10 during the colder season (October to March).
Ambient air particle concentrations were associated with the number of visits to the Psychiatric emergency unit in the warm season. The results were only borderline statistically significant in the fully adjusted (three-pollutant) models in this small study. The observation could be interpreted as indicative of air pollution as either exacerbating an underlying psychiatric disorder, or increasing mental distress, even in areas with comparatively low levels of air pollution. In combination with the severe impact of psychiatric disorders and mental distress on society and individuals, our results are a strong warrant for future research in this area.
PubMed ID
29321054 View in PubMed
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