Doctors' self-perceived mastery of clinical work might have an impact on their career and patient care, in addition to their own health and well-being. The aim of this study is to identify predictors at medical school of perceived mastery later in doctors' careers.
A cohort of medical students (n=631) was surveyed in the final year of medical school in 1993/1994 (T1), and 10 (T2) and 20 (T3) years later.
Nationwide healthcare institutions.
Medical students from all universities in Norway.
Perceived mastery of clinical work was measured at T2 and T3. The studied predictors measured at T1 included personality traits, medical school stress, perceived medical recording skills, identification with the role of doctor, hazardous drinking and drinking to cope, in addition to age and gender. Effects were studied using multiple linear regression models.
Response rates: T1, 522/631 (83%); T2, 390/522 (75%); and T3, 303/522 (58%). Mean scores at T2 and T3 were 22.3 (SD=4.2) and 24.5 (3.0) (t=8.2, p
Cites: BMC Med Educ. 2016 Aug 24;16(1):218 PMID 27552977
The purpose of the present study was to explore intervals between regular dental examination and the time dentists spent for examination and preventive dental care of children in 1996 and 2014.
In Denmark, Norway and Sweden, random samples of dentists working with children were included, while in Iceland all dentists were mailed questionnaires. Complete information was provided by 1082 of 1834 dentists (64%) in 1996 and 1366 of 2334 dentists (59%) in 2014. Results were assessed using chi-square and analysis of variance with post-hoc tests.
Some trends were consistent in all countries, but considerable differences in routines between the countries persisted during the period. The most used and maximum planned recall intervals were on average 14.8 (sd 4.8) and 18.5 (sd 4.6) months in 2014, respectively 3.1 and 3.5 months longer than in 1996 (p?0.05). In 2014 dentists used ample time delivering preventive care to children. Dentists reported spending significantly more time providing preventive care for caries risk children than for other children both in 1996 and 2014. Concurrent with extended intervals, dentists reported spending longer performing routine examinations in three of the four countries in 2014 than in 1996.
This study of trends in dental care delivered by dentists during recent decades showed moves towards extended recall intervals and preventive care individualized according to caries risk. In addition, extending intervals could necessitate more time for a routine dental examination.
The primary care out-of-hours (OOH) services in Norway are characterized by high contact rates by telephone. The telephone contacts are handled by local emergency medical communication centres (LEMCs), mainly staffed by registered nurses. When assessment by a medical doctor is not required, the nurse often handles the contact solely by nurse telephone counselling. Little is known about this group of contacts. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate characteristics of encounters with the OOH services that are handled solely by nurse telephone counselling.
Nurses recorded ICPC-2 reason for encounter (RFE) codes and patient characteristics of all patients who contacted six primary care OOH services in Norway during 2014. Descriptive statistics and frequency analyses were applied.
Of all telephone contacts (n = 61,441), 23% were handled solely by nurse counselling. Fever was the RFE most frequently handled (7.3% of all nurse advice), followed by abdominal pain, cough, ear pain and general symptoms. Among the youngest patients, 32% of the total telephone contacts were resolved by nurse advice compared with 17% in the oldest age group. At night, 31% of the total telephone contacts were resolved solely by nurse advice compared with 21% during the day shift and 23% in the evening. The share of nurse advice was higher on weekdays compared to weekends (mean share 25% versus 20% respectively).
This study shows that nurses make a significant contribution to patient management in the Norwegian OOH services. The findings indicate which conditions nurses should be able to handle by telephone, which has implications for training and routines in the LEMCs. There is the potential for more nurse involvement in several of the RFEs with a currently low share of nurse counselling.
Cites: BMJ. 2008 Sep 12;337:a1264 PMID 18790814
Cites: Br J Gen Pract. 2007 May;57(538):383-7 PMID 17504589
Cites: BMC Health Serv Res. 2008 Mar 26;8:62 PMID 18366754
Compelling evidence suggests that excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), but the effect of light-moderate alcohol consumption is less certain. We investigated the association between alcohol consumption within recommended limits and AF risk in a light-drinking population.
Among 47 002 participants with information on alcohol consumption in a population-based cohort study in Norway, conducted from October 2006 to June 2008, 1697 validated AF diagnoses were registered during the 8 years of follow-up. We used Cox proportional hazard models with fractional polynomials to analyze the association between alcohol intake and AF. Population attributable risk for drinking within the recommended limit (ie, at most 1 drink per day for women and 2 drinks per day for men without risky drinking) compared with nondrinking was also calculated. The average alcohol intake was 3.8±4.8 g/d. The adjusted hazard ratio for AF was 1.38 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.80) when we compared participants consuming >7 drinks per week with abstainers. When we modeled the quantity of alcohol intake as a continuous variable, the risk increased in a curvilinear manner. It was higher with heavier alcohol intake, but there was virtually no association at
Cites: Arch Intern Med. 2004 Oct 11;164(18):1993-8 PMID 15477433
Use of restraint and finding the balance between security and ethics is a continuous dilemma in clinical psychiatry. In daily clinic and in planning health-care service, knowledge on the characteristics of restraint situations is necessary to optimize its use and avoid abuse.
We describe characteristics in the use of pharmacological and mechanical restraint in psychiatric acute wards in a hospital in Middle Norway over an eight-year period. Data on all cases of mechanical and pharmacological restraint from 2004 to 2011 were retrospectively collected from hand-written protocols. Complementary information on the patients was obtained from the hospital patient administrative system.
Restraint in acute wards was used on 13 persons per 100,000 inhabitants annually. The percentage of admitted patients exposed to restraint was 1.7%, with a mean of 4.5 cases per exposed patient. Frequency per 100 admitted patients varied from 3.7 (in 2007) to 10 (in 2009). The majority of restraint cases concerned male patients under 50 years and with substance-abuse, psychotic, or affective disorders. Significantly more coercive means were used during daytime compared to night and morning. There was a significant increase in pharmacological coercion during spring and mechanical coercion during summer.
Restraint was used on 1.7% of admitted patients, representing 13 per 100,000 inhabitants per year. Use of restraint was higher during certain periods of the day and was associated with the patient's diagnosis, age, gender, and legal status of hospitalization. There was a marked variation over the years.
To investigate whether height at the age of 31 is associated with the incidence of knee and hip osteoarthritis (OA) in the following 15 years.
Participants in The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966) diagnosed with knee or hip OA between the ages of 31 and 46 were used as OA cases. Study subjects without knee and hip OA were used as the controls. Height and weight were measured in a clinical examination at the age of 31 (baseline). Mean heights for the OA cases and the controls were compared by an independent samples t-test. Cox regression analysis was performed to calculate the risk for OA for different height quartiles. The results were adjusted for body mass index/weight, education, smoking and leisure-time physical activity at baseline. Additionally, a Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed.
Despite the best efforts of local healthcare workers and health officials, Nunavut, a large geographical region in Northern Canada, has struggled with outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD). We contend that the implementation of an immunisation information system (IIS) could strengthen prevention and response efforts to this and future outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Developing an IIS in Nunavut that builds on the existing CANImmunize infrastructure would reduce the cost and complexity of developing a new IIS, and allow Nunavut to benefit from the ongoing efforts to secure data on the CANImmunize platform. Such a system would enable the identification of individuals and subpopulations at highest risk of infection based on vaccine series completion and permit the exploration of the underlying causes of outbreaks in the territory through consideration of demographic and temporal factors. Confirmed high rates of vaccination in the context of an outbreak would indicate potential issues with vaccine efficacy while low rates of vaccination would suggest that efforts should be devoted to increasing vaccine coverage. This approach could also lay the foundation for infrastructure expansion to other remote and/or Indigenous communities where geographical and accessibility issues complicate health care utilisation and monitoring, both in Canada and internationally.
Sauna bathing is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk, but the mechanisms underlying this beneficial effect are not entirely understood. We aimed to assess the relationship between sauna bathing and risk of incident hypertension.
Frequency of sauna bathing was ascertained using questionnaires in the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Study, a prospective cohort study conducted in Eastern Finland that comprised a population-based sample of 1,621 men aged 42 to 60 years without hypertension at baseline. The incidence of hypertension was defined as a physician diagnosis of hypertension, systolic blood pressure (SBP) >140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure >90 mm Hg, or use of antihypertensive medication.
During a median follow-up of 24.7 years, 251 incident cases (15.5%) were recorded. In Cox regression analysis adjusted for baseline age, smoking, body mass index, and SBP; compared to participants reporting 1 sauna session per week, the hazard ratio for incident hypertension in participants reporting 2 to 3 sessions and 4 to 7 sessions was 0.76 (95% confidence interval: 0.57-1.02) and 0.54 (0.32-0.91), respectively. The corresponding hazard ratios were similar after further adjustment for glucose, creatinine, alcohol consumption, heart rate, family history of hypertension, socioeconomic status, and cardiorespiratory fitness: 0.83 (95% confidence interval: 0.59-1.18) and 0.53 (0.28-0.98), respectively.
Regular sauna bathing is associated with reduced risk of hypertension, which may be a mechanism underlying the decreased cardiovascular risk associated with sauna use. Further epidemiological and experimental studies could help elucidate the effects of sauna bathing on cardiovascular function.
Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) has been linked with the risk of adverse health outcomes. We aimed to assess the prospective association of GGT activity with pneumonia risk. Serum GGT was measured at baseline in 2400 middle-aged men. Within-person variability in GGT values was corrected for using data from repeat measurements. During a median follow-up of 25.3 years, 409 pneumonia cases were recorded. The age-adjusted regression dilution ratio of GGT was 0.68 (95% CI 0.63-0.73). Gamma-glutamyltransferase was approximately log-linearly associated with pneumonia risk. In analysis adjusted for several major pneumonia risk factors, the hazard ratio (95% CI) for pneumonia per 1 standard deviation increase in GGT was 1.14 (1.02-1.28). The association was however attenuated on additional adjustment for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) 1.08 (0.96-1.22). There is an approximately log-linear positive association between GGT activity and future risk of pneumonia in a middle-aged male population, which is partly dependent on hsCRP.
Cites: J Am Heart Assoc. 2016 Feb 08;5(2): PMID 26857068
Previous research has revealed an association between parental bereavement from external causes and risk of suicide in offspring. Few studies have however provided insights into specific influences of cause of death, gender of the deceased and bereaved, age at bereavement and suicide, and time since bereavement. The present nested case-control study was based on data from three longitudinal registers. Subjects comprised 19 015 persons who died from suicide at an age of 11-64 years during 1969-2012 (cases), and 332 046 live comparison individuals matched for gender and date of birth. Information about deceased parents' cause and date of death, and sociodemographic data was retrieved and merged. Data were analysed with conditional logistic regression. Losing a parent to suicide, transport accidents and other external causes of death was associated with an increased suicide risk in offspring. Parental suicide was associated with a substantially higher suicide risk than transport accidents and other external causes. These effects were equally strong for daughters and sons, and for the loss of a mother, father or both parents. Suicide risk was highest in younger bereaved offspring, and bereavement had both short and long-term impacts on suicide risk. In conclusion, all offspring exposed to parental death by external causes have an increased suicide risk, independent of factors related to the exposure. The consequences are long lasting, and offspring should be offered follow-up in primary healthcare. Younger offspring bereaved by parental suicide have the highest risk and may be targeted for prevention and intervention programs in specialist healthcare.