Center for Life Course Health Research, University of Oulu, Finland; Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Finland; Department of Psychiatry, Research Unit of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Oulu, Finland. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging. 2018 11 30; 281:43-52
The aim of this paper was to investigate differences in brain structure volumes between schizophrenia and affective psychoses, and whether cumulative lifetime antipsychotic or benzodiazepine doses relate to brain morphology in these groups. We conducted two systematic reviews on the topic and investigated 44 schizophrenia cases and 19 with affective psychoses from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. The association between lifetime antipsychotic and benzodiazepine dose and brain MRI scans at the age of 43 was investigated using linear regression. Intracranial volume, sex, illness severity, and antipsychotic/benzodiazepine doses were used as covariates. There were no differences between the groups in brain structure volumes. In schizophrenia, after adjusting for benzodiazepine dose and symptoms, a negative association between lifetime antipsychotic dose and the nucleus accumbens volume remained. In affective psychoses, higher lifetime benzodiazepine dose associated with larger volumes of total gray matter and hippocampal volume after controlling for antipsychotic use and symptoms. It seems that in addition to antipsychotics, the severity of symptoms and benzodiazepine dose are also associated with brain structure volumes. These results suggest, that benzodiazepine effects should also be investigated also independently and not only as a confounder.
Center for Innovation in Mental Health, Academic Unit of Psychology, and Clinical and Experimental Sciences (CNS and Psychiatry), Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; Solent NHS Trust, Southampton, UK; New York University Child Study Center, New York, NY, USA; Division of Psychiatry and Applied Psychology, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Several studies have assessed the possible association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and asthma. However, existing evidence is inconclusive as to whether this association remains after controlling for possible important confounders. To fill this knowledge gap, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis, followed by a population-based study.
For the systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, Embase Classic, Ovid MEDLINE, and Web of Knowledge databases up to Oct 31, 2017, for observational studies allowing estimation of the association between asthma and ADHD. No restrictions to date, language, or article type were applied. Unpublished data were collected from authors of the identified studies. We extracted unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) from the identified studies and calculated ORs when they were not reported. We assessed study quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and study heterogeneity using I2 statistics. A random-effects model was used to calculate pooled ORs. The systematic review is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42017073368). To address the fact that the ORs obtained in the meta-analysis were adjusted for confounders that inevitably varied across studies, we did a population-based study of individuals in multiple national registers in Sweden. We calculated an unadjusted OR and an OR that was simultaneously adjusted for all confounders identified in a directed acyclic graph based on the studies of asthma and ADHD identified in our systematic review.
We identified 2649 potentially eligible citations, from which we obtained 49 datasets including a total of 210?363 participants with ADHD and 3?115?168 without. The pooled unadjusted OR was 1·66 (95% CI 1·22-2·26; I2 =99·47) and the pooled adjusted OR was 1·53 (1·41-1·65; I2 =50·76), indicating a significant association between asthma and ADHD. Possible lack of representativeness of the study population was detected with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale in 42 of 49 datasets. In the population-based study, we included 1?575?377 individuals born between Jan 1, 1992, and Dec 31, 2006, of whom 259?253 (16·5%) had asthma and 57?957 (3·7%) had ADHD. Asthma was significantly associated with ADHD (OR 1·60, 95% CI 1·57-1·63) in the crude model adjusting for sex and year of birth, and this association remained significant after simultaneous adjustment for all covariates (1·45, 1·41-1·48).
The combined results of the meta-analysis and the population-based study support a significant association between asthma and ADHD, which remained even after simultaneously controlling for several possible confounders in the population-based study. Awareness of this association might help to reduce delay in the diagnosis of both ADHD and asthma.
Swedish Research Council and Shire International GmbH.
To review clinical and cost-effectiveness evidence underlying reimbursement decisions relating to drugs whose authorization mainly is based on evidence from prospective case series.
A systematic review of all new drugs evaluated in 2011-2016 within a health care profession-driven resource prioritization process, with a market approval based on prospective case series, and a reimbursement decision by the Swedish Dental and Pharmaceutical Benefits Agency (TLV). Public assessment reports from the European Medicines Agency, published pivotal studies, and TLV, Scottish Medicines Consortium and National Institute of Health and Care Excellence decisions and guidance documents were reviewed.
Six drug cases were assessed (brentuximab vedotin, bosutinib, ponatinib, idelalisib, vismodegib, ceritinib). The validity of the pivotal studies was hampered by the use of surrogate primary outcomes and the absence of recruitment information. To quantify drug treatment effect sizes, the reimbursement agencies primarily used data from another source in indirect comparisons. TLV granted reimbursement in five cases, compared with five in five cases for Scottish Medicines Consortium and four in five cases for National Institute of Health and Care Excellence. Decision modifiers, contributing to granted reimbursement despite hugely uncertain cost-effectiveness ratios, were, for example, small population size, occasionally linked to budget impact, severity of disease, end of life and improved life expectancy.
For drugs whose authorization is based on prospective case series, most applications for reimbursement within public health care are granted. The underlying evidence has limitations over and above the design per se, and decision modifiers are frequently referred to in the value-based pricing decision making.
Suicide is the leading cause of death among young men aged 15?29 in Greenland, but few epidemiological studies have described this problem. We aimed to summarise descriptive epidemiological studies of suicide in young men in Greenland compared with other demographic groups in Denmark and Greenland to inform future suicide prevention strategy. We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, and Embase using an agreed search strategy to identify English-language papers describing suicide epidemiology in Greenlandic men aged 15?29. We followed PRISMA guidelines in screening and appraising eligible publications. Eight articles fulfilled inclusion criteria of 64 meeting search criteria. Findings covering 1970?2011 supported a dramatic rise in suicide rates in Greenlandic men aged 15?24 from 1976, who remained the highest-ranking demographic group over 1976?2011 compared with men and women of all age groups in Denmark and Greenland. Highest rates recorded were almost 600 per 100,000 per year in men aged approximately 20?23 over 1977?1986. No studies described suicide epidemiology after 2011, and no studies described risk factors for suicide in young men. Given the very high suicide rates recorded for young men over 1976?2011, such studies will be essential for informing the development and evaluation of appropriate preventive interventions.
Russia is traditionally an endemic area for Taenia saginata infection, where a programme for the prevention of infection has been implemented for sixty years. This paper aims, therefore, to review the recent epidemiology data of Taenia saginata infection in the Russian Federation.
We undertook a systematic review of published and grey literature, and official data for information on the incidence, prevalence and distribution of Taenia saginata taeniosis and cysticercosis in the Russian Federation between 1st January 1991 and 31st December 2017.
From the 404 records returned by our search strategy, we identified 17 official county reports, 17 papers and one meeting abstract on the occurrence of taeniosis or cysticercosis from the Russian Federation, eligible for inclusion in this study. In the Russian Federation, Taenia saginata infection has been continuously present and notifiable in the study period between 1991-2016. In the same area, a continuous decrease in the incidence of human taeniosis cases was observed, from 1.4 to 0.04 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, as well as a reduction in the territory where the infection is reported. The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis, ranging between 0.1-19.0%, generally has a declining trend, especially after 2005.
Importance of Taenia saginata infection as a medical and veterinary problem has been decreasing in the 21st century but it is still an infection with health and economic impact in the Russian Federation.
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is among the leading causes of visual loss in the working-age population. It is generally accepted that screening of DR is cost-effective and can detect DR before it becomes sight-threatening to allow timely treatment.
A group of retinal specialists was formed by the Danish Ophthalmological Society with the aim to formulate contemporary evidence-based guidelines for screening of DR in order to implement these in the Danish screening system.
We hereby present evidence for DR-screening regarding (1) classification of DR, (2) examination techniques, (3) screening intervals and (4) automated screening. It is our recommendation that the International Clinical Retinopathy Disease Severity Scale should be used to classify DR. As a minimum, mydriatic two-field disc- and macular-centred images are required. In the case of suspected clinically significant diabetic macular oedema, supplementary optical coherence tomography can increase the diagnostic accuracy. There is solid evidence to support a flexible, individualized screening regimen. In particular, it is possible to prolong screening intervals to 24-48 months for patients with no or mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), but it is also possible to use extended intervals of 12-24 months for patients with moderate NPDR given that these are well-regulated regarding glycaemic control (HbA1c = 53 mmol/mol) and blood pressure (=130/80 mmHg). Automated screening of DR is encouraging but is not ready for implementation at present.
Danish evidenced-based guidelines for screening of DR support high-quality imaging and allow flexible, individualized screening intervals with a potential for extension to patients with low risk of DR progression.
The Finnish Medicines Agency Fimea published the first National Medicines Information (MI) strategy in 2012. For the purpose of implementing the MI strategy into practice by the national MI Network, a comprehensive inventory of MI research in Finland was needed.
To systematically review literature on MI research conducted in Finland by analyzing and classifying the studies, and identifying the gaps in MI research.
Medline, Scopus and Medic databases were searched for peer-reviewed MI publications by using key word screening criteria. The search and extraction process followed PRISMA Guidelines and covered the period from January 2000 to June 2016. Included studies were content analyzed according to MI practices identified, trends over time in research methodology and theory.
Included publications (n?=?126) applied a variety of research methods, most often cross-sectional surveys (n?=?51, 40% of all studies), but more than half of the studies were qualitative (n?=?68, 54%). Twelve were intervention studies of which 6 were randomized and had a control group. Studies were categorized into: patient counseling in different settings (n?=?45); MI sources and needs of medicine users (n?=?25); healthcare professionals' (HCPs) competence in patient counseling and pharmacotherapy (n?=?25); MI sources and needs of HCPs (n?=?23); MI education and literacy (n?=?13); and MI policies and strategies (n?=?3). Most of the studies were descriptive, and only 6 studies applied a theory.
Regardless of some methodological pitfalls, MI research conducted in Finland since 2000 provides multifaceted understanding of MI practices and their development needs. Research should shift towards larger research lines having a stronger theory base and study designs to deepen the understanding of MI practices and behaviors, and effectiveness of MI in different healthcare settings. Future research should cover also the use of electronic MI sources and services which apply modern information technology to clinical decision making and medication reviews, national MI policy, MI literacy, MI needs of HCPs and consumers.
Use of physical restraint is a common practice in mental healthcare, but is controversial due to risk of physical and psychological harm to patients and creating ethical dilemmas for care providers. Post-incident review (PIR), that involve patient and care providers after restraints, have been deployed to prevent harm and to reduce restraint use. However, this intervention has an unclear scientific knowledge base. Thus, the aim of this scoping review was to explore the current knowledge of PIR and to assess to what extent PIR can minimize restraint-related use and harm, support care providers in handling professional and ethical dilemmas, and improve the quality of care in mental healthcare.
Systematic searches in the MEDLINE, PsychInfo, Cinahl, Sociological Abstracts and Web of Science databases were carried out. The search terms were derived from the population, intervention and settings.
Twelve studies were included, six quantitative, four qualitative and two mixed methods. The studies were from Sweden, United Kingdom, Canada and United States. The studies' design and quality varied, and PIR s' were conducted differently. Five studies explored PIR s' as a separate intervention after restraint use, in the other studies, PIR s' were described as one of several components in restraint reduction programs. Outcomes seemed promising, but no significant outcome were related to using PIR alone. Patients and care providers reported PIR to: 1) be an opportunity to review restraint events, they would not have had otherwise, and 2) promote patients' personal recovery processes, and 3) stimulate professional reflection on organizational development and care.
Scientific literature directly addressing PIR s' after restraint use is lacking. However, results indicate that PIR may contribute to more professional and ethical practice regarding restraint promotion and the way restraint is executed. The practice of PIR varied, so a specific manual cannot be recommended. More research on PIR use and consequences is needed, especially PIR's potential to contribute to restraint prevention in mental healthcare.
To conduct a systematic literature review to assess the conceptualization, application, and measurement of resilience in American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) health promotion.
We searched 9 literature databases to document how resilience is discussed, fostered, and evaluated in studies of AIAN health promotion in the United States.
The article had to (1) be in English; (2) peer reviewed, published from January 1, 1980, to July 31, 2015; (3) identify the target population as predominantly AIANs in the United States; (4) describe a nonclinical intervention or original research that identified resilience as an outcome or resource; and (5) discuss resilience as related to cultural, social, and/or collective strengths.
Sixty full texts were retrieved and assessed for inclusion by 3 reviewers. Data were extracted by 2 reviewers and verified for relevance to inclusion criteria by the third reviewer.
Attributes of resilience that appeared repeatedly in the literature were identified. Findings were categorized across the lifespan (age group of participants), divided by attributes, and further defined by specific domains within each attribute.
Nine articles (8 studies) met the criteria. Currently, resilience research in AIAN populations is limited to the identification of attributes and pilot interventions focused on individual resilience. Resilience models are not used to guide health promotion programming; collective resilience is not explored.
Attributes of AIAN resilience should be considered in the development of health interventions. Attention to collective resilience is recommended to leverage existing assets in AIAN communities.
Environments are shifting rapidly in the Circumpolar Arctic and Subarctic regions as a result of climate change and other external stressors, and this has a substantial impact on the health of northern populations. Thus, there is a need for integrated surveillance systems designed to monitor the impacts of climate change on human health outcomes as part of broader adaptation strategies in these regions. This review aimed to identify, describe, and synthesize literature on integrated surveillance systems in Circumpolar Arctic and Subarctic regions, that are used for research or practice. Following a systematic realist review approach, relevant articles were identified using search strings developed for MEDLINE® and Web of Science™ databases, and screened by two independent reviewers. Articles that met the inclusion criteria were retained for descriptive quantitative analysis, as well as thematic qualitative analysis, using a realist lens. Of the 3431 articles retrieved in the database searches, 85 met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Thematic analysis identified components of integrated surveillance systems that were categorized into three main groups: structural, processual, and relational components. These components were linked to surveillance attributes and activities that supported the operations and management of integrated surveillance. This review advances understandings of the distinct contributions of integrated surveillance systems and data to discerning the nature of changes in climate and environmental conditions that affect population health outcomes and determinants in the Circumpolar North. Findings from this review can be used to inform the planning, design, and evaluation of integrated surveillance systems that support evidence-based public health research and practice in the context of increasing climate change and the need for adaptation.