Compassion is known to predict prosocial behavior and moral judgments related to harm. Despite the centrality of compassion to social life, factors predicting adulthood compassion are largely unknown. We examined whether qualities of parent-child-relationship, namely, emotional warmth and acceptance, predict offspring compassion decades later in adulthood. We used data from the prospective population-based Young Finns Study. Our sample included 2,761 participants (55.5% women). Parent-child-relationship qualities were reported by each participant's parents at baseline in 1980 (T0) when participants were between 3 and 18 years old. Compassion was self-reported 3 times: in 1997 (T1), 2001 (T2), and 2012 (T3) with the Temperament and Character Inventory (Cloninger, Przybeck, Svrakic, & Wetzel, 1994). By using age at the assessment as a time-variant variable, we applied multilevel modeling for repeated measurements to examine developmental trajectories of compassion from the ages of 20 (the age of the youngest cohort at T1) to 50 (the age of the oldest cohort at T3). On average, compassion increased in a curvilinear pattern with age. Higher acceptance (p = .013) and higher emotional warmth (p
Children exposed to parental smoking are at increased long-term risk of subclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood. However, it has not been quantified if exposure to parental smoking in childhood is associated with adult systemic inflammation. This study aimed to determine if childhood exposure to parental smoking was associated with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in adulthood.
This longitudinal analysis of 2,511 participants used data from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, a prospective cohort of Finnish children. In 1980 or 1983, parents self-reported their smoking status and serum hsCRP was collected up to 31 years later in adulthood.
Compared with children with non-smoking parents, the relative risk of developing high hsCRP (>3 mg/L) in adulthood increased among those with 1 or both parents who smoked [relative risk (RR), 1.3; 95%confidence interval (CI), 1.0-1.8] after adjustment for socioeconomic status, cardiovascular risk factors, and smoking status in childhood and adulthood. Moreover, children exposed to mother smoking [RR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.2] had highest risk of developing high hsCRP in adulthood compared with those exposed to father smoking [RR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.3] and both parents smoking [RR, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.9-2.0].
Our findings suggest that children exposed to parental smoking are at increased risk of having high hsCRP in adulthood. Limiting children's exposure to passive smoking may have long-term benefits on general low-grade inflammation.
The long-term effects of sociodemographic and health characteristics on television viewing (TV) time changes have not been identified in adulthood. We aimed to examine the modifiable and non-modifiable determinants of changes in TV-time in young adults over 10 years.
Participants (N = 2929) aged 24-39 years were recruited between 2001 and 2011 from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Data were collected using questionnaires and a medical examination. The determinants of changes in TV-time were estimated using latent growth modeling for men and women separately.
For men, inverse associations with initial levels of TV-time were observed for students becoming employed and already has children, and direct associations were observed for both those who stayed a smoker and those who stayed overweight/obese. Increasing attention to health habits was inversely associated with a slope of TV-time, whereas age and becoming unemployed were positively associated with the slope of TV-time. For women, inverse associations with the levels of TV-time were found for age, staying in non-manual work, and paying consistently high and increasing attention to health habits, and direct associations were found for staying unemployed, smoking and overweight/obese, and becoming employed, single and non-smoking. Increasing physical activity, becoming employed, motherhood, and normal weight were inversely associated with the slope of TV-time, whereas age and staying in non-manual work were positively associated with the slope of TV-time.
This suggests several gender-specific determinants of changes in TV-time that can help identify potential targets for interventions to prevent excessive TV-time in adulthood.
Several genetic and environmental risk factors have been linked to chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The incidence of IBD has significantly increased in developed countries during last decades. The aim of the present study was to examine childhood risk factors for subsequent IBD diagnosis in a longitudinal cohort study of children and adolescents.
A Finnish study population consisting of 3551 children and adolescents originally evaluated as part of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study in 1980. At baseline, participant BMI, insulin, lipid, C-reactive protein and blood pressure levels, socioeconomic position, dietary habits, and physical activity, were evaluated. In addition, information was gathered on rural residency, severe infections, breast feeding, parental smoking and birth weight. Subsequent IBD diagnosis status was evaluated based on nationwide registries on hospitalisations and drug imbursement decisions.
Altogether, 49 participants (1.4%) had IBD diagnosed during the 34 years of register follow-up, of which 31 had ulcerative colitis, 12 Crohn's disease and 6 undetermined colitis. In univariate analyses, significant correlations were observed between childhood HDL-cholesterol (risk ratio (95% CI) for 1-SD change (0.58 (0.42-0.79)) and CRP concentrations (1.20 (1.01-1.43)) with IBD. The inverse association between HDL-cholesterol and IBD remained significant (0.57 (0.39-0.82)) in a multivariable model including data on age, sex and CRP. In addition, a weighted genetic z-score of 71 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with elevated HDL-cholesterol levels was significantly lower in IBD patients, P=0.01).
Low childhood HDL-cholesterol levels are associated with subsequent IBD diagnosis. In addition, a genetic risk score associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels predict later IBD suggesting that HDL-cholesterol metabolism might have a role in the pathogenesis of IBD.
Differences in health behaviors partly explain the socioeconomic gap in cardiovascular health. We prospectively examined the association between childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and lifestyle factors in adulthood, and the difference of lifestyle factors according to childhood SES in multiple time points from childhood to adulthood.
The sample comprised 3453 participants aged 3-18?years at baseline (1980) from the longitudinal Young Finns Study. The participants were followed up for 31?years (N?=?1675-1930). SES in childhood was characterized as reported annual family income and classified on an 8-point scale. Diet, smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity were used as adult and life course lifestyle factors. Higher childhood SES predicted a healthier diet in adulthood in terms of lower consumption of meat (ß?±?SE -3.6?±?0.99,p?
Fatty liver is a potentially preventable cause of serious liver diseases. This longitudinal study aimed to identify childhood risk factors of fatty liver in adulthood in a population-based group of Finnish adults.
Study cohort included 2,042 individuals from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study aged 3-18years at baseline in 1980. During the latest follow-up in 2011, the liver was scanned by ultrasound. In addition to physical and environmental factors related to fatty liver, we examined whether the genetic risk posed by a single nucleotide polymorphism in the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 gene (PNPLA3) (rs738409) strengthens prediction of adult fatty liver.
Independent childhood predictors of adult fatty liver were small for gestational age, (odds ratio=1.71, 95% confidence interval=1.07-2.72), variant in PNPLA3 (1.63, 1.29-2.07 per one risk allele), variant in the transmembrane 6 superfamily 2 gene (TM6SF2) (1.57, 1.08-2.30), BMI (1.30, 1.07-1.59 per standard deviation) and insulin (1.25, 1.05-1.49 per standard deviation). Childhood blood pressure, physical activity, C-reactive protein, smoking, serum lipid levels or parental lifestyle factors did not predict fatty liver. Risk assessment based on childhood age, sex, BMI, insulin levels, birth weight, TM6SF2 and PNPLA3 was superior in predicting fatty liver compared with the approach using only age, sex, BMI and insulin levels (C statistics, 0.725 vs. 0.749; p=0.002).
Childhood risk factors on the development of fatty liver were small for gestational age, high insulin and high BMI. Prediction of adult fatty liver was enhanced by taking into account genetic variants in PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 genes.
The increase in pediatric obesity emphasizes the importance of identification of children and adolescents at high risk of fatty liver in adulthood. We used data from the longitudinal Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study to examine the associations of childhood (3-18years) risk variables with fatty liver assessed in adulthood at the age of 34-49years. The findings suggest that a multifactorial approach with both lifestyle and genetic factors included would improve early identification of children with a high risk of adult fatty liver.
The aim of this explorative study was to examine the effect of education on obesity using Mendelian randomization.
Participants (N=2011) were from the on-going nationally representative Young Finns Study (YFS) that began in 1980 when six cohorts (aged 30, 33, 36, 39, 42 and 45 in 2007) were recruited. The average value of BMI (kg/m2) measurements in 2007 and 2011 and genetic information were linked to comprehensive register-based information on the years of education in 2007. We first used a linear regression (Ordinary Least Squares, OLS) to estimate the relationship between education and BMI. To identify a causal relationship, we exploited Mendelian randomization and used a genetic score as an instrument for education. The genetic score was based on 74 genetic variants that genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have found to be associated with the years of education. Because the genotypes are randomly assigned at conception, the instrument causes exogenous variation in the years of education and thus enables identification of causal effects.
The years of education in 2007 were associated with lower BMI in 2007/2011 (regression coefficient (b)=-0.22; 95% Confidence Intervals [CI]=-0.29, -0.14) according to the linear regression results. The results based on Mendelian randomization suggests that there may be a negative causal effect of education on BMI (b=-0.84; 95% CI=-1.77, 0.09).
The findings indicate that education could be a protective factor against obesity in advanced countries.
Aortic sinus dilatation can lead to aortic valve regurgitation or even aortic dissection. Our objective was to examine the association between body surface area (BSA) measures from childhood to middle age and aortic sinus diameter in middle age. Understanding the relation of these two clarifies how aortic size is normally determined.
Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study is a longitudinal study with follow-up of over 31 years (1980-2011). The study comprises information of body composition from multiple time points of 1950 subjects with cardiac ultrasound measurements made in 2011. The association between BSA in different ages and aortic sinus diameter in middle age was analysed by linear regression modelling adjusted with age, sex and diastolic blood pressure. Missing BSA values were derived for each life year (ages 3-33 years) from subject-specific curves for body weight and height estimated from longitudinal measurements using mixed model regression splines.
BSA estimates in early 20s are most strongly associated with aortic sinus diameter in middle age. Top association was observed at age 23 years with one SD increase in estimated BSA corresponding to 1.04?mm (0.87-1.21?mm) increase in aortic diameter. Increase in body weight beyond early 20s does not associate with aortic sinus diameter, and the association between middle age BSA and aortic size is substantially weaker (0.74?mm increase (0.58-0.89?mm)). These results were confirmed in a subpopulation using only measured data.
The association between aortic sinus diameter and BSA is stronger when considering BSA in young adulthood compared with BSA in middle age.
Physical activity (PA) is important in the prevention and treatment of impaired glucose metabolism. However, association of physical inactivity during the transition between childhood and adulthood with glucose metabolism is unknown. Therefore, we studied the association of persistent physical inactivity since childhood with glucose metabolism in adulthood.
Data were drawn from the ongoing, Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study with repeated follow-ups between 1980 and 2011 (baseline age, 3-18 yr; n = 3596). Impaired glucose metabolism was defined as having impaired fasting glucose (6.1-6.9 mmol·L) or type 2 diabetes in adulthood. Leisure-time PA habits were repeatedly collected with a standardized questionnaire and expressed as a PA Index. Using PA Index, four groups were formed (n = 2000): 1) persistently low PA, 2) decreasingly active, 3) increasingly active, and 4) persistently active subjects. Poisson regression model was used to examine the association between PA groups and impaired glucose metabolism.
The proportion of the sample with impaired glucose metabolism was 16.1% in individuals with persistently low PA, 14.5% in decreasingly active, 6.8% in increasingly active, and 11.1% in persistently active. Compared with individuals with persistently low PA, age and sex-adjusted risk for impaired glucose metabolism were lower in those who increased PA (relative risk [RR], 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29-0.76) and in those who were persistently active (RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.51-0.97), but similar in those who decreased PA (RR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.66-1.36).
Persistently physically inactive lifestyle from youth to adulthood is associated with increased risk of impaired glucose metabolism in adulthood. Importantly, a moderate increase in PA lowered the risk. The results highlight the importance of avoiding physically inactive lifestyle at all stages of life.
The aim of this study was to examine (a) the associations of temperament and character dimensions with paranoid ideation over a 15-year follow-up in the general population (b) the associations of explosive temperament and organized character profiles with paranoid ideation. 2137 subjects of the Young Finns Study completed the Temperament and Character Inventory and the Paranoid Ideation Scale of the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised in 1997, 2001, and 2012. Temperament dimensions of high novelty seeking, high harm avoidance, low reward dependence and explosive temperament profile were associated with the development of higher paranoid ideation. Regarding character, high self-directedness, high cooperativeness, and low self-transcendence and organized character profile were associated with lower paranoid ideation. These associations sustained after controlling for age, gender, and socioeconomic factors. However, the associations between temperament and paranoia mostly disappeared after taking character into account. Our study supported the hypothesis that personality dimensions contribute to the development of paranoid ideation. Temperament and character might combine a variety of single previously found risk factors into a more comprehensive framework for the developmental etiology of paranoia. Our findings provide evidence for psychotherapeutic interventions that support the self-regulation of temperamental vulnerabilities by internalizing mature concepts about the self and social relationships.