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Antimicrobial peptide levels are linked to airway inflammation, bacterial colonisation and exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290091
Source
Eur Respir J. 2017 Mar; 49(3):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-2017
Author
Louise J P Persson
Marianne Aanerud
Jon A Hardie
Roy Miodini Nilsen
Per S Bakke
Tomas M Eagan
Pieter S Hiemstra
Author Affiliation
Dept of Thoracic Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway louise.persson@med.uib.no.
Source
Eur Respir J. 2017 Mar; 49(3):
Date
Mar-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Aged
Biomarkers - analysis
Case-Control Studies
Cathelicidins - analysis
Cohort Studies
Cytokines - analysis
Disease Progression
Female
Haemophilus Infections - epidemiology
Humans
Inflammation
Linear Models
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Proportional Hazards Models
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - epidemiology - physiopathology
Secretory Leukocyte Peptidase Inhibitor - analysis
Sputum - chemistry
Vitamin D - blood
Abstract
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are effectors of host defence against infection, inflammation and wound repair. We aimed to study AMP levels in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and during acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD), and to examine their relation to clinical parameters and inflammatory markers.The 3-year Bergen COPD Cohort Study included 433 COPD patients and 325 controls. Induced sputum was obtained and analysed for levels of the AMPs human cathelicidin (hCAP18/LL-37) and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and for the inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) using immunoassays. Systemic hCAP18/LL-37 and vitamin D levels were also studied. Treating AMPs as response variables, non-parametric tests were applied for univariate comparison, and linear regression to obtain adjusted estimates. The risk of AECOPD was assessed by Cox proportional-hazard regression.Sputum AMP levels were higher in patients with stable COPD (n=215) compared to controls (n=45), and further changed during AECOPD (n=56), with increased hCAP18/LL-37 and decreased SLPI levels. Plasma hCAP18/LL-37 levels showed a similar pattern. In stable COPD, high sputum hCAP18/LL-37 levels were associated with increased risk of AECOPD, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae colonisation, higher age, ex-smoking and higher levels of inflammatory markers.Altered levels of selected AMPs are linked to airway inflammation, infection and AECOPD, suggesting a role for these peptides in airway defence mechanisms in COPD.
PubMed ID
28298400 View in PubMed
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Maternal intake of seafood and supplementary long chain n-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids and preterm delivery.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290099
Source
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2017 Jan 19; 17(1):41
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-19-2017
Author
Anne Lise Brantsæter
Linda Englund-Ögge
Margareta Haugen
Bryndis Eva Birgisdottir
Helle Katrine Knutsen
Verena Sengpiel
Ronny Myhre
Jan Alexander
Roy M Nilsen
Bo Jacobsson
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Exposure and Epidemiology, Domain of Infection Control and Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404, Nydalen, NO-0403, Oslo, Norway. AnneLise.Brantsaeter@fhi.no.
Source
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2017 Jan 19; 17(1):41
Date
Jan-19-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Cohort Studies
Diet Surveys - methods
Dietary Supplements - statistics & numerical data
Eating
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - therapeutic use
Female
Gestational Age
Humans
Norway - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Premature Birth - epidemiology
Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Prevalence
Proportional Hazards Models
Registries
Seafood - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
Preterm delivery increases the risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Studies suggest that maternal diet may affect the prevalence of preterm delivery. The aim of this study was to assess whether maternal intakes of seafood and marine long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA) from supplements were associated with preterm delivery.
The study population included 67,007 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Maternal food and supplement intakes were assessed by a validated self-reported food frequency questionnaire in mid-pregnancy. Information about gestational duration was obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. We used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between total seafood, lean fish, fatty fish, and LCn-3PUFA intakes and preterm delivery. Preterm was defined as any onset of delivery before gestational week 37, and as spontaneous or iatrogenic deliveries and as preterm delivery at early, moderate, and late preterm gestations.
Lean fish constituted 56%, fatty fish 34% and shellfish 10% of seafood intake. Any intake of seafood above no/rare intake (>5 g/d) was associated with lower prevalence of preterm delivery. Adjusted HRs were 0.76 (CI: 0.66, 0.88) for 1-2 servings/week (20-40 g/d), 0.72 (CI: 0.62, 0.83) for 2-3 servings/week (40-60 g/d), and 0.72 (CI: 0.61, 0.85) for =3 servings/week (>60 g/d), p-trend
Notes
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ErratumIn: BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2017 Feb 10;17 (1):61 PMID 28187761
PubMed ID
28103845 View in PubMed
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Household food security and breast-feeding duration among Canadian Inuit.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290128
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2017 Jan; 20(1):64-71
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-2017
Author
Kathryn E McIsaac
David C Stock
Wendy Lou
Author Affiliation
1Dalla Lana School of Public Health,University of Toronto,30 Bond Street,Toronto,Ontario,Canada,M5B 1W8.
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2017 Jan; 20(1):64-71
Date
Jan-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Breast Feeding
Canada - epidemiology
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Supply
Health Surveys
Humans
Inuits
Lost to Follow-Up
Male
Proportional Hazards Models
Socioeconomic Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
There have been few studies investigating the association between food security and breast-feeding duration and none have been conducted among Canadian Inuit, a population disproportionately burdened with food insecurity. We evaluated the association between household food security and breast-feeding duration in Canadian Inuit children.
Data were obtained from the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey, a population-based cross-sectional survey.
The Canadian Territory of Nunavut in 2007 and 2008.
Caregivers of Inuit children aged 3-5 years. Participating children were randomly sampled from community medical centre lists.
Out of 215 children, 147 lived in food-insecure households (68·4 %). Using restricted mean survival time models, we estimated that children in food-secure households were breast-fed for 16·8 (95 % CI 12·5, 21·2) months and children in food-insecure households were breast-fed for 21·4 (95 % CI 17·9, 24·8) months. In models adjusting for social class, traditional knowledge and child health, household food security was not associated with breast-feeding duration (hazard ratio=0·82, 95 % CI 0·58, 1·14).
Our research does not support the hypothesis that children living in food-insecure households were breast-fed for a longer duration than children living in food-secure households. However, we found that more than 50 % of mothers in food-insecure households continued breast-feeding well beyond 1 year. Many mothers in food-secure households also continued to breast-feed beyond 1 year. Given the high prevalence of food insecurity in Inuit communities, we need to ensure infants and their caregivers are being adequately nourished to support growth and breast-feeding, respectively.
PubMed ID
27465413 View in PubMed
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Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Their Relation to Future Surgery for Valvular Heart Disease or Ascending Aortic Disease: A Case-Referent Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290242
Source
J Am Heart Assoc. 2017 May 05; 6(5):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
May-05-2017
Author
Johan Ljungberg
Bengt Johansson
Karl Gunnar Engström
Elin Albertsson
Paul Holmer
Margareta Norberg
Ingvar A Bergdahl
Stefan Söderberg
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
Source
J Am Heart Assoc. 2017 May 05; 6(5):
Date
May-05-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Aged
Aneurysm, Dissecting - diagnostic imaging - epidemiology - surgery
Aortic Aneurysm - diagnostic imaging - epidemiology - surgery
Aortic Valve Insufficiency - diagnostic imaging - epidemiology - surgery
Aortic Valve Stenosis - diagnostic imaging - epidemiology - surgery
Cardiac Surgical Procedures
Case-Control Studies
Chi-Square Distribution
Comorbidity
Coronary Artery Disease - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Mitral Valve Insufficiency - diagnostic imaging - epidemiology - surgery
Multivariate Analysis
Odds Ratio
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Time-to-Treatment
Vascular Surgical Procedures
Abstract
Risk factors for developing heart valve and ascending aortic disease are based mainly on retrospective data. To elucidate these factors in a prospective manner, we have performed a nested case-referent study using data from large, population-based surveys.
A total of 777 patients operated for heart valve disease or disease of the ascending aorta had previously participated in population-based health surveys in Northern Sweden. Median time (interquartile range) from survey to surgery was 10.5 (9.0) years. Primary indications for surgery were aortic stenosis (41%), aortic regurgitation (12%), mitral regurgitation (23%), and dilatation/dissection of the ascending aorta (17%). For each case, referents were allocated, matched for age, sex, and geographical area. In multivariable models, surgery for aortic stenosis was predicted by hypertension, high cholesterol levels, diabetes mellitus, and active smoking. Surgery for aortic regurgitation was associated with a low cholesterol level, whereas a high cholesterol level predicted surgery for mitral regurgitation. Hypertension, blood pressure, and previous smoking predicted surgery for disease of the ascending aorta whereas diabetes mellitus was associated with reduced risk. After exclusion of cases with coronary atherosclerosis, only the inverse associations between cholesterol and aortic regurgitation and between diabetes mellitus and disease of the ascending aorta remained.
This is the first truly prospective study of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and their association with valvular heart disease and disease of the ascending aorta. We confirm the strong association between traditional risk factors and aortic stenosis, but only in patients with concomitant coronary artery disease. In isolated valvular heart disease, the impact of traditional risk factors is varying.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28476875 View in PubMed
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Digitalis use and risk of gastrointestinal cancers: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290249
Source
Oncotarget. 2017 May 23; 8(21):34727-34735
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
May-23-2017
Author
Shao-Hua Xie
Tomas Jernberg
Fredrik Mattsson
Jesper Lagergren
Author Affiliation
Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Molecular medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
Source
Oncotarget. 2017 May 23; 8(21):34727-34735
Date
May-23-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents
Cohort Studies
Digitalis Glycosides - therapeutic use
Female
Gastrointestinal Neoplasms - classification - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Proportional Hazards Models
Registries
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Gastrointestinal cancers are characterized by a male predominance, suggesting a role of sex hormones. We hypothesized that digitalis medication, due to its estrogenic properties, decreases the risk of male-predominated gastrointestinal cancers.
Long -term digitalis use (=2 years) was followed by decreased risk for several gastrointestinal cancers, but associations were statistically significant only for liver cancer (hazard ratio [HR]=0.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16-0.98). Short-term (
Notes
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PubMed ID
28423729 View in PubMed
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Predictive factors and treatment outcome of laryngeal carcinoma recurrence.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290272
Source
Head Neck. 2017 Mar; 39(3):555-563
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-2017
Author
Aaro Haapaniemi
Janne Väisänen
Timo Atula
Olli-Pekka Alho
Antti Mäkitie
Petri Koivunen
Author Affiliation
Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Head Neck. 2017 Mar; 39(3):555-563
Date
Mar-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell - complications - pathology - therapy
Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant - methods
Cohort Studies
Databases, Factual
Female
Finland
Hospitals, University
Humans
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Laryngeal Neoplasms - complications - pathology - therapy
Laryngectomy - methods
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Neoplasm Recurrence, Local - epidemiology - pathology - therapy
Palliative Care
Prognosis
Proportional Hazards Models
Retrospective Studies
Risk assessment
Salvage Therapy
Sex Factors
Survival Analysis
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Up to 30% of patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) present with recurrence after treatment. We analyzed factors associated with the risk of cancer recurrence and prognosis after recurrence.
A nationwide laryngeal SCC cohort from Finnish university hospitals during 2001 to 2005 with initial successful therapy (n = 316) was analyzed.
Laryngeal SCC recurred in 22% of patients. The median time to recurrence was 9 months, with 90% occurring within 36 months after treatment. The World Health Organization (WHO) performance status >0, neck metastasis at presentation, and nonsurgical treatment were independent prognostic factors for recurrence. Patients with local recurrence had a 5-year overall survival (OS) of 53% compared with 5% in patients with regional/distant recurrences. OS for glottic and nonglottic laryngeal SCC recurrence was 45% and 0%, respectively.
The type of treatment affected the risk of recurrence in this retrospective series. Local recurrences carried a chance for successful salvage treatment. Routine follow-up beyond 36 months remains controversial. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 555-563, 2017.
PubMed ID
27902867 View in PubMed
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Consumption of alcohol and cardiovascular disease mortality: a 16 year follow-up of 115,592 Norwegian men and women aged 40-44 years.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290368
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2017 09; 32(9):775-783
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
09-2017
Author
Aage Tverdal
Per Magnus
Randi Selmer
Dag Thelle
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404, 0403, Nydalen, Oslo, Norway. aage.tverdal@fhi.no.
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2017 09; 32(9):775-783
Date
09-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects - epidemiology
Alcoholic Beverages - adverse effects
Beer
Cardiovascular Diseases - mortality
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Proportional Hazards Models
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Wine
Abstract
We tested whether teetotalism explains the upturn in cardiovascular risk for non-drinkers and whether wine is a more favorable alcohol type. We studied 115,592 men and women aged 40-44 years who participated in the age 40 program in Norway in 1994-1999 and were followed for an average of 16 years with 550 cardiovascular deaths. Self-reported number of glasses of beer, wine and spirits during 14 days was transformed to alcohol units/day. One unit is approximately 8 grams of pure alcohol. The mean and median number of alcohol units/day were 0.70 and 0.46. Teetotallers had higher risk of dying from cardiovascular disease than alcohol consumers, multivariate adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) 1.97 (1.52-2.56). The use of alcohol-related deaths as endpoint substantiated a selection of previous alcohol users to the teetotal group. Without teetotallers there was no association between alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease mortality. However, the multivariate adjusted hazard ratio per one unit/day of wine was 0.76 (0.58-0.99). The corresponding figures for beer and spirits were 1.04 (0.94-1.15) and 0.98 (0.75-1.29). The upturn in risk for non-drinkers could be explained by a higher risk for teetotallers who likely included previous alcohol users or teetotalers who started to drink during follow-up. Wine gave the most favorable risk estimates.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28936570 View in PubMed
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Insomnia and the Risk of Breast Cancer: The HUNT Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290449
Source
Psychosom Med. 2017 May; 79(4):461-468
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
May-2017
Author
Abhijit Sen
Signe Opdahl
Linn Beate Strand
Lars Johan Vatten
Lars Erik Laugsand
Imre Janszky
Author Affiliation
From the Department of Public Health and General Practice (Sen, Opdahl, Strand, Vatten, Laugsand, Janszky), Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; Department of Internal Medicine (Laugsand), St. Olav's hospital, Trondheim, Norway; and Department of Public Health Sciences (Janszky), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Psychosom Med. 2017 May; 79(4):461-468
Date
May-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Female
Humans
Norway - epidemiology
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Registries
Risk factors
Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders - complications - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
The association of insomnia with subsequent breast cancer risk is largely unknown. Therefore, we assessed whether different symptoms of insomnia and their combination are associated with incident breast cancer in a large population-based study.
In a prospective cohort study, 33,332 women were followed to monitor the occurrence of their first invasive breast cancer identified by the Cancer Registry of Norway. Insomnia symptoms including () nonrestorative sleep and () difficulty initiating and () maintaining sleep were self-reported using a study specific measure reflecting the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using multiadjusted Cox proportional hazards models.
A total of 862 incident breast cancer cases occurred during a mean follow-up of 14.7 years. No consistent association was observed between the individual insomnia symptoms and breast cancer risk. However, compared to women reporting no insomnia complaints, those who reported having all three aspects of insomnia simultaneously were at increased risk (hazard ratio, 2.38; 95% confidence interval = 1.11-5.09).
Our results suggest that having only some aspects of insomnia may not predispose someone to breast cancer. In contrast, experiencing all insomnia symptoms simultaneously might confer considerable excess risk.
PubMed ID
27763987 View in PubMed
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Timing of menarche in Norwegian girls: associations with body mass index, waist circumference and skinfold thickness.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290685
Source
BMC Pediatr. 2017 Jun 06; 17(1):138
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jun-06-2017
Author
Heiko Bratke
Ingvild Særvold Bruserud
Bente Brannsether
Jörg Aßmus
Robert Bjerknes
Mathieu Roelants
Pétur B Júlíusson
Author Affiliation
Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Paediatrics, Haugesund District Hospital, Haugesund, Norway.
Source
BMC Pediatr. 2017 Jun 06; 17(1):138
Date
Jun-06-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Body mass index
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Menarche - physiology
Norway
Proportional Hazards Models
Skinfold thickness
Waist Circumference
Abstract
Research studies show conflicting results regarding the association between menarche and body weight. The purpose of the present study was to investigate if anthropometric indicators of body composition, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), triceps (TSF) and subscapular skinfold (SSF) thicknesses, were differentially associated with age at menarche in Norwegian girls.
The association between menarche and BMI, WC, TSF and SSF was investigated in 1481 girls aged 8-15.5 years, and in a subgroup of 181 girls with menarche during the 12 months prior to examination. Anthropometric measures were categorized as low ( 1SDS), and menarche according to this classification was analysed with Kaplan-Meier curves and unadjusted and adjusted Cox regression.
The median age at menarche in the total sample was 13.1 years. In the unadjusted models, low categories of all traits were associated with later menarche, and high categories with earlier menarche. When adjusted for other covariates, earlier menarche was only related with a high BMI (Hazard Ratio 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07, 1.85), and later menarche with a low BMI (HR 0.53, 95%CI 0.38, 0.75) and low SSF (HR 0.54, 95%CI 0.39, 0.75). In girls with recent menarche, early menarche was significantly associated with a high BMI in the final model (HR 1.79, 95%CI 1.23, 2.62).
The timing of menarche was associated with the BMI, WC, TSF and SSF, but more strongly so with the BMI. These associations may be related to a common tempo of growth, as the mean age at menarche has remained stable during the last decades during a time period while the prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased significantly.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28587648 View in PubMed
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A Family-Based Study of the Association Between Labor Induction and Offspring Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Low Academic Achievement.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290705
Source
Behav Genet. 2017 Jul; 47(4):383-393
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jul-2017
Author
Kelsey K Wiggs
Martin E Rickert
Sonia Hernandez-Diaz
Brian T Bateman
Catarina Almqvist
Henrik Larsson
Paul Lichtenstein
Anna Sara Oberg
Brian M D'Onofrio
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, 1101 E. 10th St., Bloomington, IN, 47405, USA. kkwiggs@indiana.edu.
Source
Behav Genet. 2017 Jul; 47(4):383-393
Date
Jul-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Academic Success
Adult
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - genetics - metabolism
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Labor, Induced - adverse effects
Male
Mothers
Pregnancy
Proportional Hazards Models
Registries
Risk factors
Siblings
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The current study examined associations between labor induction and both (1) offspring attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis in a Swedish birth cohort born 1992-2005 (n?=?1,085,008) and (2) indices of offspring low academic achievement in a sub-cohort born 1992-1997 (n?=?489,196). Associations were examined in the entire sample (i.e., related and unrelated individuals) with adjustment for measured covariates and, in order to account for unmeasured confounders shared within families, within differentially exposed cousins and siblings. We observed an association between labor induction and offspring ADHD diagnosis and low academic achievement in the population. However, these associations were fully attenuated after adjusting for measured covariates and unmeasured factors that cousins and siblings share. The results suggest that observed associations between labor induction and ADHD and low academic achievement may be due to genetic and/or shared environmental factors that influence both mothers' risk of labor induction and offspring neurodevelopment.
PubMed ID
28551761 View in PubMed
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