Permafrost carbon feedback (PCF) modeling has focused on gradual thaw of near-surface permafrost leading to enhanced carbon dioxide and methane emissions that accelerate global climate warming. These state-of-the-art land models have yet to incorporate deeper, abrupt thaw in the PCF. Here we use model data, supported by field observations, radiocarbon dating, and remote sensing, to show that methane and carbon dioxide emissions from abrupt thaw beneath thermokarst lakes will more than double radiative forcing from circumpolar permafrost-soil carbon fluxes this century. Abrupt thaw lake emissions are similar under moderate and high representative concentration pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5), but their relative contribution to the PCF is much larger under the moderate warming scenario. Abrupt thaw accelerates mobilization of deeply frozen, ancient carbon, increasing 14C-depleted permafrost soil carbon emissions by ~125-190% compared to gradual thaw alone. These findings demonstrate the need to incorporate abrupt thaw processes in earth system models for more comprehensive projection of the PCF this century.
25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) deficiency is associated with compromised bone mineralisation, fatigue, suppressed immune function and unsatisfactory skeletal muscle recovery. We investigated the risk of 25(OH)D insufficiency or deficiency in endurance athletes compared to sedentary non-athletes living at 64° north.
University student-athletes (TS) and sedentary students (SS) volunteered to participate in this study. TS engaged in regular exercise while SS exercised no more than 20 minutes/week. Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) scores for participants were determined. Vitamin D intake was assessed using the National Cancer Institute's 24-hour food recall (ASA24). Fasting plasma 25(OH)D levels were quantified via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
TS reported higher activity levels than SS as assessed with MET-minutes/week and ranking of physical activity levels (p
Cites: Chem Biol. 2014 Mar 20;21(3):319-29 PMID 24529992
A genetic basis for otitis media is established, however, the role of rare variants in disease etiology is largely unknown. Previously a duplication variant within A2ML1 was identified as a significant risk factor for otitis media in an indigenous Filipino population and in US children. In this report exome and Sanger sequencing was performed using DNA samples from the indigenous Filipino population, Filipino cochlear implantees, US probands, Finnish, and Pakistani families with otitis media. Sixteen novel, damaging A2ML1 variants identified in otitis media patients were rare or low-frequency in population-matched controls. In the indigenous population, both gingivitis and A2ML1 variants including the known duplication variant and the novel splice variant c.4061?+?1?G>C were independently associated with otitis media. Sequencing of salivary RNA samples from indigenous Filipinos demonstrated lower A2ML1 expression according to the carriage of A2ML1 variants. Sequencing of additional salivary RNA samples from US patients with otitis media revealed differentially expressed genes that are highly correlated with A2ML1 expression levels. In particular, RND3 is upregulated in both A2ML1 variant carriers and high-A2ML1 expressors. These findings support a role for A2ML1 in keratinocyte differentiation within the middle ear as part of otitis media pathology and the potential application of ROCK inhibition in otitis media.
A tribally led Changing High-Risk Alcohol Use and Increasing Contraception Effectiveness Study (CHOICES) Program has successfully decreased the risk of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEPs) among adult American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women by either reducing risky drinking or increasing contraception use. However, a community needs assessment revealed a need to implement a similar intervention with AI/AN teens. The goal of the project was to develop and establish the acceptability of CHOICES for AI/AN teens.
Key informant interviews were conducted to review the existing OST CHOICES intervention. After modifications to the existing program, focus groups with AI/AN teens were conducted to ensure validity and to finalize the OST CHAT (CHOICES for American Indian Teens) intervention.
Key informant (N = 15) participants suggested that a Web-based intervention may increase teen engagement by making the intervention more interactive and visually stimulating. Based on this formative research, CHAT was developed via Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap). Feedback on the online CHAT curriculum was given by focus groups comprised of AI/AN adolescents, and participants felt that this type of intervention would be both acceptable and able to implement with a community of reservation-based teens.
This study outlines the development of a Web-based intervention for an AEP intervention for AI/AN teens and will inform future prevention efforts. Implications include an expansion of the evidence-based CHOICES intervention for AI/AN teens and also development of a Web-based intervention for rural, reservation-based AI/AN communities.
As genomic researchers are encouraged to engage in broad genomic data sharing, American Indian/Alaska Native/Native Hawaiian (AI/AN/NH) leaders have raised questions about ownership of data and biospecimens and concerns over emerging challenges and potential threats to tribal sovereignty. Using a community-engaged research approach, we conducted 42 semi-structured interviews with tribal leaders, clinicians, researchers, policy makers, and tribal research review board members about their perspectives on ethical issues related to genetics in AI/AN/NH communities. We report findings related to perspectives on genetic research, data sharing, and envisioning stronger oversight and management of data. In particular, participants voiced concerns about different models of data sharing, infrastructure and logistics for housing data, and who should have authority to grant access to data. The results will ultimately guide policy-making and the creation of guidelines and new strategies for tribes to drive the research agenda and promote ethically and culturally appropriate research.
Neighbourhood deprivation is a recognised predictor of coronary heart disease (CHD). The overall aim was to investigate if accumulated exposure to neighbourhood deprivation resulted in higher odds of CHD.
This is a longitudinal cohort study. Models based on repeated assessments of neighbourhood deprivation as well as single-point-in-time assessments were compared.
3?140?657 Swedish men and women without a history of CHD and who had neighbourhood deprivation exposure data over the past 15 years.
CHD within 5?years' follow-up.
The results suggested a gradient of stronger association with CHD risk by longer cumulative exposures to neighbourhood deprivation, particularly in the younger age cohorts. Neighbourhood deprivation was also highly correlated over time, especially in older age cohorts.
The effect of neighbourhood deprivation on CHD might depend on age. Accounting for individuals' baseline age may therefore be important for understanding neighbourhood environmental effects on the development of CHD over time. However, because of high correlation of neighbourhood deprivation over time, single-point-in-time assessments may be adequate for CHD risk prediction especially in older adults.
Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), HiLIFE, University of Helsinki, PO Box 20, Helsinki, FI-00014, Finland; Finnish Gymnastics Federation, Hämeentie 105 A, 00550 Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Obes Res Clin Pract. 2019 Nov - Dec; 13(6):522-528
To determine the accuracy of self-reported height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) compared to the measured values, and to assess the similarity between self-reported and measured values within dizygotic (DZ) and monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs.
The data on self-reported and measured height, weight and WC values as well as measured hip circumference (HC) were collected from 444 twin individuals (53-67 years old, 60% women). Accuracies between self-reported and measured values were assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficients, Cohen's kappa coefficients and Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement. Intra-class correlation was used in within-pair analyses.
The correlations between self-reported and measured values were high for all variables (r=0.86-0.98), although the agreement assessed by Bland-Altman 95% limits had relatively wide variation. The degree of overestimating height was similar in both sexes, whereas women tended to underestimate and men overestimate their weight. Cohen's kappa coefficients between self-reported and measured BMI categories were high: 0.71 in men and 0.70 in women. Further, the mean self-reported WC was less than the mean measured WC (difference in men 2.5cm and women 2.6cm). The within-pair correlations indicated a tendency of MZ co-twins to report anthropometric measures more similarly than DZ co-twins.
Self-reported anthropometric measures are reasonably accurate indicators for obesity in large cohort studies. However, the possibility of more similar reporting among MZ pairs should be taken into account in twin studies exploring the heritability of different phenotypes.
To examine the relationship between Mediterranean diet and risk of later-onset Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC).
We conducted a prospective cohort study of 83?147 participants (age range: 45-79 years) enrolled in the Cohort of Swedish Men and Swedish Mammography Cohort. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to calculate an adherence score to a modified Mediterranean diet (mMED) at baseline in 1997. Incident diagnoses of CD and UC were ascertained from the Swedish Patient Register. We used Cox proportional hazards modelling to calculate HRs and 95%?CI.
Through December of 2017, we confirmed 164 incident cases of CD and 395 incident cases of UC with an average follow-up of 17 years. Higher mMED score was associated with a lower risk of CD (Ptrend=0.03) but not UC (Ptrend=0.61). Compared with participants in the lowest category of mMED score (0-2), there was a statistically significant lower risk of CD (HR=0.42, 95%?CI 0.22 to 0.80) but not UC (HR=1.08, 95%?CI 0.74 to 1.58). These associations were not modified by age, sex, education level, body mass index or smoking (all Pinteraction >0.30). The prevalence of poor adherence to a Mediterranean diet (mMED score=0-2) was 27% in our cohorts, conferring a population attributable risk of 12% for later-onset CD.
In two prospective studies, greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with a significantly lower risk of later-onset CD.
The rising prevalence of overweight and obesity is a worldwide public health challenge. Pregnancy and beyond is a potentially important window for future weight gain in women. We investigated associations between maternal adherence to the New Nordic diet (NND) during pregnancy and maternal BMI trajectories from delivery to 8 years post delivery. Data are from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. Pregnant women from all of Norway were recruited between 1999 and 2008, and 55 056 are included in the present analysis. A previously constructed diet score, NND, was used to assess adherence to the diet. The score favours intake of Nordic fruits, root vegetables, cabbages, potatoes, oatmeal porridge, whole grains, wild fish, game, berries, milk and water. Linear spline multi-level models were used to estimate the association. We found that women with higher adherence to the NND pattern during pregnancy had on average lower post-partum BMI trajectories and slightly less weight gain up to 8 years post delivery compared with the lower NND adherers. These associations remained after adjustment for physical activity, education, maternal age, smoking and parity (mean diff at delivery (high v. low adherers): -0·3 kg/m2; 95 % CI -0·4, -0·2; mean diff at 8 years: -0·5 kg/m2; 95 % CI -0·6, -0·4), and were not explained by differences in energy intake or by exclusive breast-feeding duration. Similar patterns of associations were seen with trajectories of overweight/obesity as the outcome. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the NND may have beneficial properties to long-term weight regulation among women post-partum.
Faculty of Education, P.O. Box 2000, 90014, University of Oulu, Finland; University of Oulu, Department of Psychiatry, Unit of Clinical Neuroscience, P.O. Box 5000, 90014, University of Oulu, Finland. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Children and adolescents with a genetic risk for schizophrenia are often found to have poorer social functioning compared to their controls. However, less is known about high-risk offspring who have not been reared by a biological parent with schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was to examine deficits in social functioning in adolescence as a possible factor related to genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and also to examine possible gender differences in these associations.
The present sample consisted of 88 genetic high-risk (HR) adoptees whose biological mothers were diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 83 genetic low-risk (LR) adoptees with biological mothers with non-schizophrenia spectrum disorders or no psychiatric disorders. Adoptees' social functioning at ages 16-20 was assessed using the UCLA Social Attainment Survey.
Compared to LR adoptees, HR adoptees displayed statistically significant deficits in their peer relationships, involvement in activities and overall social functioning during adolescence. HR males were distinguished from LR males by their significantly poorer overall social functioning. Compared to HR females, HR males showed significant deficits in their romantic relationships. Of marginal significance was that HR females displayed more social functioning deficits relative to LR females, mainly in the areas of peer relationships, involvement in activities and overall social functioning.
These results from the adoption and high-risk study design suggest that deficits in social functioning in adolescence may be related to genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia spectrum disorders and that some of these deficits may be gender-specific.