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A 10-Year Follow-Up of Adiposity and Dementia in Swedish Adults Aged 70 Years and Older.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300956
Source
J Alzheimers Dis. 2018; 63(4):1325-1335
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
2018
Author
Ilse A C Arnoldussen
Valter Sundh
Kristoffer Bäckman
Silke Kern
Svante Östling
Kaj Blennow
Henrik Zetterberg
Ingmar Skoog
Amanda J Kiliaan
Deborah R Gustafson
Author Affiliation
Department of Anatomy, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Source
J Alzheimers Dis. 2018; 63(4):1325-1335
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adiponectin - blood
Adiposity
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anthropometry
Body mass index
Dementia - blood - epidemiology - pathology
Fasting
Female
Humans
Independent living
Leptin - blood
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Waist-Hip Ratio
Abstract
Adiposity measured in mid- or late-life and estimated using anthropometric measures such as body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), or metabolic markers such as blood leptin and adiponectin levels, is associated with late-onset dementia risk. However, during later life, this association may reverse and aging- and dementia-related processes may differentially affect adiposity measures.
We explored associations of concurrent BMI, WHR, and blood leptin and high molecular weight adiponectin levels with dementia occurrence.
924 Swedish community-dwelling elderly without dementia, aged 70 years and older, systematically-sampled by birth day and birth year population-based in the Gothenburg city region of Sweden. The Gothenburg Birth Cohort Studies are designed for evaluating risk and protective factors for dementia. All dementias diagnosed after age 70 for 10 years were identified. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to predict dementia occurrence between 2000-2005, 2005-2010, and 2000-2010 after excluding prevalent baseline (year 2000) dementias. Baseline levels of BMI, WHR, leptin, and adiponectin were used.
Within 5 years of baseline, low BMI (
PubMed ID
29758945 View in PubMed
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20-Year Nationwide Follow-Up Study on Discontinuation of Antipsychotic Treatment in First-Episode Schizophrenia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301781
Source
Am J Psychiatry. 2018 08 01; 175(8):765-773
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-01-2018
Author
Jari Tiihonen
Antti Tanskanen
Heidi Taipale
Author Affiliation
From the Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; the Department of Forensic Psychiatry, University of Eastern Finland, and Niuvanniemi Hospital, Kuopio; the Impact Assessment Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki; and the School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio.
Source
Am J Psychiatry. 2018 08 01; 175(8):765-773
Date
08-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Antipsychotic Agents - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Proportional Hazards Models
Recurrence
Registries
Risk factors
Schizophrenia - drug therapy
Withholding Treatment
Abstract
It is generally believed that after the first episode of schizophrenia, the risk of relapse decreases with time in patients who are stabilized. Many treatment guidelines recommend that after stabilization, antipsychotic treatment should be continued for 1-5 years, and longer exposure should be avoided if possible. However, there is no published evidence to substantiate this view. The authors used nationwide databases to investigate this issue.
Prospectively gathered nationwide register data were used to study the risk of treatment failure (psychiatric rehospitalization or death) after discontinuation of antipsychotic treatment. Multivariate Cox regression was used to assess outcomes among all patients hospitalized for the first time with a schizophrenia diagnosis in Finland during the period of 1996-2014 (N=8,719).
The lowest risk of rehospitalization or death was observed for patients who received antipsychotic treatment continuously (adjusted hazard ratio=1.00), followed by patients who discontinued antipsychotic use immediately after discharge from the first hospital treatment (hazard ratio=1.63, 95% CI=1.52-1.75), within 1 year (hazard ratio=1.88, 95% CI=1.57-2.24), within 1-2 years (hazard ratio=2.12, 95% CI=1.43-3.14), within 2-5 years (hazard ratio=3.26, 95% CI=2.07-5.13), and after 5 years (a median of 7.9 years) (hazard ratio=7.28, 95% CI=2.78-19.05). Risk of death was 174%-214% higher among nonusers and patients with early discontinuation of antipsychotics compared with patients who received antipsychotic treatment continuously for up to 16.4 years.
Whatever the underlying mechanisms, these results provide evidence that, contrary to general belief, the risk of treatment failure or relapse after discontinuation of antipsychotic use does not decrease as a function of time during the first 8 years of illness, and that long-term antipsychotic treatment is associated with increased survival.
Notes
CommentIn: Am J Psychiatry. 2018 Aug 1;175(8):712-713 PMID 30064241
CommentIn: Am J Psychiatry. 2018 Sep 1;175(9):908-909 PMID 30173547
CommentIn: Am J Psychiatry. 2018 Sep 1;175(9):909 PMID 30173555
CommentIn: Am J Psychiatry. 2018 Dec 1;175(12):1266-1267 PMID 30501413
CommentIn: Am J Psychiatry. 2018 Dec 1;175(12):1267 PMID 30501421
PubMed ID
29621900 View in PubMed
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21st-century modeled permafrost carbon emissions accelerated by abrupt thaw beneath lakes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297387
Source
Nat Commun. 2018 08 15; 9(1):3262
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
08-15-2018
Author
Katey Walter Anthony
Thomas Schneider von Deimling
Ingmar Nitze
Steve Frolking
Abraham Emond
Ronald Daanen
Peter Anthony
Prajna Lindgren
Benjamin Jones
Guido Grosse
Author Affiliation
Water and Environmental Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK, 99775, USA. kmwalteranthony@alaska.edu.
Source
Nat Commun. 2018 08 15; 9(1):3262
Date
08-15-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Alaska
Carbon - chemistry
Carbon Cycle
Carbon Dioxide - chemistry
Conservation of Natural Resources - methods - trends
Freezing
Geography
Geologic Sediments - chemistry
Global warming
Lakes - chemistry
Methane - chemistry
Models, Theoretical
Permafrost - chemistry
Soil - chemistry
Abstract
Permafrost carbon feedback (PCF) modeling has focused on gradual thaw of near-surface permafrost leading to enhanced carbon dioxide and methane emissions that accelerate global climate warming. These state-of-the-art land models have yet to incorporate deeper, abrupt thaw in the PCF. Here we use model data, supported by field observations, radiocarbon dating, and remote sensing, to show that methane and carbon dioxide emissions from abrupt thaw beneath thermokarst lakes will more than double radiative forcing from circumpolar permafrost-soil carbon fluxes this century. Abrupt thaw lake emissions are similar under moderate and high representative concentration pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5), but their relative contribution to the PCF is much larger under the moderate warming scenario. Abrupt thaw accelerates mobilization of deeply frozen, ancient carbon, increasing 14C-depleted permafrost soil carbon emissions by ~125-190% compared to gradual thaw alone. These findings demonstrate the need to incorporate abrupt thaw processes in earth system models for more comprehensive projection of the PCF this century.
PubMed ID
30111815 View in PubMed
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30-year trends in asthma and the trends in relation to hospitalization and mortality.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297877
Source
Respir Med. 2018 09; 142:29-35
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
09-2018
Author
Margit K Pelkonen
Irma-Leena K Notkola
Tiina K Laatikainen
Pekka Jousilahti
Author Affiliation
Division of Respiratory Medicine, Center for Medicine and Clinical Research, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland. Electronic address: Margit.Pelkonen@kuh.fi.
Source
Respir Med. 2018 09; 142:29-35
Date
09-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Asthma - epidemiology - mortality
Cause of Death - trends
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data - trends
Humans
Length of Stay - statistics & numerical data - trends
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Risk factors
Smoking
Surveys and Questionnaires
Time Factors
Abstract
The present study examines how trends in the prevalence of asthma during the past three decades associate with hospitalization and mortality during the same period.
Altogether 54?320 subjects aged 25-74 years were examined in seven independent cross-sectional population surveys repeated every five years between 1982 and 2012 in Finland. The study protocol included a standardized questionnaire on self-reported asthma, smoking habits and other risk factors, and clinical measurements at the study site. Data on hospitalizations were obtained from the Care Register for Health Care, and data on mortality from the National Causes of Death register.
During the study, the prevalence of asthma increased - especially in women. In asthmatic compared with non-asthmatic subjects, hospitalization was significantly higher for all causes, respiratory causes, cardiovascular causes and lung cancer. In addition, particularly in asthmatic subjects, mean yearly hospital days in the 5-year periods after each survey diminished. In asthmatic subjects, the decrease in yearly all-cause hospital days was from 4.45 (between 1982 and 1987) to 1.11 (between 2012 and 2015) and in subjects without asthma the corresponding decrease was from 1.77 to 0.60 (p?
PubMed ID
30170798 View in PubMed
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"886-84-like" tick-borne encephalitis virus strains: Intraspecific status elucidated by comparative genomics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301562
Source
Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2019 08; 10(5):1168-1172
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-2019
Author
Renat V Adelshin
Elena A Sidorova
Artem N Bondaryuk
Anna G Trukhina
Dmitry Yu Sherbakov
Richard Allen White Iii
Evgeny I Andaev
Sergey V Balakhonov
Author Affiliation
Irkutsk Anti-Plague Research Institute of Siberia and Far East, Trilisser 78, 664047, Irkutsk, Russia; Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk, Russia. Electronic address: adelshin@gmail.com.
Source
Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2019 08; 10(5):1168-1172
Date
08-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) can cause severe meningitis, encephalitis, and meningoencephalitis. TBEV represents a pathogen of high zoonotic potential and an emerging global threat. There are three known subtypes of TBEV: Far-Eastern, Siberian and European. Since 2001 there have been suggestions that two new subtypes may be distinguished: "178-79" and "886-84". These assumptions are based on the results of the envelope gene fragment sequencing (Zlobin et al., 2001; Kovalev and Mukhacheva, 2017) and genotype-specific probes molecular hybridization (Demina et al., 2010). There is only one full-genome sequence of "178-79" strain and two identical ones of "886-84" strain can be found in GenBank. For clarification of the intraspecific position of the "886-84-like" strains group we completely sequenced six previously unknown "886-84-like" strains isolated in Eastern Siberia. As a result of applying different bioinformatics approaches, we can confirm that "886-84-like" strains group is a distinct subtype of TBEV.
PubMed ID
31253516 View in PubMed
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The 2015 National Canadian Homeless Youth Survey: Mental Health and Addiction Findings.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291013
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2017 07; 62(7):493-500
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
07-2017
Author
Sean A Kidd
Stephen Gaetz
Bill O'Grady
Author Affiliation
1 Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario.
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2017 07; 62(7):493-500
Date
07-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Homeless Youth - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Mental Health - statistics & numerical data
Sex Factors
Sexual and Gender Minorities - statistics & numerical data
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Suicide, Attempted - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
This study was designed to provide a representative description of the mental health of youth accessing homelessness services in Canada. It is the most extensive survey in this area to date and is intended to inform the development of mental health and addiction service and policy for this marginalized population.
This study reports mental health-related data from the 2015 "Leaving Home" national youth homelessness survey, which was administered through 57 agencies serving homeless youth in 42 communities across the country. This self-reported, point-in-time survey assessed a broad range of demographic information, pre-homelessness and homelessness variables, and mental health indicators.
Survey data were obtained from 1103 youth accessing Canadian homelessness services in the Nunavut territory and all Canadian provinces except for Prince Edward Island. Forty-two per cent of participants reported 1 or more suicide attempts, 85.4% fell in a high range of psychological distress, and key indicators of risk included an earlier age of the first episode of homelessness, female gender, and identifying as a sexual and/or gender minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and 2 spirit [LGBTQ2S]).
This study provides clear and compelling evidence of a need for mental health support for these youth, particularly LGBTQ2S youth and female youth. The mental health concerns observed here, however, must be considered in the light of the tremendous adversity in all social determinants faced by these youth, with population-level interventions best leveraged in prevention and rapid response.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28372467 View in PubMed
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Abdominal Aortic Calcifications Predict Survival in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298110
Source
Perit Dial Int. 2018 Sep-Oct; 38(5):366-373
Publication Type
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Observational Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Author
Satu Mäkelä
Markku Asola
Henrik Hadimeri
James Heaf
Maija Heiro
Leena Kauppila
Susanne Ljungman
Mai Ots-Rosenberg
Johan V Povlsen
Björn Rogland
Petra Roessel
Jana Uhlinova
Maarit Vainiotalo
Maria K Svensson
Heini Huhtala
Heikki Saha
Author Affiliation
Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland satu.m.makela@pshp.fi.
Source
Perit Dial Int. 2018 Sep-Oct; 38(5):366-373
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Observational Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Ankle Brachial Index
Aorta, Abdominal - diagnostic imaging
Aortic Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Cause of Death - trends
Critical Illness - mortality - therapy
Denmark - epidemiology
Estonia - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Peritoneal Dialysis - adverse effects - mortality
Prognosis
Prospective Studies
Renal Dialysis
Risk factors
Survival Rate - trends
Sweden - epidemiology
Ultrasonography, Doppler
Vascular Calcification - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Abstract
Peripheral arterial disease and vascular calcifications contribute significantly to the outcome of dialysis patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic role of severity of abdominal aortic calcifications and peripheral arterial disease on outcome of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients using methods easily available in everyday clinical practice.
We enrolled 249 PD patients (mean age 61 years, 67% male) in this prospective, observational, multicenter study from 2009 to 2013. The abdominal aortic calcification score (AACS) was assessed using lateral lumbar X ray, and the ankle-brachial index (ABI) using a Doppler device.
The median AACS was 11 (range 0 - 24). In 58% of the patients, all 4 segments of the abdominal aorta showed deposits, while 19% of patients had no visible deposits (AACS 0). Ankle-brachial index was normal in 49%, low ( 1.3) in 34% of patients. Altogether 91 patients (37%) died during the median follow-up of 46 months. Only 2 patients (5%) with AACS 0 died compared with 50% of the patients with AACS = 7 (p
PubMed ID
29386304 View in PubMed
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Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue cellularity in men and women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294588
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2017 10; 41(10):1564-1569
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
10-2017
Author
D P Andersson
E Arner
D E Hogling
M Rydén
P Arner
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2017 10; 41(10):1564-1569
Date
10-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Absorptiometry, Photon
Adipocytes - cytology
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Body Composition
Body Fat Distribution
Body mass index
Female
Humans
Insulin Resistance
Male
Middle Aged
Sex Characteristics
Subcutaneous Fat, Abdominal - cytology
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
Differences in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) fat cell size and number (cellularity) are linked to insulin resistance. Men are generally more insulin resistant than women but it is unknown whether there is a gender dimorphism in SAT cellularity. The objective was to determine SAT cellularity and its relationship to insulin sensitivity in men and women.
In a cohort study performed at an outpatient academic clinic in Sweden, 798 women and 306 men were included. Estimated SAT mass (ESAT) was derived from measures of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and a formula. SAT biopsies were obtained to measure mean fat cell size; SAT adipocyte number was obtained by dividing ESAT with mean fat cell weight. Fat cell size was also compared with level of insulin sensitivity in vivo.
Over the entire range of body mass index (BMI) both fat cell size and number correlated positively with ESAT in either sex. On average, fat cell size was larger in men than in women, which was driven by significantly larger fat cells in non-obese men compared with non-obese women; no gender effect on fat cell size was seen in obese subjects. For all subjects fat cell number was larger in women than men, which was driven by a gender effect among non-obese individuals (P
Notes
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PubMed ID
28630459 View in PubMed
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The ability of the ICD-AIS map to identify seriously injured patients in road traffic accidents-A study from Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299598
Source
Traffic Inj Prev. 2018; 19(8):819-824
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
2018
Author
Noora Airaksinen
Ilona Nurmi-Lüthje
Heikki Kröger
Peter Lüthje
Author Affiliation
a Faculty of Heath Sciences , University of Eastern Finland , Kuopio , Finland.
Source
Traffic Inj Prev. 2018; 19(8):819-824
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Abbreviated Injury Scale
Accidents, Traffic - statistics & numerical data
Finland
Humans
Injury Severity Score
Medical Records - statistics & numerical data
Retrospective Studies
Abstract
In Finland, the severity of road traffic injuries is determined using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Finnish Modification (ICD-10-FM) injury codes from Finnish Hospital Discharge data and the automatic conversion tool (ICD-AIS map) developed by the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine (AAAM). The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of the ICD-AIS map to identify seriously injured patients due to traffic accidents in Finnish injury data by comparing the severity rating generated by an expert and by the ICD-AIS map.
Our data came from the North Kymi Hospital (level 2 trauma center at the time of the study). The data included 574 patients who were injured in traffic accidents during 2 years. The severity rating (Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale [MAIS] 3+) of each patient was recorded retrospectively by an expert based on information from patient records. In addition, the rating was generated from ICD-10 injury codes by the ICD-AIS map conversion tool. These 2 ratings were compared by road user categories and the strength of agreement was described using Cohen's kappa.
The proportion of seriously injured patients was 10.1% as defined by the expert and 6.6% as generated by the ICD-AIS map; exact agreement was 65.5%. The highest concordance was for pedestrians (exact agreement 100%) and the weakest for moped drivers and motorcyclists (46.7%). Furthermore, the overall strength of agreement of the severity ratings (slightly or seriously injured) between the expert and the ICD-AIS map was good (??=?0.70). Most (65%) of the conversion problems were misclassifications caused by the simplicity of the Finnish ICD-10 injury codes compared to the injury codes used in the ICD-AIS map. In Finland, the injuries are recorded mainly with 4-digit codes and, infrequently, with 5-digit codes, whereas the ICD-AIS map defines up to 6-digit codes.
For this sample of simplified ICD-10-FM codes, the ICD-AIS map underestimated the number of seriously injured patients. The mapping result could be improved if at least open and closed fractures of extremities and visceral contusions and ruptures had separate codes. In addition, there were a few injury codes that should be considered for inclusion in the map.
PubMed ID
30543466 View in PubMed
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Abnormal skin in toe webs is a marker for abnormal glucose metabolism. A cross-sectional survey among 1,849 adults in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299221
Source
Sci Rep. 2017 08 22; 7(1):9125
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-22-2017
Author
Suvi-Päivikki Sinikumpu
Juha Auvinen
Jari Jokelainen
Laura Huilaja
Katri Puukka
Aimo Ruokonen
Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi
Kaisa Tasanen
Markku Timonen
Author Affiliation
PEDEGO Research Unit, University of Oulu, Department of Dermatology and Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital, P.O. Box 20, Oulu, 90029, Finland. suvi-paivikki.sinikumpu@oulu.fi.
Source
Sci Rep. 2017 08 22; 7(1):9125
Date
08-22-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Biomarkers
Blood glucose
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Glucose - metabolism
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Skin - pathology
Toes
Abstract
Diabetes is undiagnosed disease and easy screening tools for it are warranted. Because foot complications are usual in diabetes, we aimed to test hypothesis that skin abnormalities are found already from patients who are not aware of having diabetes, by studying the possible association between unhealthy toe web skin and abnormal glucose metabolism. 1,849 cases without previously diagnosed diabetes participated to the 46-year follow-up study of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort. A skin investigation was performed for all, and abnormal skin findings in toe web spaces were taken as explanatory variables. Abnormal glucose tolerance was the main outcome and it was tested with an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), glycosylated haemoglobin fraction (HbA1c) Values are numbers (percentages) of sub and fasting blood glucose. The participants who had any abnormal skin findings in toe webs were associated with 2.5-fold (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3-4.9) and 6-fold (OR 6.2, 1.4-27.6) increased risk of having previously undiagnosed diabetes detected by a 2-hour OGTT and HbA1c, respectively. The predictive power of toe web findings was comparable with FINDRISC score. Abnormal skin findings in the toe webs show increased risk of occult diabetes, and may, thus serve as an additional sign of undiagnosed diabetes.
PubMed ID
28831117 View in PubMed
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2430 records – page 1 of 243.