Nunavimmiut (Inuit of Nunavik, Northern Quebec, Canada) exhibit a high selenium (Se) status because of their frequent consumption of marine mammal foods. Indirect evidence from our previous studies had suggested that selenoneine - a novel selenocompound - may be accumulating in the blood of Nunavimmiut. We used a liquid-chromatography/inductively coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS/MS) method to measure concentrations of selenoneine and its methylated metabolite Se-methylselenoneine in archived red blood cells (RBC) obtained from 210 Nunavimmiut living in communities along the Hudson Strait, where marine mammal hunting and consumption are most frequent in Nunavik. This method was adapted to quantify selenoneine and its methylated metabolite in beluga mattaaq, an Inuit delicacy consisting of the skin with the underlying layer of fat and the major dietary source of Se for Nunavimmiut. Total selenium concentration was also measured in RBC and beluga mattaaq samples by isotope dilution ICP-MS/MS. The median selenoneine concentration in RBC was 413?µg Se/L (range?=?3.20-3230?µg Se/L), representing 54% (median) of total Se content (range?=?1.6-91%). Quantification of selenoneine in five beluga mattaaq samples (skin layer) from Nunavik revealed a median concentration of 1.8?µg Se/g wet wt (range?=?1.2-7.4?µg Se/g), constituting 54% (median) of the total Se content (range?=?44-74%). Se-methylselenoneine was also detected in Inuit RBC but not in beluga mattaaq, suggesting that selenoneine undergoes methylation in humans. Selenoneine may protect Nunavimmiut from methylmecury toxicity by increasing its demethylation in RBC and in turn decreasing its distribution to target organs.
To assess the association between depressive symptoms and impaired glucose metabolism in the elderly population in arctic latitudes.
A population-based study.
The study population consisted of 1,830 subjects born between the years 1915 and 1958 in the northernmost part of Finland, the Muonio-Enontekiö district, who participated in a health survey during 1974-1984. In 2014, a health questionnaire was sent to 1,037 subjects, and 757 participants (73%) answered it. Those (n?=?629) living in the Muonio-Enontekiö district undergone a clinical examination in 2014 and 2015 including blood collections.
Depressive symptoms defined by the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI II) with a cut-off point of 14. Different diabetic states based on WHO's classification criteria defined by fasting plasma glucose and ADA's criteria by glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) values.
According to logistic regression analysis, depressive symptoms (BDI-II = 14) were associated statistically significantly with previously known type 2 diabetes, the odds ratio (OR) being 4.33 (95% CI 1.53-14.14). Regarding prediabetic fasting glucose/HbA1c values, the corresponding OR was 2.94 (95% CI 1.17-8.94). The prevalence of depressive symptoms (BDI-II = 14) was 7.1%, (men 9.7% and women 5.4%) and 13.7% (men 9.9% and women 17.0%) in subjects living in Muonio-Enontekiö district and in those who had moved away from there, respectively.
The association of depressive symptoms between prediabetes and diabetes seems to be present also in the northernmost latitudes of the world.
This study aims to evaluate whether a management algorithm has improved the effectiveness of care for dizzy patients at Umeå University Hospital.
This was an interventional study using medical records to collect data for acute dizziness presentations before (period 1, 2012-2014) and after (period 2, 2016-2017) the implementation of a management algorithm. Outcomes were changes in a set of pre-defined effectiveness markers and health economic effects.
Total n?=?2126 and n?=?1487 acute dizziness presentations were identified in period 1 and 2, respectively. Baseline characteristics were similar. The proportion of patients undergoing Dix-Hallpike testing increased, 20.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 18.8-23.0%] vs. 37.7% (95% CI 35.2-40.2%), as did BPPV diagnoses, 7.6% (95% CI 6.6-8.8%) vs. 15.3% (95% CI 13.6-17.3%). Hospitalization became less common, 61.5% (95% CI 59.4-63.6%) vs. 47.6% (95% CI 45.1-50.2%). The proportion undergoing any neuroradiological investigation decreased, 44.8% (95% CI 42.7-47.0%) vs. 36.3% (95% CI 33.8-38.7%) with a shift from CT to MRI, with unchanged sensitivity for diagnosing cerebrovascular causes. The average cost for the care of one dizzy patient decreased from $2561 during period 1 to $1808 during period 2.
This study shows that the implementation of a management algorithm for dizzy patients was associated with improved effectiveness of care.
Arctic marine ecosystems are currently undergoing rapid environmental changes. Over the past 20 years, individual growth rates of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) have declined, which may be a response to climate change; however, scarcity of physiological data makes it difficult to gauge the adaptive capacity and resilience of the species. We explored relationships between body condition and physiological parameters pertaining to oxygen (O2) storage capacity in 77 beluga whales in the eastern Beaufort Sea. Muscle myoglobin concentrations averaged 77.9 mg g-1, one of the highest values reported among mammals. Importantly, blood hematocrit, hemoglobin, and muscle myoglobin concentrations correlated positively to indices of body condition, including maximum half-girth to length ratios. Thus, a whale with the lowest body condition index would have ~27% lower blood (26.0 vs. 35.7 mL kg-1) and 12% lower muscle (15.6 vs. 17.7 mL kg-1) O2 stores than a whale of equivalent mass with the highest body condition index; with the conservative assumption that underwater O2 consumption rates are unaffected by body condition, this equates to a >3 minute difference in maximal aerobic dive time between the two extremes (14.3 vs. 17.4 minutes). Consequently, environmental changes that negatively impact body condition may hinder the ability of whales to reach preferred prey sources, evade predators, and escape ice entrapments. The relationship between body condition and O2 storage capacity may represent a vicious cycle, in which environmental changes resulting in decreased body condition impair foraging, leading to further reductions in condition through diminished prey acquisition and/or increased foraging efforts.
The overall survival (OS) results in patients with ALK-positive metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have rarely been reported. The aim of this prospective-retrospective cohort study was to obtain real-world data on the use of crizotinib or chemotherapy in patients with ALK-positive metastatic NSCLC in Russia.
Patients with epidermal growth factor receptor-negative metastatic NSCLC were screened in 23 cancer centers. To be eligible, patients were required to have confirmation of ALK rearrangement. Patients were treated with crizotinib (250 mg twice daily; n = 96) or the investigator's choice of platinum-based chemotherapy (n = 53). The primary end point was OS.
A total of 149 ALK-positive patients were included. Mean age was 53 years in both groups. Patients were predominately women (59%) and never-smokers (74%), and most patients had adenocarcinoma histology (95%). At a median follow-up time of 15 months, 79 of the 149 patients included in the analysis had died. Median OS from the start of treatment was 31 months (95% CI, 28.5 to 33.5 months) in the crizotinib group and 15.0 months (95% CI, 9.0 to 21.0 months) in the chemotherapy group (P
The radiative balance in the Arctic region is sensitive to in-cloud processes, which principally depend on atmospheric aerosols, including ice nucleating particles (INP). High temperature INP (active at =-15°C) are common in the Arctic. While laboratory and limited in situ studies show that the high-temperature active INP are associated with bioaerosols and biogenic compounds, there is still little quantitative insights into the Arctic biogenic INP and bioaerosols. We measured concentrations of bioaerosols, bacteria and biogenic INP at the Villum Research Station (VRS, Station Nord) in a large number of snow (15) and air (51) samples. We found that INP active at high sub-zero temperatures were present both in spring and summer. Air INP concentration were higher in summer (18 INP m-3 at =-10°C) than in spring (
Abdominal tuberculosis is a common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Often it is difficult to diagnose due to vague symptoms and lack of clinical findings. Spigelian hernia is a rare type of hernia located in the semilunar fascia of the abdominal rectus muscular sheath. We report on a 19-year-old Greenlandic Inuit man with a spigelian hernia as the primary presentation of abdominal tuberculosis. Abdominal tuberculosis presenting with a spigelian hernia is extremely rare, and the case illustrates that tuberculosis may present in myriad ways. The incidence of tuberculosis in Greenland is among one of the highest in the world, and we also review the history and incidence of tuberculosis in this Arctic country.
In addition to well-established links with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, cigarette smoking may affect skeletal muscle; however, associations with quadriceps atrophy, density, and function are unknown. This study explored the associations of current and former smoking with quadriceps muscle area and attenuation as well as muscle force (assessed as knee extension peak torque) and rate of torque development (RTD) - a measure of muscle power in older adults.
Data from 4469 older adults, aged 66-95 years at baseline in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility - Reykjavik Study with measurements of thigh computed tomography, isometric knee extension testing, self-reported smoking history and potential covariates were analyzed.
Sex-differences were observed in these data, therefore our final analyses are stratified by sex. In men, both former smokers and current smokers had lower muscle area (with = -0.10, 95% CI -0.17, -0.03 and = -0.19, 95% CI -0.33, -0.05, respectively) and lower muscle attenuation (i.e., higher fat infiltration, = -0.08, 95% CI -0.16, -0.01 and = -0.17, 95% CI -0.34, -0.01, respectively) when compared to never-smokers. Smoking status was not associated with male peak torque or RTD. In women, current smoking was associated with lower muscle attenuation (= -0.24, 95% CI -0.34, -0.13) compared to never-smoking. Among female smokers (current and former), muscle attenuation and peak torque were lower with increasing pack-years.
Results suggest that cigarette smoking is related to multiple muscle properties at older age and that these relationships may be different among men and women.
This manuscript presents novel data, as it examined for the first time the relationship between smoking and computed tomography-derived quadriceps muscle size (cross-sectional area) and attenuation.This study suggests that current cigarette smoking is related to higher muscle fat infiltration, which may have significant health implications for the older population, due to its known association with poor physical function, falls, and hip fractures.
To investigate the potential of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) as a platform to support biodiversity and phylogenetic studies of psychrophilic yeasts in cold environments, the technique was employed to rapidly characterize and distinguish three psychrophilic yeasts (Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Naganishia vishniacii, and Dioszegia cryoxerica) from three mesophilic counterparts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cry Havoc, S. cerevisiae California V Ale, and S. pastorianus). A detailed workflow for providing reproducible mass spectral fingerprints of low molecular weight protein/peptide features specific to the organisms studied is presented. The potential of this approach as a tool in the study of biodiversity, systematics, and phylogeny of psychrophilic microorganisms is highlighted.
The Aboriginal Children's Health and Well-Being Measure (ACHWM) was developed to enable Aboriginal health leaders to gather information on the health of children at a local community level. This paper aims to describe the typical health profiles of First Nation children living on traditional territory as a reference to assist in the interpretation of ACHWM scores.
Three First Nations in Ontario, Canada, gathered health data from children using the ACHWM administered on Android tablets between 2013 and 2015. The survey data were previously analyzed to inform local health planning. These survey data were pooled to describe the distribution of ACHWM summary and quadrant scores from a larger sample and inform interpretation of ACHWM scores.
ACHWM data from 196 participants (aged 7.6 to 21.7 yr) across 3 communities were included in the pooled sample. ACHWM summary scores ranged from 39.8 to 98.7 with a mean of 74.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 72.5-75.7) and a maximum of 100. Strengths were reported in the spiritual (mean 78.7, 95% CI 76.7-80.8), physical (mean 77.1, 95% CI 75.1-79.0) and emotional (mean 74.4, 95% CI 72.5-76.3) quadrants. The greatest opportunity for improvement was in the mental (cognition) quadrant (mean 61.6, 95% CI 56.9-63.4).
This paper presents initial estimates for child health scores based on self-report from a large sample of First Nations children living on reserve. These results establish benchmarks to aid interpretation of the ACHWM scores in these and other communities and contexts in the future.