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The 2015 National Canadian Homeless Youth Survey: Mental Health and Addiction Findings.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291013
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2017 07; 62(7):493-500
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
07-2017
Author
Sean A Kidd
Stephen Gaetz
Bill O'Grady
Author Affiliation
1 Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario.
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2017 07; 62(7):493-500
Date
07-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Homeless Youth - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Mental Health - statistics & numerical data
Sex Factors
Sexual and Gender Minorities - statistics & numerical data
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Suicide, Attempted - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
This study was designed to provide a representative description of the mental health of youth accessing homelessness services in Canada. It is the most extensive survey in this area to date and is intended to inform the development of mental health and addiction service and policy for this marginalized population.
This study reports mental health-related data from the 2015 "Leaving Home" national youth homelessness survey, which was administered through 57 agencies serving homeless youth in 42 communities across the country. This self-reported, point-in-time survey assessed a broad range of demographic information, pre-homelessness and homelessness variables, and mental health indicators.
Survey data were obtained from 1103 youth accessing Canadian homelessness services in the Nunavut territory and all Canadian provinces except for Prince Edward Island. Forty-two per cent of participants reported 1 or more suicide attempts, 85.4% fell in a high range of psychological distress, and key indicators of risk included an earlier age of the first episode of homelessness, female gender, and identifying as a sexual and/or gender minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and 2 spirit [LGBTQ2S]).
This study provides clear and compelling evidence of a need for mental health support for these youth, particularly LGBTQ2S youth and female youth. The mental health concerns observed here, however, must be considered in the light of the tremendous adversity in all social determinants faced by these youth, with population-level interventions best leveraged in prevention and rapid response.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28372467 View in PubMed
Less detail

Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue cellularity in men and women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294588
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2017 10; 41(10):1564-1569
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
10-2017
Author
D P Andersson
E Arner
D E Hogling
M Rydén
P Arner
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2017 10; 41(10):1564-1569
Date
10-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Absorptiometry, Photon
Adipocytes - cytology
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Body Composition
Body Fat Distribution
Body mass index
Female
Humans
Insulin Resistance
Male
Middle Aged
Sex Characteristics
Subcutaneous Fat, Abdominal - cytology
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
Differences in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) fat cell size and number (cellularity) are linked to insulin resistance. Men are generally more insulin resistant than women but it is unknown whether there is a gender dimorphism in SAT cellularity. The objective was to determine SAT cellularity and its relationship to insulin sensitivity in men and women.
In a cohort study performed at an outpatient academic clinic in Sweden, 798 women and 306 men were included. Estimated SAT mass (ESAT) was derived from measures of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and a formula. SAT biopsies were obtained to measure mean fat cell size; SAT adipocyte number was obtained by dividing ESAT with mean fat cell weight. Fat cell size was also compared with level of insulin sensitivity in vivo.
Over the entire range of body mass index (BMI) both fat cell size and number correlated positively with ESAT in either sex. On average, fat cell size was larger in men than in women, which was driven by significantly larger fat cells in non-obese men compared with non-obese women; no gender effect on fat cell size was seen in obese subjects. For all subjects fat cell number was larger in women than men, which was driven by a gender effect among non-obese individuals (P
Notes
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PubMed ID
28630459 View in PubMed
Less detail

Absolute rather than relative income is a better socioeconomic predictor of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Swedish adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292715
Source
Int J Equity Health. 2017 05 04; 16(1):70
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
05-04-2017
Author
Sten Axelsson Fisk
Juan Merlo
Author Affiliation
Unit for Social Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, CRC, Jan Waldeströms gata, 35, S-205 02, Malmö, Sweden. sten.axelsson_fisk@med.lu.se.
Source
Int J Equity Health. 2017 05 04; 16(1):70
Date
05-04-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Aged
Female
Humans
Incidence
Income - statistics & numerical data
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
Prevalence
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - economics - epidemiology
Risk assessment
Social Class
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
While psychosocial theory claims that socioeconomic status (SES), acting through social comparisons, has an important influence on susceptibility to disease, materialistic theory says that socioeconomic position (SEP) and related access to material resources matter more. However, the relative role of SEP versus SES in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk has still not been examined.
We investigated the association between SES/SEP and COPD risk among 667 094 older adults, aged 55 to 60, residing in Sweden between 2006 and 2011. Absolute income in five groups by population quintiles depicted SEP and relative income expressed as quintile groups within each absolute income group represented SES. We performed sex-stratified logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios and the area under the receiver operator curve (AUC) to compare the discriminatory accuracy of SES and SEP in relation to COPD.
Even though both absolute (SEP) and relative income (SES) were associated with COPD risk, only absolute income (SEP) presented a clear gradient, so the poorest had a three-fold higher COPD risk than the richest individuals. While the AUC for a model including only age was 0.54 and 0.55 when including relative income (SES), it increased to 0.65 when accounting for absolute income (SEP). SEP rather than SES demonstrated a consistent association with COPD.
Our study supports the materialistic theory. Access to material resources seems more relevant to COPD risk than the consequences of low relative income.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28472960 View in PubMed
Less detail

Access to occupational networks and ethnic variation of depressive symptoms in young adults in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292368
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2017 10; 190:207-216
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
10-2017
Author
Alexander Miething
Mikael Rostila
Jens Rydgren
Author Affiliation
Department of Sociology, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University, Karolinska Institutet, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: alexander.miething@sociology.su.se.
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2017 10; 190:207-216
Date
10-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Depression - epidemiology - ethnology - psychology
Ethnic groups - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Iran - ethnology
Male
Prevalence
Psychometrics - instrumentation - methods
Social capital
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology - ethnology
Young Adult
Yugoslavia - ethnology
Abstract
Social capital research has recognized the relevance of occupational network contacts for individuals' life chances and status attainment, and found distinct associations dependent on ethnic background. A still fairly unexplored area is the health implications of occupational networks. The current approach thus seeks to study the relationship between access to occupational social capital and depressive symptoms in early adulthood, and to examine whether the associations differ between persons with native Swedish parents and those with parents born in Iran and the former Yugoslavia. The two-wave panel comprised 19- and 23-year-old Swedish citizens whose parents were born in either Sweden, Iran or the former Yugoslavia. The composition of respondents' occupational networks contacts was measured with a so-called position generator. Depressive symptoms were assessed with a two-item depression screener. A population-averaged model was used to estimate the associations between depressive symptoms and access to occupational contact networks. Similar levels of depressive symptoms in respondents with parents born in Sweden and Yugoslavia were contrasted by a notably higher prevalence of these conditions in those with an Iranian background. After socioeconomic conditions were adjusted for, regression analysis showed that the propensity for depressive symptoms in women with an Iranian background increased with a higher number of manual class contacts, and decreased for men and women with Iranian parents with a higher number of prestigious occupational connections. The respective associations in persons with native Swedish parents and parents from the former Yugoslavia are partly reversed. Access to occupational contact networks, but also perceived ethnic identity, explained a large portion of the ethnic variation in depression. Mainly the group with an Iranian background seems to benefit from prestigious occupational contacts. Among those with an Iranian background, social status concerns and expected marginalization in manual class occupations may have contributed to their propensity for depressive symptoms.
PubMed ID
28866474 View in PubMed
Less detail

Acoustic vector sensor beamforming reduces masking from underwater industrial noise during passive monitoring.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289559
Source
J Acoust Soc Am. 2016 04; 139(4):EL105
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
04-2016
Author
Aaron M Thode
Katherine H Kim
Robert G Norman
Susanna B Blackwell
Charles R Greene
Author Affiliation
Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, California 92093-0205, USA athode@ucsd.edu.
Source
J Acoust Soc Am. 2016 04; 139(4):EL105
Date
04-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Acoustics - instrumentation
Animals
Environmental Monitoring - instrumentation - methods
Equipment Design
Models, Theoretical
Motion
Noise - adverse effects
Oceans and Seas
Oil and Gas Industry
Pressure
Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
Signal-To-Noise Ratio
Sound Spectrography
Time Factors
Transducers, Pressure
Vocalization, Animal
Water
Abstract
Masking from industrial noise can hamper the ability to detect marine mammal sounds near industrial operations, whenever conventional (pressure sensor) hydrophones are used for passive acoustic monitoring. Using data collected from an autonomous recorder with directional capabilities (Directional Autonomous Seafloor Acoustic Recorder), deployed 4.1?km from an arctic drilling site in 2012, the authors demonstrate how conventional beamforming on an acoustic vector sensor can be used to suppress noise arriving from a narrow sector of geographic azimuths. Improvements in signal-to-noise ratio of up to 15?dB are demonstrated on bowhead whale calls, which were otherwise undetectable using conventional hydrophones.
PubMed ID
27106345 View in PubMed
Less detail

Acoustic vector sensor beamforming reduces masking from underwater industrial noise during passive monitoring.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289717
Source
J Acoust Soc Am. 2016 04; 139(4):EL105
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
04-2016
Author
Aaron M Thode
Katherine H Kim
Robert G Norman
Susanna B Blackwell
Charles R Greene
Author Affiliation
Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, California 92093-0205, USA athode@ucsd.edu.
Source
J Acoust Soc Am. 2016 04; 139(4):EL105
Date
04-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Acoustics - instrumentation
Animals
Environmental Monitoring - instrumentation - methods
Equipment Design
Models, Theoretical
Motion
Noise - adverse effects
Oceans and Seas
Oil and Gas Industry
Pressure
Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
Signal-To-Noise Ratio
Sound Spectrography
Time Factors
Transducers, Pressure
Vocalization, Animal
Water
Abstract
Masking from industrial noise can hamper the ability to detect marine mammal sounds near industrial operations, whenever conventional (pressure sensor) hydrophones are used for passive acoustic monitoring. Using data collected from an autonomous recorder with directional capabilities (Directional Autonomous Seafloor Acoustic Recorder), deployed 4.1?km from an arctic drilling site in 2012, the authors demonstrate how conventional beamforming on an acoustic vector sensor can be used to suppress noise arriving from a narrow sector of geographic azimuths. Improvements in signal-to-noise ratio of up to 15?dB are demonstrated on bowhead whale calls, which were otherwise undetectable using conventional hydrophones.
PubMed ID
27106345 View in PubMed
Less detail

Acting on audit & feedback: a qualitative instrumental case study in mental health services in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295007
Source
BMC Health Serv Res. 2018 01 31; 18(1):71
Publication Type
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
01-31-2018
Author
Monica Stolt Pedersen
Anne Landheim
Merete Møller
Lars Lien
Author Affiliation
Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Concurrent Substance Abuse and Mental Health Disorders, Innlandet Hospital Trust, P.B. 104, 2340, Brumunddal, Norway. monica.stolt.pedersen@sykehuset-innlandet.no.
Source
BMC Health Serv Res. 2018 01 31; 18(1):71
Date
01-31-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Benchmarking
Evidence-Based Practice
Feedback
Health Personnel
Humans
Medical Audit
Mental Disorders - rehabilitation - therapy
Mental Health Services - organization & administration - standards
Norway
Organizational Case Studies
Qualitative Research
Quality Improvement
Abstract
The National Guideline for Assessment, Treatment and Social Rehabilitation of Persons with Concurrent Substance Use and Mental Health Disorders, launched in 2012, is to be implemented in mental health services in Norway. Audit and feedback (A&F) is commonly used as the starting point of an implementation process. It aims to measure the research-practice gap, but its effect varies greatly. Less is known of how audit and feedback is used in natural settings. The aim of this study was to describe and investigate what is discussed and thematised when Quality Improvement (QI) teams in a District Psychiatric Centre (DPC) work to complete an action form as part of an A&F cycle in 2014.
This was an instrumental multiple case study involving four units in a DPC in Norway. We used open non-participant observation of QI team meetings in their natural setting, a total of seven teams and eleven meetings.
The discussions provided health professionals with insight into their own and their colleagues' practices. They revealed insufficient knowledge of substance-related disorders and experienced unclear role expectations. We found differences in how professional groups sought answers to questions of clinical practice and that they were concerned about whether new tasks fitted in with their routine ways of working.
Acting on A&F provided an opportunity to discuss practice in general, enhancing awareness of good practice. There was a general need for arenas to relate to practice and QI team meetings after A&F may well be a suitable arena for this. Self-assessment audits seem valuable, particular in areas where no benchmarked data exists, and there is a demand for implementation of new guidelines that might change routines and develop new roles. QI teams could benefit from having a unit leader present at meetings. Nurses and social educators and others turn to psychiatrists or psychologists for answers to clinical and organisational questions beyond guidelines, and show less confidence or routine in seeking research-based information. There is a general need to emphasise training in evidence-based practice and information seeking behaviour for all professional groups.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29386020 View in PubMed
Less detail

Active listing and more consultations in primary care are associated with reduced hospitalisation in a Swedish population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294536
Source
BMC Health Serv Res. 2018 02 09; 18(1):101
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
02-09-2018
Author
Karin Ranstad
Patrik Midlöv
Anders Halling
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Centre for Primary Health Care Research, Clinical Research Centre (CRC), Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, 205 02, Malmö, Sweden. karin.ranstad@med.lu.se.
Source
BMC Health Serv Res. 2018 02 09; 18(1):101
Date
02-09-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cross-Sectional Studies
Databases, Factual
Delivery of Health Care
Female
Hospitalization - trends
Humans
Income
Male
Middle Aged
Primary Health Care
Referral and Consultation - utilization
Social Class
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
Healthcare systems are complex networks where relationships affect outcomes. The importance of primary care increases while health care acknowledges multimorbidity, the impact of combinations of different diseases in one person. Active listing and consultations in primary care could be used as proxies of the relationships between patients and primary care. Our objective was to study hospitalisation as an outcome of primary care, exploring the associations with active listing, number of consultations in primary care and two groups of practices, while taking socioeconomic status and morbidity burden into account.
A cross-sectional study using zero-inflated negative binomial regression to estimate odds of any hospital admission and mean number of days hospitalised for the population over 15 years (N =?123,168) in the Swedish county of Blekinge during 2007. Explanatory factors were listed as active or passive in primary care, number of consultations in primary care and primary care practices grouped according to ownership. The models were adjusted for sex, age, disposable income, education level and multimorbidity level.
Mean days hospitalised was 0.94 (95%CI 0.90-0.99) for actively listed and 1.32 (95%CI 1.24-1.40) for passively listed. For patients with 0-1 consultation in primary care mean days hospitalised was 1.21 (95%CI 1.13-1.29) compared to 0.77 (95%CI 0.66-0.87) days for patients with 6-7 consultations. Mean days hospitalised was 1.22 (95%CI 1.16-1.28) for listed in private primary care and 0.98 (95%CI 0.94-1.01) for listed in public primary care, with odds for hospital admission 0.51 (95%CI 0.39-0.63) for public primary care compared to private primary care.
Active listing and more consultations in primary care are both associated with reduced mean days hospitalised, when adjusting for socioeconomic status and multimorbidity level. Different odds of any hospitalisation give a difference in mean days hospitalised associated with type of primary care practice. To promote well performing primary care to maintain good relationships with patients could reduce mean days hospitalised.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29426332 View in PubMed
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Adapting and enhancing PAX Good Behavior Game for First Nations communities: a mixed-methods study protocol developed with Swampy Cree Tribal Council communities in Manitoba.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294532
Source
BMJ Open. 2018 02 15; 8(2):e018454
Publication Type
Evaluation Studies
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
02-15-2018
Author
Janique Fortier
Mariette Chartier
Sarah Turner
Nora Murdock
Frank Turner
Jitender Sareen
Tracie O Afifi
Laurence Y Katz
Marni Brownell
James Bolton
Brenda Elias
Corinne Isaak
Roberta Woodgate
Depeng Jiang
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health Sciences, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
Source
BMJ Open. 2018 02 15; 8(2):e018454
Date
02-15-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Evaluation Studies
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Attitude
Child
Child Behavior
Child Behavior Disorders - ethnology - prevention & control
Cultural Competency
Female
Health Promotion - methods
Humans
Indians, North American
Male
Manitoba
Mental health
Play and Playthings
Program Evaluation
Research Design
Residence Characteristics
Reward
School Health Services
Schools
Social Behavior
Social Behavior Disorders - ethnology - prevention & control
Abstract
High rates of mental health problems, such as suicidal behaviours, among First Nations youth in Canada are a major public health concern. The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a school-based intervention that provides a nurturing environment for children and has been shown to promote positive outcomes. PAX Good Behavior Game (PAX GBG) is an adaptation and enhancement of the GBG. While PAX GBG has been implemented in Indigenous communities, little research exists examining the cultural and contextual appropriateness and effectiveness of the intervention in First Nations communities.
The present paper describes a protocol of the mixed-methods approach guided by an Indigenous ethical engagement model adopted to implement, adapt and evaluate PAX GBG in First Nations communities in Manitoba, Canada. First, implementation outcomes (eg, acceptability, adoption) of PAX GBG will be evaluated using qualitative interviews with teachers, principals and community members from Swampy Cree Tribal Council (SCTC) communities. Second, by linking administrative databases to programme data from schools in 38 First Nations communities, we will compare PAX GBG and control groups to evaluate whether PAX GBG is associated with improved mental health and academic outcomes. Third, the qualitative results will help inform a cultural and contextual adaptation of PAX GBG called First Nations PAX (FN PAX). Fourth, FN PAX will be implemented in a few SCTC communities and evaluated using surveys and qualitative interviews followed by the remaining communities the subsequent year.
Ethical approval was obtained from the University of Manitoba Health Research Ethics Board and will be obtained from the Health Information Privacy Committee and respective data providers for the administrative database linkages. Dissemination and knowledge translation will include community and stakeholder engagement throughout the research process, reports and presentations for policymakers and community members, presentations at scientific conferences and journal publications.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29449291 View in PubMed
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ADHD medication in offspring of immigrants - does the income level of the country of parental origin matter?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature293027
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2018 01 08; 18(1):3
Publication Type
Evaluation Studies
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
01-08-2018
Author
Arzu Arat
Viveca Östberg
Bo Burström
Anders Hjern
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, 171 76, Stockholm, Sweden. arzu.arat@chess.su.se.
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2018 01 08; 18(1):3
Date
01-08-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Evaluation Studies
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - drug therapy - economics - ethnology
Central Nervous System Stimulants - economics - therapeutic use
Child
Developing Countries
Emigrants and Immigrants - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Income - statistics & numerical data
Logistic Models
Male
Odds Ratio
Parents
Registries
Social Class
Sweden
Abstract
Child psychiatric treatment facilities vary greatly worldwide and are virtually non-existent in many low-income countries. One of the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood is ADHD, with an estimated prevalence of 3-5% in Sweden. Previous studies have shown a similar prevalence of ADHD in minority and majority children in Sweden and the UK. However, clinical studies demonstrated that children from immigrant families living in Sweden received less psychiatric care than those of native-born parents. We tested the hypothesis that the consumption of child psychiatric care in immigrant families would be determined by the availability of such treatment in the parents' country of origin. Patterns of medication for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were studied as a proxy for child psychiatric care.
This was a register study of dispensed stimulant medication during 2013-2014 in Swedish national birth cohorts from 1995-2009. The study population, consisting of nearly 1.4 million children, was divided by national income of the parental country of origin and whether the parents were native Swedes, European immigrants, non-European immigrants or a mixture. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios of having been dispensed at least one ADHD drug during 2013, with adjustments for gender, family status indicating whether the child is living with both parents, household income and area of residence.
Having parents born in low-income (OR [95% confidence interval] 0.27 [0.24-0.29]) or middle-income (European: OR 0.23 [0.20-0.26], non-European: OR 0.39 [0.34-0.41]) countries was associated with lower ADHD treatment levels than having parents born in high-income countries (European: OR 0.60 [0.54-0.66], non-European: OR 0.68 [0.59-0.79]), when compared to children of parents born in Sweden. In families with a background in low or middle income countries, there was no significant association between household income and ADHD medication, while in children with Swedish and mixed backgrounds high level of disposable income was associated with lower levels of ADHD medication.
The use of child psychiatric care by immigrant families in Sweden was largely associated with the income level of the country of origin.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29310624 View in PubMed
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