Rabies is endemic to the Russian Federation. The disease incidence ranges between 2,000 and 4,000 cases annually. Between two and six cases in humans are also reported each year. Wild animals are the basic reservoir and vector of the virus, and the incidence of rabies in foxes and raccoon dogs amounts to 50% of the total number of disease cases. When outbreaks occur, the disease is also reported in domestic animals. To prevent the further spread of rabies, vaccination of domestic animals and oral immunisation of wildlife are practised. Unfortunately, vaccine coverage and disease prevention measures have not been sufficient to achieve a notable improvement in the rabies situation in the country.
La rage est présente à l’état endémique dans la Fédération de Russie. Son incidence varie de 2 000 à 4 000 cas par an. Deux à six cas de rage humaine sont également enregistrés chaque année. Les animaux sauvages constituent le principal réservoir et vecteur du virus, l’incidence de la rage chez le renard et le chien viverrin représentant 50 % du nombre total de cas. En cas de foyer, la maladie affecte également les animaux domestiques. La vaccination des animaux domestiques et l’immunisation orale de la faune sauvage sont les deux mesures appliquées pour empêcher la rage de se propager davantage. Malheureusement, la couverture vaccinale obtenue et les mesures de prévention appliquées n’ont pas suffi à améliorer significativement la situation de la rage.
La rabia es endémica en la Federación de Rusia, con una incidencia que va de los 2 000 a los 4 000 casos anuales. Cada año se notifican entre dos y seis casos en el ser humano. Los animales silvestres son el principal reservorio y vector del virus: la incidencia de la rabia en zorros y mapaches supone el 50% de la totalidad de los casos. Cuando estallan brotes también se registran casos en animales domésticos. Para impedir que la enfermedad se siga propagando se procede a la vacunación de los animales domésticos y a la inmunización oral de la fauna silvestre. Lamentablemente, la cobertura de vacunación y las medidas de prevención no han bastado para lograr una mejora sustancial de la situación de la rabia.
The inspection protocols of the Swedish police, based on the Act (2007:1150) on Supervision of Dogs and Cats, were used to examine the characteristics of 101 seized dogs, their owners, and the circumstances in which the attacks occurred. Most common reasons to seize a dog was that the dog owner was not following a previous order or ban, or that the dog had attacked and caused damage to humans or animals. The most common circumstances of the attacks involved dogs that escaped from gardens, unleashed dogs on walks and attacks by dogs on a leash. Bull breeds caused the highest number of injuries, the most serious injuries, and they were most often categorized as high risk, followed by Rottweilers and German Shepherds. Affenpinscher, Chihuahua, Cocker Spaniel, Japanese Spitz, Pug, Shih Tzu, Shetland Sheepdog and Golden Retriever were identified as victim breeds. The seized dogs had caused substantial harm to humans, animals, and their environment. The largest proportion of dogs returned to owners occurred in the Stockholm region.
Seismic surveys increasingly operate in deeper Arctic waters with propagation conditions and marine mammal fauna different from the better-studied temperate, or shallow-water, regions. Using 31 calibrated sound recorders, we quantified noise contributions from four concurrent seismic surveys in Baffin Bay, Greenland, to estimate their potential impacts on marine mammals. The impact was cumulative as the noise level rose in response to the onset of each survey: on a minute-by-minute scale the sound-exposure-levels varied by up to 70?dB (20?dB on average), depending on range to the seismic vessel, local bathymetry effects and interference patterns, representing a significant change in the auditory scene for marine mammals. Airgun pulse energy did not decrease to ambient before arrival of the next pulse leaving very little low-frequency masking-free time. Overall, the measured values matched well with pre-season-modeling, emphasizing the importance of noise-modeling in impact assessments, if responses of focal marine mammals are known.
Global change influences biogeochemical cycles within and between environmental compartments (i.e., the cryosphere, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and the atmosphere). A major effect of global change on carbon cycling is altered exposure of natural organic matter (NOM) to solar radiation, particularly solar UV radiation. In terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, NOM is degraded by UV and visible radiation, resulting in the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide, as well as a range of products that can be more easily degraded by microbes (photofacilitation). On land, droughts and land-use change can reduce plant cover causing an increase in exposure of plant litter to solar radiation. The altered transport of soil organic matter from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems also can enhance exposure of NOM to solar radiation. An increase in emission of CO2 from terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems due to the effects of global warming, such as droughts and thawing of permafrost soils, fuels a positive feedback on global warming. This is also the case for greenhouse gases other than CO2, including methane and nitrous oxide, that are emitted from terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. These trace gases also have indirect or direct impacts on stratospheric ozone concentrations. The interactive effects of UV radiation and climate change greatly alter the fate of synthetic and biological contaminants. Contaminants are degraded or inactivated by direct and indirect photochemical reactions. The balance between direct and indirect photodegradation or photoinactivation of contaminants is likely to change with future changes in stratospheric ozone, and with changes in runoff of coloured dissolved organic matter due to climate and land-use changes.
The taxonomy of several genera of the tribe Dicerurini (subfamily Porricondylinae) is revisited, induced by the discovery of 11 new species in Malaise catches of various provenances. The bulk of the specimens interpreted here is of Swedish origin. Species described as new to science are Desertepidosis grytsjoenensis sp. nov. (from Sweden), D. robusta sp. nov. (Sweden), Linnaeomyia pratensis sp. nov. (Czech Republic), Neurepidosis ekdalensis sp. nov. (Sweden), N. emarginata sp. nov. (Sweden, Czech Republic), N. hybrida sp. nov. (Sweden), Tetraneuromyia brevipalpis sp. nov. (Sweden, Slovak Republic), T. discrepans sp. nov. (Sweden), T. errata sp. nov. (Sweden), and T. lapponica sp. nov. (Sweden). A new genus, Gardenforsia gen. nov., is introduced for G. oelandica sp. nov. (Sweden), a new species with regressive male morphology. The generic definitions of Desertepidosis Mamaev Soyunov, 1989 (including Ubinomyia Mamaev, 1990 syn. nov. as new junior synonym) and Linnaeomyia Jaschhof Jaschhof, 2015 are revised. A key to males of Desertepidosis is presented. New information on the morphology and geographic distribution is provided for Linnaeomyia hortensis Jaschhof Jaschhof, 2015; Tetraneuromyia bulbifera Mamaev, 1964; and T. lamellata Spungis, 1987.
The North Eurasian interspecific hybrid forms of the genus Bythotrephes Leydig, 1860 are described morphologically in detail with consideration of the previous data on their allozyme analysis and brief morphological examination. In total, three hybrid forms have been encountered, among which B. brevimanus x B. cederströmii appear to be most common and widespread whereas two others, one of which is new to science, are known from single localities. The high morphological variability of the former hybrid form is analyzed and its diagnostic features, distinguishing their representatives from those of parental species are determined. Within their vast range, the hybrids B. brevimanus x B. cederströmii seem to be one of the most common and numerous members of the genus. For instance, they dominate in all reservoirs of the Volga River where their biology was investigated in some detail. The hybrids are distributed widely being known from Sweden, Finland, and north-west of European Russia to Central Yakutia in Eastern Siberia. The southern borders of their range extend to the south of Eastern Siberia and Eastern Kazakhstan. Further more detailed investigations of hybrids, both genetic and morphological, are highly desirable.
A highly accurate quantitative method, based on the new technique, droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), was applied to determine the content of Alaska pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) in seafood products. Using this method, we found a linear relationship among raw sample weight, DNA concentration and DNA copy number. We also established a formula to calculate the raw sample weight, based on the number of DNA copies. To confirm the accuracy and applicability of this method, mixed samples of known composition were analyzed. Results from this study indicated that the ddPCR method described is suitable for quantifying Alaska pollock in seafood products and has the potential applied to a variety of tasks in food quality certification.
There are several methods for studying metal-contaminated freshwater sediments, but more information is needed on which methods to include in ecological risk assessment. In this study, we compliment the traditional Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) approach - including information on chemistry, toxicity and ecological status - with studies on metal bioavailability and metal body residues in local organisms. We studied four mining-affected boreal lakes in Finland by conducting chemical analyses of sediment and water, toxicity tests (L. variegatus, V. fischeri, C. riparius, L. stagnalis), and analysis of benthic organism community structure. In addition, we studied the relationships between metal loading, toxicity, metal bioavailability, and metal body residues in the field-collected biota. Chemistry and benthic organism community structures show adverse effects in those lakes, where the metal concentrations are the highest. However, toxicity was connected to low sediment pH during the experiment, rather than to high metal concentrations. Toxicity was observed in 4 out of 6 toxicity tests including growth test with L. variegatus, bulk sediment test with V. fischeri, and the L. stagnalis toxicity test. The C. riparius test did not show toxicity. Metal body residues in biota were not high enough to induce adverse effects (0.1-4.1?mg?Cu/kg fw, 0.01-0.3?mg?Ni/kg fw, 2.9-26.7?mg?Zn/kg fw and 0.01-0.7?mg?As/kg fw). Chemical analyses, metal bioavailability assessment and benthic community structures survey revealed adverse effects in the sediments, where metal concentrations are highest (Lake SJ and Lake KS). Standard toxicity tests were not suitable for studying acid, sulfide-rich sediments and, therefore, benthic structure study and chemical analyses are believed to give more reliable results of the ecological status of these sediments.
Marine mammals in the Barents Sea region have among the highest levels of contaminants recorded in the Arctic and the Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) is one of the most contaminated species within this region. We therefore investigated the relationships bewteen blubber concentrations of lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and plasma concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and markers of endocrine and immune functions in adult male Atlantic walruses (n?=?38) from Svalbard, Norway. To do so, we assessed plasma concentrations of five forms of thyroid hormones and transcript levels of genes related to the endocrine and immune systems as endpoints; transcript levels of seven genes in blubber and 23 genes in blood cells were studied. Results indicated that plasma total thyroxine (TT4) concentrations and ratio of TT4 and reverse triiodothyronine decreased with increasing blubber concentrations of lipophilic POPs. Blood cell transcript levels of genes involved in the function of T and B cells (FC like receptors 2 and 5, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 and protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22) were increased with plasma PFAS concentrations. These results suggest that changes in thyroid and immune systems in adult male walruses are linked to current levels of contaminant exposure.
Concentrations of organohalogenated contaminants (OHCs) can show significant temporal and spatial variation in the environment and wildlife. Most of the variation is due to changes in use and production, but environmental and biological factors may also contribute to the variation. Nestlings of top predators are exposed to maternally transferred OHCs in the egg and through their dietary intake after hatching. The present study investigated spatial and temporal variation of OHCs and the role of age and diet on these variations in plasma of Norwegian white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) nestlings. The nestlings were sampled at two locations, Smøla and Steigen, in 2015 and 2016. The age of the nestlings was recorded (range: 44?-?87 days old) and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (d13C and d15N) were applied as dietary proxies for carbon source and trophic position, respectively. In total, 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, range: 0.82?-?59.05 ng/mL), 7 organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs, range: 0.89?-?52.19?ng/mL), 5 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, range: 0.03?-?2.64 ng/mL) and 8 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs, range: 4.58?-?52.94?ng/mL) were quantified in plasma samples from each location and year. The OHC concentrations, age and dietary proxies displayed temporal and spatial variations. The age of the nestlings was indicated as the most important predictor for OHC variation as the models displayed significantly decreasing plasma concentrations of PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs with increasing age, while concentrations of PFASs were significantly increasing with age. Together with age, the variations in PCB, OCP and PBDE concentrations were also explained by d13C and indicated decreasing concentrations with a more marine diet. Our findings emphasise age and diet as important factors to consider when investigating variations in plasma OHC concentrations in nestlings.