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Parent-child-relationship quality predicts offspring dispositional compassion in adulthood: A prospective follow-up study over three decades.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298979
Source
Dev Psychol. 2019 Jan; 55(1):216-225
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-2019
Author
Mirka Hintsanen
Kia Gluschkoff
Henrik Dobewall
C Robert Cloninger
Dacher Keltner
Aino Saarinen
Karolina Wesolowska
Salla-Maarit Volanen
Olli T Raitakari
Laura Pulkki-Råback
Author Affiliation
Unit of Psychology, University of Oulu.
Source
Dev Psychol. 2019 Jan; 55(1):216-225
Date
Jan-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Child
Child, Preschool
Emotions - physiology
Empathy - physiology
Female
Finland
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Parent-Child Relations
Parenting - psychology
Temperament - physiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Compassion is known to predict prosocial behavior and moral judgments related to harm. Despite the centrality of compassion to social life, factors predicting adulthood compassion are largely unknown. We examined whether qualities of parent-child-relationship, namely, emotional warmth and acceptance, predict offspring compassion decades later in adulthood. We used data from the prospective population-based Young Finns Study. Our sample included 2,761 participants (55.5% women). Parent-child-relationship qualities were reported by each participant's parents at baseline in 1980 (T0) when participants were between 3 and 18 years old. Compassion was self-reported 3 times: in 1997 (T1), 2001 (T2), and 2012 (T3) with the Temperament and Character Inventory (Cloninger, Przybeck, Svrakic, & Wetzel, 1994). By using age at the assessment as a time-variant variable, we applied multilevel modeling for repeated measurements to examine developmental trajectories of compassion from the ages of 20 (the age of the youngest cohort at T1) to 50 (the age of the oldest cohort at T3). On average, compassion increased in a curvilinear pattern with age. Higher acceptance (p = .013) and higher emotional warmth (p
PubMed ID
30431291 View in PubMed
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Exposure to Parental Smoking in Childhood is Associated with High C-Reactive Protein in Adulthood: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294213
Source
J Atheroscler Thromb. 2017 Dec 01; 24(12):1231-1241
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-01-2017
Author
Di Wang
Markus Juonala
Jorma S A Viikari
Feitong Wu
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Olli T Raitakari
Costan G Magnussen
Author Affiliation
Department of Anesthesiology, Anhui Provincial Hospital, Anhui Medical University.
Source
J Atheroscler Thromb. 2017 Dec 01; 24(12):1231-1241
Date
Dec-01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Biomarkers - blood
C-Reactive Protein - analysis
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - etiology - metabolism
Child
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Parents
Prognosis
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Social Class
Surveys and Questionnaires
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects
Abstract
Children exposed to parental smoking are at increased long-term risk of subclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood. However, it has not been quantified if exposure to parental smoking in childhood is associated with adult systemic inflammation. This study aimed to determine if childhood exposure to parental smoking was associated with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in adulthood.
This longitudinal analysis of 2,511 participants used data from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, a prospective cohort of Finnish children. In 1980 or 1983, parents self-reported their smoking status and serum hsCRP was collected up to 31 years later in adulthood.
Compared with children with non-smoking parents, the relative risk of developing high hsCRP (>3 mg/L) in adulthood increased among those with 1 or both parents who smoked [relative risk (RR), 1.3; 95%confidence interval (CI), 1.0-1.8] after adjustment for socioeconomic status, cardiovascular risk factors, and smoking status in childhood and adulthood. Moreover, children exposed to mother smoking [RR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.2] had highest risk of developing high hsCRP in adulthood compared with those exposed to father smoking [RR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.3] and both parents smoking [RR, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.9-2.0].
Our findings suggest that children exposed to parental smoking are at increased risk of having high hsCRP in adulthood. Limiting children's exposure to passive smoking may have long-term benefits on general low-grade inflammation.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28724840 View in PubMed
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Long-term determinants of changes in television viewing time in adults: Prospective analyses from the Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295819
Source
Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2018 Dec; 28(12):2723-2733
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-2018
Author
Xiaolin Yang
Anna Kankaanpää
Stuart J H Biddle
Mirja Hirvensalo
Harri Helajärvi
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Olli T Raitakari
Tuija Tammelin
Author Affiliation
LIKES Research Centre for Physical Activity and Health, Jyväskylä, Finland.
Source
Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2018 Dec; 28(12):2723-2733
Date
Dec-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Employment
Exercise
Family Characteristics
Female
Finland
Follow-Up Studies
Health Behavior
Humans
Male
Obesity - epidemiology
Overweight - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Sedentary lifestyle
Smoking
Surveys and Questionnaires
Television
Time
Young Adult
Abstract
The long-term effects of sociodemographic and health characteristics on television viewing (TV) time changes have not been identified in adulthood. We aimed to examine the modifiable and non-modifiable determinants of changes in TV-time in young adults over 10 years.
Participants (N = 2929) aged 24-39 years were recruited between 2001 and 2011 from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Data were collected using questionnaires and a medical examination. The determinants of changes in TV-time were estimated using latent growth modeling for men and women separately.
For men, inverse associations with initial levels of TV-time were observed for students becoming employed and already has children, and direct associations were observed for both those who stayed a smoker and those who stayed overweight/obese. Increasing attention to health habits was inversely associated with a slope of TV-time, whereas age and becoming unemployed were positively associated with the slope of TV-time. For women, inverse associations with the levels of TV-time were found for age, staying in non-manual work, and paying consistently high and increasing attention to health habits, and direct associations were found for staying unemployed, smoking and overweight/obese, and becoming employed, single and non-smoking. Increasing physical activity, becoming employed, motherhood, and normal weight were inversely associated with the slope of TV-time, whereas age and staying in non-manual work were positively associated with the slope of TV-time.
This suggests several gender-specific determinants of changes in TV-time that can help identify potential targets for interventions to prevent excessive TV-time in adulthood.
PubMed ID
30171782 View in PubMed
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Low childhood high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and subsequent risk for chronic inflammatory bowel disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295279
Source
Dig Liver Dis. 2018 Apr; 50(4):348-352
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Apr-2018
Author
Markku Voutilainen
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Päivi Tossavainen
Taina Sipponen
Niina Pitkänen
Tomi Laitinen
Eero Jokinen
Tapani Rönnemaa
Jorma S A Viikari
Olli T Raitakari
Markus Juonala
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Division of Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland. Electronic address: markku.voutilainen@tyks.fi.
Source
Dig Liver Dis. 2018 Apr; 50(4):348-352
Date
Apr-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
C-Reactive Protein - analysis
Child
Child, Preschool
Cholesterol, HDL - blood
Colitis, Ulcerative - blood - epidemiology - genetics
Crohn Disease - blood - epidemiology - genetics
Female
Finland
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Logistic Models
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Prospective Studies
Registries
Risk factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
Several genetic and environmental risk factors have been linked to chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The incidence of IBD has significantly increased in developed countries during last decades. The aim of the present study was to examine childhood risk factors for subsequent IBD diagnosis in a longitudinal cohort study of children and adolescents.
A Finnish study population consisting of 3551 children and adolescents originally evaluated as part of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study in 1980. At baseline, participant BMI, insulin, lipid, C-reactive protein and blood pressure levels, socioeconomic position, dietary habits, and physical activity, were evaluated. In addition, information was gathered on rural residency, severe infections, breast feeding, parental smoking and birth weight. Subsequent IBD diagnosis status was evaluated based on nationwide registries on hospitalisations and drug imbursement decisions.
Altogether, 49 participants (1.4%) had IBD diagnosed during the 34 years of register follow-up, of which 31 had ulcerative colitis, 12 Crohn's disease and 6 undetermined colitis. In univariate analyses, significant correlations were observed between childhood HDL-cholesterol (risk ratio (95% CI) for 1-SD change (0.58 (0.42-0.79)) and CRP concentrations (1.20 (1.01-1.43)) with IBD. The inverse association between HDL-cholesterol and IBD remained significant (0.57 (0.39-0.82)) in a multivariable model including data on age, sex and CRP. In addition, a weighted genetic z-score of 71 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with elevated HDL-cholesterol levels was significantly lower in IBD patients, P=0.01).
Low childhood HDL-cholesterol levels are associated with subsequent IBD diagnosis. In addition, a genetic risk score associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels predict later IBD suggesting that HDL-cholesterol metabolism might have a role in the pathogenesis of IBD.
PubMed ID
29426615 View in PubMed
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Childhood socioeconomic status and lifetime health behaviors: The Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295618
Source
Int J Cardiol. 2018 05 01; 258:289-294
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
05-01-2018
Author
Elina Puolakka
Katja Pahkala
Tomi T Laitinen
Costan G Magnussen
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Satu Männistö
Kristiina S Pälve
Tuija Tammelin
Päivi Tossavainen
Eero Jokinen
Kylie J Smith
Tomi Laitinen
Marko Elovainio
Laura Pulkki-Råback
Jorma S A Viikari
Olli T Raitakari
Markus Juonala
Author Affiliation
Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland. Electronic address: elina.a.puolakka@utu.fi.
Source
Int J Cardiol. 2018 05 01; 258:289-294
Date
05-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Health Behavior - physiology
Healthy Diet - trends
Humans
Life Style
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Prospective Studies
Risk Reduction Behavior
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology - trends
Social Class
Abstract
Differences in health behaviors partly explain the socioeconomic gap in cardiovascular health. We prospectively examined the association between childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and lifestyle factors in adulthood, and the difference of lifestyle factors according to childhood SES in multiple time points from childhood to adulthood.
The sample comprised 3453 participants aged 3-18?years at baseline (1980) from the longitudinal Young Finns Study. The participants were followed up for 31?years (N?=?1675-1930). SES in childhood was characterized as reported annual family income and classified on an 8-point scale. Diet, smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity were used as adult and life course lifestyle factors. Higher childhood SES predicted a healthier diet in adulthood in terms of lower consumption of meat (ß?±?SE -3.6?±?0.99,p?
PubMed ID
29428239 View in PubMed
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Childhood predictors of adult fatty liver. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291515
Source
J Hepatol. 2016 Oct; 65(4):784-790
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Oct-2016
Author
Emmi Suomela
Mervi Oikonen
Niina Pitkänen
Ari Ahola-Olli
Johanna Virtanen
Riitta Parkkola
Eero Jokinen
Tomi Laitinen
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Mika Kähönen
Terho Lehtimäki
Leena Taittonen
Päivi Tossavainen
Antti Jula
Britt-Marie Loo
Vera Mikkilä
Risto Telama
Jorma S A Viikari
Markus Juonala
Olli T Raitakari
Author Affiliation
Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland. Electronic address: emkasu@utu.fi.
Source
J Hepatol. 2016 Oct; 65(4):784-790
Date
Oct-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Cardiovascular diseases
Child
Fatty liver
Finland
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Lipase
Liver
Longitudinal Studies
Membrane Proteins
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Risk factors
Abstract
Fatty liver is a potentially preventable cause of serious liver diseases. This longitudinal study aimed to identify childhood risk factors of fatty liver in adulthood in a population-based group of Finnish adults.
Study cohort included 2,042 individuals from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study aged 3-18years at baseline in 1980. During the latest follow-up in 2011, the liver was scanned by ultrasound. In addition to physical and environmental factors related to fatty liver, we examined whether the genetic risk posed by a single nucleotide polymorphism in the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 gene (PNPLA3) (rs738409) strengthens prediction of adult fatty liver.
Independent childhood predictors of adult fatty liver were small for gestational age, (odds ratio=1.71, 95% confidence interval=1.07-2.72), variant in PNPLA3 (1.63, 1.29-2.07 per one risk allele), variant in the transmembrane 6 superfamily 2 gene (TM6SF2) (1.57, 1.08-2.30), BMI (1.30, 1.07-1.59 per standard deviation) and insulin (1.25, 1.05-1.49 per standard deviation). Childhood blood pressure, physical activity, C-reactive protein, smoking, serum lipid levels or parental lifestyle factors did not predict fatty liver. Risk assessment based on childhood age, sex, BMI, insulin levels, birth weight, TM6SF2 and PNPLA3 was superior in predicting fatty liver compared with the approach using only age, sex, BMI and insulin levels (C statistics, 0.725 vs. 0.749; p=0.002).
Childhood risk factors on the development of fatty liver were small for gestational age, high insulin and high BMI. Prediction of adult fatty liver was enhanced by taking into account genetic variants in PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 genes.
The increase in pediatric obesity emphasizes the importance of identification of children and adolescents at high risk of fatty liver in adulthood. We used data from the longitudinal Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study to examine the associations of childhood (3-18years) risk variables with fatty liver assessed in adulthood at the age of 34-49years. The findings suggest that a multifactorial approach with both lifestyle and genetic factors included would improve early identification of children with a high risk of adult fatty liver.
PubMed ID
27235307 View in PubMed
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Does higher education protect against obesity? Evidence using Mendelian randomization.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291998
Source
Prev Med. 2017 Aug; 101:195-198
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Aug-2017
Author
Petri Böckerman
Jutta Viinikainen
Laura Pulkki-Råback
Christian Hakulinen
Niina Pitkänen
Terho Lehtimäki
Jaakko Pehkonen
Olli T Raitakari
Author Affiliation
Turku School of Economics, Labour Institute for Economic Research, Helsinki, Finland; IZA, Bonn. Electronic address: petri.bockerman@labour.fi.
Source
Prev Med. 2017 Aug; 101:195-198
Date
Aug-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Body mass index
Body Weight - genetics
Educational Status
Female
Finland
Genome-Wide Association Study - methods
Humans
Male
Mendelian Randomization Analysis - methods
Obesity - genetics
Abstract
The aim of this explorative study was to examine the effect of education on obesity using Mendelian randomization.
Participants (N=2011) were from the on-going nationally representative Young Finns Study (YFS) that began in 1980 when six cohorts (aged 30, 33, 36, 39, 42 and 45 in 2007) were recruited. The average value of BMI (kg/m2) measurements in 2007 and 2011 and genetic information were linked to comprehensive register-based information on the years of education in 2007. We first used a linear regression (Ordinary Least Squares, OLS) to estimate the relationship between education and BMI. To identify a causal relationship, we exploited Mendelian randomization and used a genetic score as an instrument for education. The genetic score was based on 74 genetic variants that genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have found to be associated with the years of education. Because the genotypes are randomly assigned at conception, the instrument causes exogenous variation in the years of education and thus enables identification of causal effects.
The years of education in 2007 were associated with lower BMI in 2007/2011 (regression coefficient (b)=-0.22; 95% Confidence Intervals [CI]=-0.29, -0.14) according to the linear regression results. The results based on Mendelian randomization suggests that there may be a negative causal effect of education on BMI (b=-0.84; 95% CI=-1.77, 0.09).
The findings indicate that education could be a protective factor against obesity in advanced countries.
PubMed ID
28645627 View in PubMed
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Aortic sinus diameter in middle age is associated with body size in young adulthood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297426
Source
Heart. 2018 05; 104(9):773-778
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
05-2018
Author
Jussi A Hernesniemi
Jarkko Heiskanen
Saku Ruohonen
Noora Kartiosuo
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Mika Kähönen
Eero Jokinen
Päivi Tossavainen
Merja Kallio
Tomi Laitinen
Terho Lehtimäki
Jorma S A Viikari
Markus Juonala
Olli T Raitakari
Author Affiliation
Department of Cardiology, Tays Heart Hospital, Tampere University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
Source
Heart. 2018 05; 104(9):773-778
Date
05-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Body Size - physiology
Body surface area
Child
Child, Preschool
Echocardiography
Female
Finland
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Sinus of Valsalva - anatomy & histology
Young Adult
Abstract
Aortic sinus dilatation can lead to aortic valve regurgitation or even aortic dissection. Our objective was to examine the association between body surface area (BSA) measures from childhood to middle age and aortic sinus diameter in middle age. Understanding the relation of these two clarifies how aortic size is normally determined.
Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study is a longitudinal study with follow-up of over 31 years (1980-2011). The study comprises information of body composition from multiple time points of 1950 subjects with cardiac ultrasound measurements made in 2011. The association between BSA in different ages and aortic sinus diameter in middle age was analysed by linear regression modelling adjusted with age, sex and diastolic blood pressure. Missing BSA values were derived for each life year (ages 3-33 years) from subject-specific curves for body weight and height estimated from longitudinal measurements using mixed model regression splines.
BSA estimates in early 20s are most strongly associated with aortic sinus diameter in middle age. Top association was observed at age 23 years with one SD increase in estimated BSA corresponding to 1.04?mm (0.87-1.21?mm) increase in aortic diameter. Increase in body weight beyond early 20s does not associate with aortic sinus diameter, and the association between middle age BSA and aortic size is substantially weaker (0.74?mm increase (0.58-0.89?mm)). These results were confirmed in a subpopulation using only measured data.
The association between aortic sinus diameter and BSA is stronger when considering BSA in young adulthood compared with BSA in middle age.
PubMed ID
29092920 View in PubMed
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Physical Inactivity from Youth to Adulthood and Risk of Impaired Glucose Metabolism.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299033
Source
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2018 06; 50(6):1192-1198
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-2018
Author
Petri Kallio
Katja Pahkala
Olli J Heinonen
Tuija Tammelin
Mirja Hirvensalo
Risto Telama
Markus Juonala
Costan G Magnussen
Suvi Rovio
Harri Helajärvi
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Jorma Viikari
Olli T Raitakari
Author Affiliation
Paavo Nurmi Centre and Department of Health and Physical Activity, University of Turku, Turku, FINLAND.
Source
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2018 06; 50(6):1192-1198
Date
06-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Blood Glucose - analysis
Child
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology
Exercise
Female
Finland
Glucose - metabolism
Humans
Life Style
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Risk factors
Sedentary Behavior
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
Physical activity (PA) is important in the prevention and treatment of impaired glucose metabolism. However, association of physical inactivity during the transition between childhood and adulthood with glucose metabolism is unknown. Therefore, we studied the association of persistent physical inactivity since childhood with glucose metabolism in adulthood.
Data were drawn from the ongoing, Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study with repeated follow-ups between 1980 and 2011 (baseline age, 3-18 yr; n = 3596). Impaired glucose metabolism was defined as having impaired fasting glucose (6.1-6.9 mmol·L) or type 2 diabetes in adulthood. Leisure-time PA habits were repeatedly collected with a standardized questionnaire and expressed as a PA Index. Using PA Index, four groups were formed (n = 2000): 1) persistently low PA, 2) decreasingly active, 3) increasingly active, and 4) persistently active subjects. Poisson regression model was used to examine the association between PA groups and impaired glucose metabolism.
The proportion of the sample with impaired glucose metabolism was 16.1% in individuals with persistently low PA, 14.5% in decreasingly active, 6.8% in increasingly active, and 11.1% in persistently active. Compared with individuals with persistently low PA, age and sex-adjusted risk for impaired glucose metabolism were lower in those who increased PA (relative risk [RR], 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29-0.76) and in those who were persistently active (RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.51-0.97), but similar in those who decreased PA (RR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.66-1.36).
Persistently physically inactive lifestyle from youth to adulthood is associated with increased risk of impaired glucose metabolism in adulthood. Importantly, a moderate increase in PA lowered the risk. The results highlight the importance of avoiding physically inactive lifestyle at all stages of life.
PubMed ID
29337718 View in PubMed
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Longitudinal associations of temperament and character with paranoid ideation: A population-based study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296020
Source
Psychiatry Res. 2018 03; 261:137-142
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
03-2018
Author
Aino Saarinen
Tom Rosenström
Mirka Hintsanen
Christian Hakulinen
Laura Pulkki-Råback
Terho Lehtimäki
Olli T Raitakari
Claude Robert Cloninger
Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology and Logopedics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Psychiatry Res. 2018 03; 261:137-142
Date
03-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Character
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Paranoid Personality Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Personality Inventory
Population Surveillance - methods
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Temperament - physiology
Young Adult
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine (a) the associations of temperament and character dimensions with paranoid ideation over a 15-year follow-up in the general population (b) the associations of explosive temperament and organized character profiles with paranoid ideation. 2137 subjects of the Young Finns Study completed the Temperament and Character Inventory and the Paranoid Ideation Scale of the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised in 1997, 2001, and 2012. Temperament dimensions of high novelty seeking, high harm avoidance, low reward dependence and explosive temperament profile were associated with the development of higher paranoid ideation. Regarding character, high self-directedness, high cooperativeness, and low self-transcendence and organized character profile were associated with lower paranoid ideation. These associations sustained after controlling for age, gender, and socioeconomic factors. However, the associations between temperament and paranoia mostly disappeared after taking character into account. Our study supported the hypothesis that personality dimensions contribute to the development of paranoid ideation. Temperament and character might combine a variety of single previously found risk factors into a more comprehensive framework for the developmental etiology of paranoia. Our findings provide evidence for psychotherapeutic interventions that support the self-regulation of temperamental vulnerabilities by internalizing mature concepts about the self and social relationships.
PubMed ID
29304427 View in PubMed
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