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389 records – page 1 of 39.

18F FDG-PET/CT evaluation of histological response after neoadjuvant treatment in patients with cancer of the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299743
Source
Acta Radiol. 2019 May; 60(5):578-585
Publication Type
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Randomized Controlled Trial
Date
May-2019
Author
Stefan Gabrielson
Alejandro Sanchez-Crespo
Fredrik Klevebro
Rimma Axelsson
Jon Albert Tsai
Ove Johansson
Magnus Nilsson
Author Affiliation
1 Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Acta Radiol. 2019 May; 60(5):578-585
Date
May-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Randomized Controlled Trial
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Esophageal Neoplasms - therapy
Esophagogastric Junction - diagnostic imaging
Esophagus - diagnostic imaging
Female
Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Neoadjuvant Therapy - methods
Norway
Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography - methods
Radiopharmaceuticals
Sweden
Abstract
In most parts of the world, curatively intended treatment for esophageal cancer includes neoadjuvant therapy, either with chemoradiotherapy or chemotherapy alone, followed by esophagectomy. Currently 18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is used for preoperative disease staging, but is not well established in the evaluation of neoadjuvant treatment.
To evaluate changes in PET parameters in relation to the histological primary tumor response in the surgical specimen in patients randomized to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy or chemotherapy.
Patients were randomized between either neoadjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy followed by esophagectomy.18F-FDG PET/CT exams were conducted at baseline and following neoadjuvant treatment. Standardized uptake ratio (SUR) values were measured in the primary tumor and compared as regards histological responders and non-responders as well as different treatment arms.
Seventy-nine patients were enrolled and 51 were available for analysis. A significant rate of SUR reduction was observed ( P?=?0.02) in the primary tumor in histological responders compared to non-responders. Changes in SUR were significantly greater in responders following chemoradiotherapy ( P?=?0.02), but not following chemotherapy alone ( P?=?0.49). There was no statistically significant difference in SUR in patients with a complete histological response compared to those with a subtotal response.
Our results are similar to those of previous studies and show that changes in the rate of SUR can be used reliably to differentiate histological responders from non-responders after neoadjuvant treatment with either chemoradiotherapy or chemotherapy. Limitations of current PET technology are likely to restrict the possibility of accurately ruling out limited residual disease.
PubMed ID
30111193 View in PubMed
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"A bumpy road": Kindergarten staff's experiences with an intervention to promote healthy diets in toddlers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301624
Source
Appetite. 2018 08 01; 127:37-43
Publication Type
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-01-2018
Author
Berit Johannessen
Sissel H Helland
Elling Bere
Nina Cecilie Øverby
Liv Fegran
Author Affiliation
Department of Health and Nursing Sciences, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, PO Box 422, 4604 Kristiansand, Norway. Electronic address: berit.johannessen@uia.no.
Source
Appetite. 2018 08 01; 127:37-43
Date
08-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Child, Preschool
Cooking
Faculty
Feeding Behavior
Food Preferences
Health promotion
Healthy Diet
Humans
Norway
Schools
Abstract
This study explores the experiences of kindergarten staff with a multi-component kindergarten-based intervention, the aims of which were to reduce levels of food neophobia and to promote healthy diets in toddlers (aged 2-3 years). A qualitative design was chosen for the study, and the data are based on three focus group interviews. Altogether, 15 kindergarten staff were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. The focus group interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Five main themes emerged from the interviews: i) Successful development of sensory knowledge, ii) Food neophobia, iii) Implementing new routines, a challenge for some, iv) Lack of cooking skills, and v) Inspired to continue. A main finding was that all kindergarten staff perceived the sensory education sessions as successful and reported that both toddlers and staff expanded their food vocabulary and increased their attention to sensory impressions of food. However, the staff reported that some toddlers were less willing to taste new lunch dishes than to taste new foods in the sensory education sessions. The staff also noted that the guidelines for feeding practices resulted in unfamiliar situations at the lunch table. The staff agreed that cooking novel foods was time consuming and left less time for other tasks. Finally, all kindergarten staff expressed that they would like to continue with portions of the food intervention. Our main interpretation is that the intervention presented several challenges, especially regarding cooking and feeding practices. If kindergartens are to be a place to promote healthy eating habits in the early years, sufficient time and resources for cooking seem to be needed and food and feeding practices included in the curriculum of kindergartens and higher education for kindergarten teachers.
ISRCTN74823448.
PubMed ID
29704540 View in PubMed
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Acceptance and commitment therapy to reduce eating disorder symptoms and body image problems in patients with residual eating disorder symptoms: A randomized controlled trial.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature307117
Source
Body Image. 2020 Mar; 32:155-166
Publication Type
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Date
Mar-2020
Author
Maria Fogelkvist
Sanna Aila Gustafsson
Lars Kjellin
Thomas Parling
Author Affiliation
University Health Care Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, SE 701 82 Örebro, Sweden. Electronic address: maria.fogelkvist@regionorebrolan.se.
Source
Body Image. 2020 Mar; 32:155-166
Date
Mar-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Keywords
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
Adult
Body Dissatisfaction
Feeding and Eating Disorders - therapy
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Sweden
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Body image problems are central aspects of eating disorders (ED), and risk factors both for the development of and relapse into an ED. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) aims at helping patients accept uncomfortable internal experiences while committing to behaviors in accordance with life values. The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of a group intervention, consisting of 12 sessions, based on ACT to treatment as usual (TAU) for patients with residual ED symptoms and body image problems. The study was a randomized controlled superiority trial. Patients with residual ED symptoms and body image problems were recruited from a specialized ED clinic in Sweden. The final sample consisted of 99 women, randomized to ACT or TAU. At the two-year follow-up, patients who received ACT showed a significant greater reduction in ED symptoms and body image problems and received less specialized ED care than patients in TAU. In conclusion, ACT was superior in reducing ED symptoms and body image problems.
PubMed ID
32000093 View in PubMed
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The Accuracy of Low-dose Computed Tomography Protocol in Patients With Suspected Acute Appendicitis: The OPTICAP Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature309743
Source
Ann Surg. 2020 02; 271(2):332-338
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
02-2020
Author
Suvi Sippola
Johanna Virtanen
Ville Tammilehto
Juha Grönroos
Saija Hurme
Hannele Niiniviita
Elina Lietzen
Paulina Salminen
Author Affiliation
Division of Digestive Surgery and Urology, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
Source
Ann Surg. 2020 02; 271(2):332-338
Date
02-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Appendectomy
Appendicitis - diagnostic imaging - surgery
Contrast Media
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Radiation Dosage
Tomography, X-Ray Computed - methods
Abstract
To compare diagnostic accuracy of contrast enhanced low-dose computed tomography (CT) accomplished in the OPTICAP trial phantom phase to standard CT in patients with suspected acute appendicitis.
Increasing use of CT as the gold standard in diagnosing acute appendicitis has raised concerns regarding radiation exposure. Unenhanced low-dose CT protocols have shown similar diagnostic accuracy with standard CT for diagnosing appendicitis. To our knowledge, there are no other trials in which the same patient with suspected acute appendicitis underwent both standard and low-dose CT allowing interpatient comparison.
OPTICAP is an interpatient protocol sequence randomized noninferiority single-center trial performed at Turku University Hospital between November, 2015 and August, 2016. Sixty patients with suspected acute appendicitis and body mass index
PubMed ID
30048324 View in PubMed
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The Accuracy of the Computed Tomography Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis: Does the Experience of the Radiologist Matter?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294920
Source
Scand J Surg. 2018 Mar; 107(1):43-47
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Randomized Controlled Trial
Date
Mar-2018
Author
E Lietzén
P Salminen
I Rinta-Kiikka
H Paajanen
T Rautio
P Nordström
M Aarnio
T Rantanen
J Sand
J-P Mecklin
A Jartti
J Virtanen
P Ohtonen
N Ånäs
J M Grönroos
Author Affiliation
1 Division of Digestive Surgery and Urology, Department of Acute and Digestive Surgery, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
Source
Scand J Surg. 2018 Mar; 107(1):43-47
Date
Mar-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Randomized Controlled Trial
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use
Appendectomy - methods
Appendicitis - diagnostic imaging - drug therapy - surgery
Clinical Competence
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Prognosis
Prospective Studies
Radiologists
Risk assessment
Tomography, X-Ray Computed - methods
Treatment Outcome
Young Adult
Abstract
To assess the accuracy of computed tomography in diagnosing acute appendicitis with a special reference to radiologist experience.
Data were collected prospectively in our randomized controlled trial comparing surgery and antibiotic treatment for uncomplicated acute appendicitis (APPAC trial, NCT01022567). We evaluated 1065 patients who underwent computed tomography for suspected appendicitis. The on-call radiologist preoperatively analyzed these computed tomography images. In this study, the radiologists were divided into experienced (consultants) and inexperienced (residents) ones, and the comparison of interpretations was made between these two radiologist groups.
Out of the 1065 patients, 714 had acute appendicitis and 351 had other or no diagnosis on computed tomography. There were 700 true-positive, 327 true-negative, 14 false-positive, and 24 false-negative cases. The sensitivity and the specificity of computed tomography were 96.7% (95% confidence interval, 95.1-97.8) and 95.9% (95% confidence interval, 93.2-97.5), respectively. The rate of false computed tomography diagnosis was 4.2% for experienced consultant radiologists and 2.2% for inexperienced resident radiologists (p?=?0.071). Thus, the experience of the radiologist had no effect on the accuracy of computed tomography diagnosis.
The accuracy of computed tomography in diagnosing acute appendicitis was high. The experience of the radiologist did not improve the diagnostic accuracy. The results emphasize the role of computed tomography as an accurate modality in daily routine diagnostics for acute appendicitis in all clinical emergency settings.
PubMed ID
28929862 View in PubMed
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Achievement of the Targets of the 20-Year Infancy-Onset Dietary Intervention-Association with Metabolic Profile from Childhood to Adulthood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature312184
Source
Nutrients. 2021 Feb 06; 13(2):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Date
Feb-06-2021
Author
Miia Lehtovirta
Laurie A Matthews
Tomi T Laitinen
Joel Nuotio
Harri Niinikoski
Suvi P Rovio
Hanna Lagström
Jorma S A Viikari
Tapani Rönnemaa
Antti Jula
Mika Ala-Korpela
Olli T Raitakari
Katja Pahkala
Author Affiliation
Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland.
Source
Nutrients. 2021 Feb 06; 13(2):
Date
Feb-06-2021
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Keywords
Adolescent
Biomarkers - blood
Child
Child, Preschool
Cholesterol, Dietary - analysis
Cholesterol, LDL - blood
Coronary Disease - prevention & control
Diet Records
Diet, Healthy - methods - standards - statistics & numerical data
Dietary Fats - analysis
Dietary Fiber - analysis
Eating - physiology
Energy intake
Fatty Acids - blood
Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated - blood
Fatty Acids, Unsaturated - blood
Feeding Behavior - physiology
Female
Finland
Fruit
Guideline Adherence - statistics & numerical data
Heart Disease Risk Factors
Humans
Infant
Lipids - blood
Male
Metabolomics
Nutrition Policy
Prospective Studies
Vegetables
Whole Grains
Young Adult
Abstract
The Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project (STRIP) is a prospective infancy-onset randomized dietary intervention trial targeting dietary fat quality and cholesterol intake, and favoring consumption of vegetables, fruit, and whole-grains. Diet (food records) and circulating metabolites were studied at six time points between the ages of 9-19 years (n = 549-338). Dietary targets for this study were defined as (1) the ratio of saturated fat (SAFA) to monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA + PUFA)
PubMed ID
33562015 View in PubMed
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Agaricus blazei-Based Mushroom Extract Supplementation to Birch Allergic Blood Donors: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature308764
Source
Nutrients. 2019 Oct 02; 11(10):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Date
Oct-02-2019
Author
Faiza Mahmood
Geir Hetland
Ivo Nentwich
Mohammad Reza Mirlashari
Reza Ghiasvand
Lise Sofie Haug Nissen-Meyer
Author Affiliation
Department of Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, 0407 Oslo, Norway. faiza.mahmood@ahus.no.
Source
Nutrients. 2019 Oct 02; 11(10):
Date
Oct-02-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Keywords
Administration, Oral
Adult
Agaricus
Anti-Allergic Agents - administration & dosage - adverse effects - isolation & purification
Basophils - drug effects - immunology
Betula - immunology
Blood Donors
Complex Mixtures - administration & dosage - adverse effects - isolation & purification
Conjunctivitis, Allergic - diagnosis - drug therapy - immunology
Double-Blind Method
Female
Humans
Immunoglobulin E - blood
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Plant Extracts - administration & dosage - adverse effects - isolation & purification
Pollen - immunology
Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal - diagnosis - drug therapy - immunology
Time Factors
Treatment Outcome
Young Adult
Abstract
Since Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM) extract reduced specific IgE and ameliorated a skewed Th1/Th2 balance in a mouse allergy model, it was tested in blood donors with self-reported, IgE-positive, birch pollen allergy and/or asthma. Sixty recruited donors were randomized in a placebo-controlled, double-blinded study with pre-seasonal, 7-week, oral supplementation with the AbM-based extract AndosanTM. Before and after the pollen season, questionnaires were answered for allergic rhino-conjunctivitis, asthma, and medication; serum IgE was measured, and Bet v 1-induced basophil activation was determined by CD63 expression. The reported general allergy and asthma symptoms and medication were significantly reduced in the AbM compared to the placebo group during pollen season. During the season, there was significant reduction in specific IgE anti-Bet v 1 and anti-t3 (birch pollen extract) levels in the AbM compared with the placebo group. While the maximal allergen concentrations needed for eliciting basophil activation before the season, changed significantly in the placebo group to lower concentrations (i.e., enhanced sensitization) after the season, these concentrations remained similar in the AndosanTM AbM extract group. Hence, the prophylactic effect of oral supplementation before the season with the AbM-based AndosanTM extract on aeroallergen-induced allergy was associated with reduced specific IgE levels during the season and basophils becoming less sensitive to allergen activation.
PubMed ID
31581605 View in PubMed
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ALCAM predicts future cardiovascular death in acute coronary syndromes: Insights from the PLATO trial.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature307717
Source
Atherosclerosis. 2020 01; 293:35-41
Publication Type
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
01-2020
Author
Thor Ueland
Axel Åkerblom
Tatevik Ghukasyan
Annika E Michelsen
Richard C Becker
Maria Bertilsson
Andrzej Budaj
Jan H Cornel
Anders Himmelmann
Stefan K James
Agneta Siegbahn
Robert F Storey
Frederic Kontny
Pål Aukrust
Lars Wallentin
Author Affiliation
Research Institute of Internal Medicine, The National Hospital, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; K.G. Jebsen Inflammatory Research Center, University of Oslo, Norway; K.G. Jebsen - Thrombosis Research and Expertise Center (TREC), University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway. Electronic address: thor.ueland@medisin.uio.no.
Source
Atherosclerosis. 2020 01; 293:35-41
Date
01-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Acute Coronary Syndrome - blood - mortality
Aged
Antigens, CD - blood
Biomarkers - blood
Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal - blood
Female
Fetal Proteins - blood
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Prognosis
Risk factors
Survival Rate - trends
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) is upregulated during inflammation and involved in transmigration of leukocytes and T-cell activation. We hypothesized that ALCAM might be associated with recurrent events in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS).
ALCAM was measured in serum obtained on admission, at discharge, 1 month and 6 months in a subgroup of 5165 patients admitted with ACS and included in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial (NCT00391872). The association between ALCAM and the composite endpoint and its components, including cardiovascular (CV) death, non-procedural spontaneous myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke during 1-year follow-up, was assessed by Cox proportional hazards models with incremental addition of clinical risk factors and biomarkers (including high-sensitivity troponin T, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and growth differentiation factor-15).
The median (Q1-Q3) concentration of ALCAM at admission was 97 (80-116) ng/mL. A 50% higher level of ALCAM on admission was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.16 (95% confidence interval [1.00-1.34] p = 0.043) for the composite endpoint in fully adjusted analysis, mainly driven by the association with CV death (HR 1.45 [1.16-1.82] p = 0.0012).
In patients with ACS, admission level of ALCAM was independently associated with adverse outcome including CV death even after adjustment for established inflammatory and cardiac biomarkers.
PubMed ID
31835039 View in PubMed
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Alcohol Intoxicated Witnesses: Perception of Aggression and Guilt in Intimate Partner Violence.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301828
Source
J Interpers Violence. 2017 11; 32(22):3448-3474
Publication Type
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
11-2017
Author
Malin Hildebrand Karlén
Emma Roos Af Hjelmsäter
Claudia Fahlke
Pär Anders Granhag
Anna Söderpalm Gordh
Author Affiliation
1 Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
Source
J Interpers Violence. 2017 11; 32(22):3448-3474
Date
11-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Aggression - psychology
Alcoholic Intoxication - psychology
Female
Guilt
Hostility
Humans
Intimate Partner Violence - psychology
Male
Social Perception
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
Many witnesses to violent crimes are alcohol intoxicated, but research is lacking regarding how alcohol affects their perception of aggression and guilt. This study investigated to what extent alcohol intoxicated eyewitnesses differed from sober witnesses regarding how aggressive and guilty they perceived the involved parts in an intimate partner violence (IPV) situation. Eighty-seven healthy men ( n = 44) and women ( n = 43) were randomized to an alcohol group (0.7 g/kg) or a non-alcohol group. In a laboratory setting, alcoholic/non-alcoholic drinks were consumed before viewing a film depicting IPV between a man and a woman. Ten min after viewing, in an interview, the participants rated how aggressive and guilty they perceived the involved parts to be. Alcohol intoxicated participants perceived both parts' physically aggressive behavior as comparatively less severe, but their neutral behavior as more hostile. Sober witnesses perceived the man to be the most guilty part, whereas intoxicated witnesses distributed guilt more evenly. Alcohol had a strong but complex impact on the perception of aggression in IPV (i.e., heightened during the neutral interaction and lowered during physical aggression). These results may be explained by the cognitive consequences of alcohol's anxiety-dampening effects. Regarding the asymmetric difference in perceived guilt, stereotypical expectations of gender-appropriate behavior in an IPV situation may need to be considered.
PubMed ID
26340920 View in PubMed
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389 records – page 1 of 39.