In most parts of the world, curatively intended treatment for esophageal cancer includes neoadjuvant therapy, either with chemoradiotherapy or chemotherapy alone, followed by esophagectomy. Currently 18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is used for preoperative disease staging, but is not well established in the evaluation of neoadjuvant treatment.
To evaluate changes in PET parameters in relation to the histological primary tumor response in the surgical specimen in patients randomized to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy or chemotherapy.
Patients were randomized between either neoadjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy followed by esophagectomy.18F-FDG PET/CT exams were conducted at baseline and following neoadjuvant treatment. Standardized uptake ratio (SUR) values were measured in the primary tumor and compared as regards histological responders and non-responders as well as different treatment arms.
Seventy-nine patients were enrolled and 51 were available for analysis. A significant rate of SUR reduction was observed ( P?=?0.02) in the primary tumor in histological responders compared to non-responders. Changes in SUR were significantly greater in responders following chemoradiotherapy ( P?=?0.02), but not following chemotherapy alone ( P?=?0.49). There was no statistically significant difference in SUR in patients with a complete histological response compared to those with a subtotal response.
Our results are similar to those of previous studies and show that changes in the rate of SUR can be used reliably to differentiate histological responders from non-responders after neoadjuvant treatment with either chemoradiotherapy or chemotherapy. Limitations of current PET technology are likely to restrict the possibility of accurately ruling out limited residual disease.
A genetic basis for otitis media is established, however, the role of rare variants in disease etiology is largely unknown. Previously a duplication variant within A2ML1 was identified as a significant risk factor for otitis media in an indigenous Filipino population and in US children. In this report exome and Sanger sequencing was performed using DNA samples from the indigenous Filipino population, Filipino cochlear implantees, US probands, Finnish, and Pakistani families with otitis media. Sixteen novel, damaging A2ML1 variants identified in otitis media patients were rare or low-frequency in population-matched controls. In the indigenous population, both gingivitis and A2ML1 variants including the known duplication variant and the novel splice variant c.4061?+?1?G>C were independently associated with otitis media. Sequencing of salivary RNA samples from indigenous Filipinos demonstrated lower A2ML1 expression according to the carriage of A2ML1 variants. Sequencing of additional salivary RNA samples from US patients with otitis media revealed differentially expressed genes that are highly correlated with A2ML1 expression levels. In particular, RND3 is upregulated in both A2ML1 variant carriers and high-A2ML1 expressors. These findings support a role for A2ML1 in keratinocyte differentiation within the middle ear as part of otitis media pathology and the potential application of ROCK inhibition in otitis media.
Peripheral arterial disease and vascular calcifications contribute significantly to the outcome of dialysis patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic role of severity of abdominal aortic calcifications and peripheral arterial disease on outcome of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients using methods easily available in everyday clinical practice.
We enrolled 249 PD patients (mean age 61 years, 67% male) in this prospective, observational, multicenter study from 2009 to 2013. The abdominal aortic calcification score (AACS) was assessed using lateral lumbar X ray, and the ankle-brachial index (ABI) using a Doppler device.
The median AACS was 11 (range 0 - 24). In 58% of the patients, all 4 segments of the abdominal aorta showed deposits, while 19% of patients had no visible deposits (AACS 0). Ankle-brachial index was normal in 49%, low ( 1.3) in 34% of patients. Altogether 91 patients (37%) died during the median follow-up of 46 months. Only 2 patients (5%) with AACS 0 died compared with 50% of the patients with AACS = 7 (p
The ICD-10 codes are used globally for comparison of diagnoses and complications, and are an important tool for the development of patient safety, healthcare policies and the health economy. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of verified complication rates in surgical admissions identified by ICD-10 codes and to validate these estimates against complications identified using the established Global Trigger Tool (GTT) methodology.
This was a prospective observational study of a sample of surgical admissions in two Norwegian hospitals. Complications were identified and classified by two expert GTT teams who reviewed patients' medical records. Three trained reviewers verified ICD-10 codes indicating a complication present on admission or emerging in hospital.
A total of 700 admissions were drawn randomly from 12 966 procedures. Some 519 possible complications were identified in 332 of 700 admissions (47·4 per cent) from ICD-10 codes. Verification of the ICD-10 codes against information from patients' medical records confirmed 298 as in-hospital complications in 141 of 700 admissions (20·1 per cent). Using GTT methodology, 331 complications were found in 212 of 700 admissions (30·3 per cent). Agreement between the two methods reached 83·3 per cent after verification of ICD-10 codes. The odds ratio for identifying complications using the GTT increased from 5·85 (95 per cent c.i. 4·06 to 8·44) to 25·38 (15·41 to 41·79) when ICD-10 complication codes were verified against patients' medical records.
Verified ICD-10 codes strengthen the accuracy of complication rates. Use of non-verified complication codes from administrative systems significantly overestimates in-hospital surgical complication rates.
To assess the accuracy of computed tomography in diagnosing acute appendicitis with a special reference to radiologist experience.
Data were collected prospectively in our randomized controlled trial comparing surgery and antibiotic treatment for uncomplicated acute appendicitis (APPAC trial, NCT01022567). We evaluated 1065 patients who underwent computed tomography for suspected appendicitis. The on-call radiologist preoperatively analyzed these computed tomography images. In this study, the radiologists were divided into experienced (consultants) and inexperienced (residents) ones, and the comparison of interpretations was made between these two radiologist groups.
Out of the 1065 patients, 714 had acute appendicitis and 351 had other or no diagnosis on computed tomography. There were 700 true-positive, 327 true-negative, 14 false-positive, and 24 false-negative cases. The sensitivity and the specificity of computed tomography were 96.7% (95% confidence interval, 95.1-97.8) and 95.9% (95% confidence interval, 93.2-97.5), respectively. The rate of false computed tomography diagnosis was 4.2% for experienced consultant radiologists and 2.2% for inexperienced resident radiologists (p?=?0.071). Thus, the experience of the radiologist had no effect on the accuracy of computed tomography diagnosis.
The accuracy of computed tomography in diagnosing acute appendicitis was high. The experience of the radiologist did not improve the diagnostic accuracy. The results emphasize the role of computed tomography as an accurate modality in daily routine diagnostics for acute appendicitis in all clinical emergency settings.
The National Guideline for Assessment, Treatment and Social Rehabilitation of Persons with Concurrent Substance Use and Mental Health Disorders, launched in 2012, is to be implemented in mental health services in Norway. Audit and feedback (A&F) is commonly used as the starting point of an implementation process. It aims to measure the research-practice gap, but its effect varies greatly. Less is known of how audit and feedback is used in natural settings. The aim of this study was to describe and investigate what is discussed and thematised when Quality Improvement (QI) teams in a District Psychiatric Centre (DPC) work to complete an action form as part of an A&F cycle in 2014.
This was an instrumental multiple case study involving four units in a DPC in Norway. We used open non-participant observation of QI team meetings in their natural setting, a total of seven teams and eleven meetings.
The discussions provided health professionals with insight into their own and their colleagues' practices. They revealed insufficient knowledge of substance-related disorders and experienced unclear role expectations. We found differences in how professional groups sought answers to questions of clinical practice and that they were concerned about whether new tasks fitted in with their routine ways of working.
Acting on A&F provided an opportunity to discuss practice in general, enhancing awareness of good practice. There was a general need for arenas to relate to practice and QI team meetings after A&F may well be a suitable arena for this. Self-assessment audits seem valuable, particular in areas where no benchmarked data exists, and there is a demand for implementation of new guidelines that might change routines and develop new roles. QI teams could benefit from having a unit leader present at meetings. Nurses and social educators and others turn to psychiatrists or psychologists for answers to clinical and organisational questions beyond guidelines, and show less confidence or routine in seeking research-based information. There is a general need to emphasise training in evidence-based practice and information seeking behaviour for all professional groups.
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Internal Medicine Services, Landspitali-The National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland; Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland. Electronic address: email@example.com.
The aim of this study was to examine the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) after surgery for acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) using the Nordic Consortium for Acute Type A Aortic Dissection registry.
Patients who underwent ATAAD surgery at 8 Nordic centers from 2005 to 2014 were analyzed for AKI according to the RIFLE criteria. Patients who died intraoperatively, those who had missing baseline or postoperative serum creatinine, and patients on preoperative renal replacement therapy were excluded.
AKI occurred in 382 of 941 patients (40.6%), and postoperative dialysis was required for 105 patients (11.0%). Renal malperfusion was present preoperatively in 42 patients (5.1%), of whom 69.0% developed postoperative AKI. In multivariable analysis patient-related predictors of AKI included age (per 10 years; odds ratio [OR], 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-1.48), body mass index >30 kg/m2 (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.51-3.09), renal malperfusion (OR, 4.39; 95% CI, 2.23-9.07), and other malperfusion (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.55-2.86). Perioperative predictors were cardiopulmonary bypass time (per 10 minutes; OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.07) and red blood cell transfusion (OR per transfused unit, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.06-1.10). Rates of 30-day mortality were 17.0% in the AKI group compared with 6.6% in the non-AKI group (P
The aim of the present study was to investigate how the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic affected the hospital stroke management and research in Norway.
All neurological departments with a Stroke Unit in Norway (n = 17) were invited to participate in a questionnaire survey. The study focused on the first lockdown period, and all questions were thus answered in regard to the period between 12 March and 15 April 2020.
The responder rate was 94% (16/17). Eighty-one % (13/16) reported that the pandemic affected their department, and 63% (10/16) changed their stroke care pathways. The number of new acute admissions in terms of both strokes and stroke mimics decreased at all 16 departments. Fewer patients received thrombolysis and endovascular treatment, and multidisciplinary stroke rehabilitation services were less available. The mandatory 3 months of follow-up of stroke patients was postponed at 73% of the hospitals. All departments conducting stroke research reported a stop in ongoing projects.
In Norway, hospital-based stroke care and research were impacted during the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, with likely repercussions for patient care and outcomes. In the future, stroke departments will require contingency plans in order to protect the entire stroke treatment chain.
This study was conducted to assess the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Russia and the adaptation of the population to the virus in March to June 2020. Two groups were investigated: 1) 12 082 individuals already proven positive for SARS-CoV-2 (clinical information was studied); 2) 7864+4458 individuals with suspected respiratory infections (polymerase chain reaction [PCR] tests and clinical information were studied). In the latter, SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals comprised 5.37% in March and 11.42% in June 2020. Several viral co-infections were observed for SARS-CoV-2. Rhinoviruses accounted for the largest proportion of co-infections (7.91% of samples were SARS-CoV-2-positive); followed by respiratory syncytial virus (7.03%); adenoviruses (4.84%); metapneumoviruses (3.29%); parainfluenza viruses (2.42%); enterovirus D68 (1.10%) and other viruses (entero-, echo-, parecho-) (
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) are rare diseases with a gradual decline in physical health. Adherence to treatment is crucial in these very symptomatic and life threatening diseases.
To describe PAH and CTEPH patients experience of their self-reported medication adherence, beliefs about medicines and information about treatment.
A quantitative, descriptive, national cohort survey that included adult patients from all PAH-centres in Sweden. All patients received questionnaires by mail: The Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) assesses treatment-related attitudes and behaviour problems, the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire-Specific scale (BMQ-S) assesses the patient's perception of drug intake and the QLQ-INFO25 multi-item scale about medical treatment information.
The response rate was 74% (n?=?325), mean age 66?±?14 years, 58% were female and 69% were diagnosed with PAH and 31% with CTEPH. Time from diagnosis was 4.7?±?4.2 years. More than half of the patients (57%) reported a high level of adherence. There was no difference in the patients' beliefs of the necessity of the medications to control their illness when comparing those with high, medium or low adherence. Despite high satisfaction with the information, concerns about potential adverse effects of taking the medication were significantly related to adherence.
Treatment adherence is relatively high but still needs improvement. The multi-disciplinary PAH team should, together with the patient, seek strategies to improve adherence and prevent concern.