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The 5-HTTLPR rs25531 LALA-genotype increases the risk of insomnia symptoms among shift workers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature310411
Source
Sleep Med. 2019 08; 60:224-229
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-2019
Author
Ståle Pallesen
Daniel Pitz Jacobsen
Morten B Nielsen
Johannes Gjerstad
Author Affiliation
Department for Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Norway; Norwegian Competence Center for Sleep Disorders, Haukeland University Hospital, Norway. Electronic address: pklsp@uib.no.
Source
Sleep Med. 2019 08; 60:224-229
Date
08-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Alleles
Female
Genotype
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Polymorphism, Genetic - genetics
Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins - genetics
Shift Work Schedule - adverse effects
Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders - diagnosis - genetics
Abstract
Previous studies indicate that shift work tolerance may be associated with individual factors including genetic variability in the gene encoding the serotonin transporter 5-HTT (SLC6A4). The present study aimed to explore the interaction between work schedule (shift work versus non-shift work), genetic variability in SLC6A4 and insomnia symptoms.
The study was based on a national probability sample survey of 987 Norwegian employees drawn from The Norwegian Central Employee Register by Statistics Norway. Insomnia symptoms were assessed by three items reflecting problems with sleep onset, sleep maintenance, and early morning awakenings. Genotyping concerning SLC6A4 (the 5-HTTLPR S versus L and the SNP rs25531 A versus G) was carried out using a combination of gel-electrophoresis and TaqMan assay.
Using the LALA genotype as a reference a main effect of the SS genotype (B = 0.179; 95% CI = 0.027-0.330) was found. In addition, a main effect of work schedule (0 = non shift, 1 = shift work) was found (B = 0.504; 95% CI = 0.185-0.823). The genotype x work schedule interaction was significant for all genotypes; SLA (B = -0.590; 95% CI = -0.954-0.216), LALG (B = -0.879; 95% CI = -1.342-0.415), SLG (B = -0.705; 95% CI = -1.293-0.117) and SS (B = -0.773; 95% CI = -1.177-0.369) indicating higher insomnia symptom scores among LALA-participants compared to participants with other genotypes when working shifts.
The ability to cope with shift work is associated with the combination of the SLC6A4 variants 5-HTTLPR and SNP rs25531. Our findings demonstrated that the LALA-genotype increases the risk of insomnia symptoms among shift workers.
PubMed ID
31213395 View in PubMed
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A 5-Year Continued Follow-up of Cancer Risk and All-Cause Mortality Among Norwegian Military Peacekeepers Deployed to Kosovo During 1999-2016.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature311620
Source
Mil Med. 2020 02 12; 185(1-2):e239-e243
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
02-12-2020
Author
Leif Aage Strand
Jan Ivar Martinsen
Einar Kristian Borud
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Armed Forces Joint Medical Services, Institute of Military Medicine and Epidemiology, Sessvollmoen Garnison, N-2018 Sessvollmoen, Norway.
Source
Mil Med. 2020 02 12; 185(1-2):e239-e243
Date
02-12-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Kosovo
Male
Military Personnel
Neoplasms - epidemiology
Norway - epidemiology
Risk
Abstract
In 2012, Norwegian news media reported on cases of brain cancer among Norwegian peacekeeping troops who served in Kosovo, allegedly caused by exposure to depleted uranium fired during airstrikes before the peacekeepers arrived in 1999. A first study followed 6076 military men and women with peacekeeping service in Kosovo during 1999-2011 for cancers and deaths throughout 2011. The study did not support to the idea that peacekeeping service in Kosovo could lead to increased risk of brain cancer or other cancers. However, the average time of follow-up (10.6 years) was rather short for cancer development; therefore the aim of the present study was to evaluate cancer risk and general mortality in an updated cohort after 5 years of additional follow-up.
The updated cohort consisted of 6,159 peacekeepers (5,884 men and 275 women) who served in Kosovo during 1999-2016 and were followed for cancer incidence and mortality from all causes combined throughout 2016. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIR) for cancer and standardized mortality ratios (SMR) from national population rates. Poisson regression was used to assess the effect of length of service (
PubMed ID
31322664 View in PubMed
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A 10-Year Follow-Up of Adiposity and Dementia in Swedish Adults Aged 70 Years and Older.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300956
Source
J Alzheimers Dis. 2018; 63(4):1325-1335
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
2018
Author
Ilse A C Arnoldussen
Valter Sundh
Kristoffer Bäckman
Silke Kern
Svante Östling
Kaj Blennow
Henrik Zetterberg
Ingmar Skoog
Amanda J Kiliaan
Deborah R Gustafson
Author Affiliation
Department of Anatomy, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Source
J Alzheimers Dis. 2018; 63(4):1325-1335
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adiponectin - blood
Adiposity
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anthropometry
Body mass index
Dementia - blood - epidemiology - pathology
Fasting
Female
Humans
Independent living
Leptin - blood
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Waist-Hip Ratio
Abstract
Adiposity measured in mid- or late-life and estimated using anthropometric measures such as body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), or metabolic markers such as blood leptin and adiponectin levels, is associated with late-onset dementia risk. However, during later life, this association may reverse and aging- and dementia-related processes may differentially affect adiposity measures.
We explored associations of concurrent BMI, WHR, and blood leptin and high molecular weight adiponectin levels with dementia occurrence.
924 Swedish community-dwelling elderly without dementia, aged 70 years and older, systematically-sampled by birth day and birth year population-based in the Gothenburg city region of Sweden. The Gothenburg Birth Cohort Studies are designed for evaluating risk and protective factors for dementia. All dementias diagnosed after age 70 for 10 years were identified. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to predict dementia occurrence between 2000-2005, 2005-2010, and 2000-2010 after excluding prevalent baseline (year 2000) dementias. Baseline levels of BMI, WHR, leptin, and adiponectin were used.
Within 5 years of baseline, low BMI (
PubMed ID
29758945 View in PubMed
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12-Year Trends in Active School Transport across Four European Countries-Findings from the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature311703
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 02 22; 18(4):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
02-22-2021
Author
Ellen Haug
Otto Robert Frans Smith
Jens Bucksch
Catherina Brindley
Jan Pavelka
Zdenek Hamrik
Joanna Inchley
Chris Roberts
Frida Kathrine Sofie Mathisen
Dagmar Sigmundová
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Promotion and Development, University of Bergen, 5020 Bergen, Norway.
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 02 22; 18(4):
Date
02-22-2021
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Czech Republic
Europe
Health Behavior
Humans
Norway
Schools
Scotland
Wales
Abstract
Active school transport (AST) is a source of daily physical activity uptake. However, AST seems to have decreased worldwide over recent decades. We aimed to examine recent trends in AST and associations with gender, age, family affluence, and time to school, using data from the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study collected in 2006, 2010, 2014, and 2018 in the Czech Republic, Norway, Scotland, and Wales. Data from 88,212 students (11, 13 and 15 years old) revealed stable patterns of AST from 2006 to 2018, apart from a decrease in the Czech Republic between 2006 and 2010. For survey waves combined, walking to and from school was most common in the Czech Republic (55%) and least common in Wales (30%). Cycling was only common in Norway (22%). AST differed by gender (Scotland and Wales), by age (Norway), and by family affluence (everywhere but Norway). In the Czech Republic, family affluence was associated with change over time in AST, and the effect of travel time on AST was stronger. The findings indicate that the decrease in AST could be levelling off in the countries considered here. Differential associations with sociodemographic factors and travel time should be considered in the development of strategies for AST.
PubMed ID
33671596 View in PubMed
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20-Year Nationwide Follow-Up Study on Discontinuation of Antipsychotic Treatment in First-Episode Schizophrenia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301781
Source
Am J Psychiatry. 2018 08 01; 175(8):765-773
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-01-2018
Author
Jari Tiihonen
Antti Tanskanen
Heidi Taipale
Author Affiliation
From the Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; the Department of Forensic Psychiatry, University of Eastern Finland, and Niuvanniemi Hospital, Kuopio; the Impact Assessment Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki; and the School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio.
Source
Am J Psychiatry. 2018 08 01; 175(8):765-773
Date
08-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Antipsychotic Agents - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Proportional Hazards Models
Recurrence
Registries
Risk factors
Schizophrenia - drug therapy
Withholding Treatment
Abstract
It is generally believed that after the first episode of schizophrenia, the risk of relapse decreases with time in patients who are stabilized. Many treatment guidelines recommend that after stabilization, antipsychotic treatment should be continued for 1-5 years, and longer exposure should be avoided if possible. However, there is no published evidence to substantiate this view. The authors used nationwide databases to investigate this issue.
Prospectively gathered nationwide register data were used to study the risk of treatment failure (psychiatric rehospitalization or death) after discontinuation of antipsychotic treatment. Multivariate Cox regression was used to assess outcomes among all patients hospitalized for the first time with a schizophrenia diagnosis in Finland during the period of 1996-2014 (N=8,719).
The lowest risk of rehospitalization or death was observed for patients who received antipsychotic treatment continuously (adjusted hazard ratio=1.00), followed by patients who discontinued antipsychotic use immediately after discharge from the first hospital treatment (hazard ratio=1.63, 95% CI=1.52-1.75), within 1 year (hazard ratio=1.88, 95% CI=1.57-2.24), within 1-2 years (hazard ratio=2.12, 95% CI=1.43-3.14), within 2-5 years (hazard ratio=3.26, 95% CI=2.07-5.13), and after 5 years (a median of 7.9 years) (hazard ratio=7.28, 95% CI=2.78-19.05). Risk of death was 174%-214% higher among nonusers and patients with early discontinuation of antipsychotics compared with patients who received antipsychotic treatment continuously for up to 16.4 years.
Whatever the underlying mechanisms, these results provide evidence that, contrary to general belief, the risk of treatment failure or relapse after discontinuation of antipsychotic use does not decrease as a function of time during the first 8 years of illness, and that long-term antipsychotic treatment is associated with increased survival.
Notes
CommentIn: Am J Psychiatry. 2018 Aug 1;175(8):712-713 PMID 30064241
CommentIn: Am J Psychiatry. 2018 Sep 1;175(9):908-909 PMID 30173547
CommentIn: Am J Psychiatry. 2018 Sep 1;175(9):909 PMID 30173555
CommentIn: Am J Psychiatry. 2018 Dec 1;175(12):1266-1267 PMID 30501413
CommentIn: Am J Psychiatry. 2018 Dec 1;175(12):1267 PMID 30501421
PubMed ID
29621900 View in PubMed
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21st-century modeled permafrost carbon emissions accelerated by abrupt thaw beneath lakes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297387
Source
Nat Commun. 2018 08 15; 9(1):3262
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
08-15-2018
Author
Katey Walter Anthony
Thomas Schneider von Deimling
Ingmar Nitze
Steve Frolking
Abraham Emond
Ronald Daanen
Peter Anthony
Prajna Lindgren
Benjamin Jones
Guido Grosse
Author Affiliation
Water and Environmental Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK, 99775, USA. kmwalteranthony@alaska.edu.
Source
Nat Commun. 2018 08 15; 9(1):3262
Date
08-15-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Alaska
Carbon - chemistry
Carbon Cycle
Carbon Dioxide - chemistry
Conservation of Natural Resources - methods - trends
Freezing
Geography
Geologic Sediments - chemistry
Global warming
Lakes - chemistry
Methane - chemistry
Models, Theoretical
Permafrost - chemistry
Soil - chemistry
Abstract
Permafrost carbon feedback (PCF) modeling has focused on gradual thaw of near-surface permafrost leading to enhanced carbon dioxide and methane emissions that accelerate global climate warming. These state-of-the-art land models have yet to incorporate deeper, abrupt thaw in the PCF. Here we use model data, supported by field observations, radiocarbon dating, and remote sensing, to show that methane and carbon dioxide emissions from abrupt thaw beneath thermokarst lakes will more than double radiative forcing from circumpolar permafrost-soil carbon fluxes this century. Abrupt thaw lake emissions are similar under moderate and high representative concentration pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5), but their relative contribution to the PCF is much larger under the moderate warming scenario. Abrupt thaw accelerates mobilization of deeply frozen, ancient carbon, increasing 14C-depleted permafrost soil carbon emissions by ~125-190% compared to gradual thaw alone. These findings demonstrate the need to incorporate abrupt thaw processes in earth system models for more comprehensive projection of the PCF this century.
PubMed ID
30111815 View in PubMed
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30-year trends in asthma and the trends in relation to hospitalization and mortality.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297877
Source
Respir Med. 2018 09; 142:29-35
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
09-2018
Author
Margit K Pelkonen
Irma-Leena K Notkola
Tiina K Laatikainen
Pekka Jousilahti
Author Affiliation
Division of Respiratory Medicine, Center for Medicine and Clinical Research, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland. Electronic address: Margit.Pelkonen@kuh.fi.
Source
Respir Med. 2018 09; 142:29-35
Date
09-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Asthma - epidemiology - mortality
Cause of Death - trends
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data - trends
Humans
Length of Stay - statistics & numerical data - trends
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Risk factors
Smoking
Surveys and Questionnaires
Time Factors
Abstract
The present study examines how trends in the prevalence of asthma during the past three decades associate with hospitalization and mortality during the same period.
Altogether 54?320 subjects aged 25-74 years were examined in seven independent cross-sectional population surveys repeated every five years between 1982 and 2012 in Finland. The study protocol included a standardized questionnaire on self-reported asthma, smoking habits and other risk factors, and clinical measurements at the study site. Data on hospitalizations were obtained from the Care Register for Health Care, and data on mortality from the National Causes of Death register.
During the study, the prevalence of asthma increased - especially in women. In asthmatic compared with non-asthmatic subjects, hospitalization was significantly higher for all causes, respiratory causes, cardiovascular causes and lung cancer. In addition, particularly in asthmatic subjects, mean yearly hospital days in the 5-year periods after each survey diminished. In asthmatic subjects, the decrease in yearly all-cause hospital days was from 4.45 (between 1982 and 1987) to 1.11 (between 2012 and 2015) and in subjects without asthma the corresponding decrease was from 1.77 to 0.60 (p?
PubMed ID
30170798 View in PubMed
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"886-84-like" tick-borne encephalitis virus strains: Intraspecific status elucidated by comparative genomics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature310363
Source
Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2019 08; 10(5):1168-1172
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-2019
Author
Renat V Adelshin
Elena A Sidorova
Artem N Bondaryuk
Anna G Trukhina
Dmitry Yu Sherbakov
Richard Allen White Iii
Evgeny I Andaev
Sergey V Balakhonov
Author Affiliation
Irkutsk Anti-Plague Research Institute of Siberia and Far East, Trilisser 78, 664047, Irkutsk, Russia; Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk, Russia. Electronic address: adelshin@gmail.com.
Source
Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2019 08; 10(5):1168-1172
Date
08-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Arvicolinae
Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne - classification - genetics
Encephalitis, Tick-Borne - epidemiology - veterinary - virology
Genome, Viral
Genomics
Genotype
Incidence
Ixodes - virology
Rodent Diseases - epidemiology - virology
Siberia - epidemiology
Abstract
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) can cause severe meningitis, encephalitis, and meningoencephalitis. TBEV represents a pathogen of high zoonotic potential and an emerging global threat. There are three known subtypes of TBEV: Far-Eastern, Siberian and European. Since 2001 there have been suggestions that two new subtypes may be distinguished: "178-79" and "886-84". These assumptions are based on the results of the envelope gene fragment sequencing (Zlobin et al., 2001; Kovalev and Mukhacheva, 2017) and genotype-specific probes molecular hybridization (Demina et al., 2010). There is only one full-genome sequence of "178-79" strain and two identical ones of "886-84" strain can be found in GenBank. For clarification of the intraspecific position of the "886-84-like" strains group we completely sequenced six previously unknown "886-84-like" strains isolated in Eastern Siberia. As a result of applying different bioinformatics approaches, we can confirm that "886-84-like" strains group is a distinct subtype of TBEV.
PubMed ID
31253516 View in PubMed
Less detail

"886-84-like" tick-borne encephalitis virus strains: Intraspecific status elucidated by comparative genomics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301562
Source
Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2019 08; 10(5):1168-1172
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-2019
Author
Renat V Adelshin
Elena A Sidorova
Artem N Bondaryuk
Anna G Trukhina
Dmitry Yu Sherbakov
Richard Allen White Iii
Evgeny I Andaev
Sergey V Balakhonov
Author Affiliation
Irkutsk Anti-Plague Research Institute of Siberia and Far East, Trilisser 78, 664047, Irkutsk, Russia; Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk, Russia. Electronic address: adelshin@gmail.com.
Source
Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2019 08; 10(5):1168-1172
Date
08-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) can cause severe meningitis, encephalitis, and meningoencephalitis. TBEV represents a pathogen of high zoonotic potential and an emerging global threat. There are three known subtypes of TBEV: Far-Eastern, Siberian and European. Since 2001 there have been suggestions that two new subtypes may be distinguished: "178-79" and "886-84". These assumptions are based on the results of the envelope gene fragment sequencing (Zlobin et al., 2001; Kovalev and Mukhacheva, 2017) and genotype-specific probes molecular hybridization (Demina et al., 2010). There is only one full-genome sequence of "178-79" strain and two identical ones of "886-84" strain can be found in GenBank. For clarification of the intraspecific position of the "886-84-like" strains group we completely sequenced six previously unknown "886-84-like" strains isolated in Eastern Siberia. As a result of applying different bioinformatics approaches, we can confirm that "886-84-like" strains group is a distinct subtype of TBEV.
PubMed ID
31253516 View in PubMed
Less detail

The 2015 National Canadian Homeless Youth Survey: Mental Health and Addiction Findings.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291013
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2017 07; 62(7):493-500
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
07-2017
Author
Sean A Kidd
Stephen Gaetz
Bill O'Grady
Author Affiliation
1 Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario.
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2017 07; 62(7):493-500
Date
07-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Homeless Youth - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Mental Health - statistics & numerical data
Sex Factors
Sexual and Gender Minorities - statistics & numerical data
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Suicide, Attempted - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
This study was designed to provide a representative description of the mental health of youth accessing homelessness services in Canada. It is the most extensive survey in this area to date and is intended to inform the development of mental health and addiction service and policy for this marginalized population.
This study reports mental health-related data from the 2015 "Leaving Home" national youth homelessness survey, which was administered through 57 agencies serving homeless youth in 42 communities across the country. This self-reported, point-in-time survey assessed a broad range of demographic information, pre-homelessness and homelessness variables, and mental health indicators.
Survey data were obtained from 1103 youth accessing Canadian homelessness services in the Nunavut territory and all Canadian provinces except for Prince Edward Island. Forty-two per cent of participants reported 1 or more suicide attempts, 85.4% fell in a high range of psychological distress, and key indicators of risk included an earlier age of the first episode of homelessness, female gender, and identifying as a sexual and/or gender minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and 2 spirit [LGBTQ2S]).
This study provides clear and compelling evidence of a need for mental health support for these youth, particularly LGBTQ2S youth and female youth. The mental health concerns observed here, however, must be considered in the light of the tremendous adversity in all social determinants faced by these youth, with population-level interventions best leveraged in prevention and rapid response.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28372467 View in PubMed
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5617 records – page 1 of 562.