Experimental serological tests were developed to determine anti-tularensis antibodies in humans in immunochromatography formats (LF-test LPS Ft15) and enzyme immunoassay (ELISA LPS Ft15) using as an antigen highly purified LPS F. tularensis 15 NIIEG. Analysis was conducted of the sensitivity and specificity of the developed tests and commercial tularemia antigen «RNGA-Tul-AG» (production Stavropol research anti-plague Institute) in comparison with the commercial reference antigen, registered in the Russian Federation for the quantitative determination of human IgG tularemia - «ELISA classic Francisella tularensis IgG» SERION, Germany (IgG SERION ELISA). A study of human blood serum vaccinated against tularemia showed that the sensitivity and specificity of detection of anti-tularemia antibodies by «ELISA LPS Ft15» were 97.7 and 100%, compared with «ELISA IgG series». When determining antitularemia antibodies with the diagnosis «LF-test LPS Ft15», these parameters were compared to «ELISA IgG series» 94.3 and 100%. The sensitivity and specificity of «RNGA-Tul-AG» made compared to the «IgG ELISA, SERION» of 59.1% and 80%.
[Age-related dynamics of the contents of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1, -2, -3, -9) and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP-1, -2, -4) in blood plasma of residents of the European part of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation.]
Here we present the study of enzymes involved in the regulation of extracellular matrix metabolism. It was the first study of this kind in the European part of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation (AZRF). The contents of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1, -2, -3, -9) and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP-1, -2, -4) were measured in blood plasma of 91 men in AZRF (67o N) and 14 men in Western Siberia. The contents of MMP-1, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-4 in plasma of northerners were higher compared to those of the residents of Western Siberia (55o N). Age-related dynamics of MMP and TIMP contents had a mixed trend in northerners. The maximum contents of MMP-1 and MMP-9 and of MMP-3 were observed in 30-39 and 40-49 years old groups, respectively. The contents of these enzymes tended to decease with age. The maximum contents of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 and of TIMP-4 were in 50-59 and 60-69 years old groups, respectively, while the minimum contents of these enzymes were in the group of young men up to 29 years old. Hyaluronidase activity was minimal in 30-39 years old group and increased with age up to maximum values at 50-59 years old. Age-related imbalance of MMP/TIMP system (MSE content reduction with age vs TIMP content increase in older age groups) can be considered one of the reasons of the identified age-related increase of interstitial fibrosis and premature aging of the northerners.
Introduction: the paper deals with the biological age of women living in extreme climatogeographic conditions of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). The aim of the study was to identify the anthropometric characteristics of women of yakut nationality (from 18 to 89 years), depending on the rate of aging.
Materials and methods: Anthropometric measurements were carried out by the classical method of V. V. Bunak. The absolute values of the main body components (fat, muscle and bone mass) were calculated using the Matiegka formulas. Body mass index (BMI) was determined. The variant of the rate of aging was revealed by the value of the rate of aging coefficient (Gorelkin A. G., Pinkhasov B. B., 2010). The obtained material was processed using the methods of parametric and nonparametric statistics of SPSS 17.0 application package.
Results: The age characteristics of the distribution of the rate of aging women of Yakutia are revealed. The predominant option of ageing among young women, the first and second periods of adulthood was the normal rate of ageing, and among older women and senile women was the slow option of ageing. The share of accelerated aging is significantly reduced in older age groups until complete disappearance in the elderly age group. Women with accelerated aging had significantly greater body weight, relative weight of fat component than women with other options of aging rate. In terms of BMI, women with accelerated aging were significantly more likely to be overweight and obese.
Conclusions: Biological age women of Yakutia has the age features. Ethno-territorial features of distribution of variants of aging rate of women living in different regions of Russia are established. The obtained results can be one of the biomarkers for determining the rate of aging of the female body, and used to develop recommendations for improving the quality and increasing the life expectancy of the female population of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).
The Russian northern regions development is associated with the extraction and processing of natural resources, which leads to environmental pollution and makes the task of sanitary-hygienic monitoring relevant. Buccal micronucleus cytome assay is one of the toxicological methods for human population studies. Studies on the inter-latitudinal comparison of Buccal micronucleus cytome assay are lacking, therefore there are difficulties in comparing the results obtained in the Russian Arctic with data from more southern regions. The aim of this study is to compare cytogenetic abnormalities in the buccal epithelium in two groups of older schoolchildren living in high and middle latitudes. The study was conducted in the city of Apatity (Murmansk region, 67 ° 34'03 ? N, 33 ° 23'36 ? E) and the city of Serpukhov (Moscow region, 54 ° 54 '56 ? N, 37 ° 24 '40 "E). A total of 61 children were examined: 41 children from the Apatity and 20 children from the Serpukhov (16-18 years old). The Buccal micronucleus cytome assay was carried out according to an international protocol. It was shown that the average frequency values of the cells with micronucleus in the comparison groups of schoolchildren living in high and middle latitudes did not significantly differ and did not exceed the values for the average population norm. The frequency of cells with nuclear buds and two nucleus was significantly higher in the group of schoolchildren living in middle latitudes, which, in turn, is compensated by a higher rate of elimination of cells with impaired. Therefore, when comparing Buccal micronucleus cytome assay data, it is quite possible not to take into account the breadth of the studied groups.
By the end of the 2010-s the prevalence of obesity among the indigenous people of the North approached to the all-Russia one and the speed of the spread of other metabolic disorders exceeded the average all-country levels. Aim of this review is to analyze data on the increase in consumption and variety of sugars coupled with a genetic specificity of regulation of saccharidase activity and their possible impact on the matters. Results. It have been shown that the traditional protein-lipid-based northern type diet has substantially changed and now contains a high proportion of carbohydrates. The carbohydrate per capita consumption among the indigenous people of the North has reached the all-Russia average level (40 kg per year) which exceeds the European average of 36.2 kg per year. The variety of food disaccharides has also considerably increased. The daily consumption of sucrose, at the beginning of the 20th century it was the only sugar contained in the store-bought foods, increased from 30 g in the 1930s to 63-65 g in the 1990s. In addition, the proportion of sucrose dropped to 60-70 per cent, while the contribution of other disaccharides (lactose, trehalose) reached 30-40 per cent. Daily starch consumption has also increased and got close to the national average (males 228.5 g, females 157.5 g per day). Such a diet in itself increases the risk of metabolic disorders and obesity. The high prevalence of the genotypes that determine reduced levels or inability to produce sucrase-isomaltase, lactase, trehalase, salivary and pancreatic amylases among northerners becomes a negative cofactor. The evolutionary driven and embodied in genotype reduced ability of the indigenous Arctic people to digest complex carbohydrates is in a conflict with the growing consumption of sugars and starchy foods in modern conditions. The northern people have a high proportion of carriers of the AG deletion in SI gene (3.5-14.3% against 0.05-0.2% among Europeans) which determines malabsorption of sucrose. The CC/LCT genotype (96.6% in northerners, 36-49% in Russians) presumes lactose intolerance and is associated with the risk of childhood obesity. The occurrence of A allele in the rs2276064 locus of TREH gene (trehalose intolerance; 31.3-58.9% in northerners, 1.9% in Europeans) increases the probability of the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus. According to preliminary estimates, 28-52% of the northerners completely lost AMY gene that precludes or drastically reduces the ability to digest starch. A reduction in the number of copies of AMY gene (the average number of copies AMY2A - 4, in, in northerners it is 1.0-1.4) is associated with overweight and obesity. Conclusion. The analysis shows that, in the case of the modern indigenous northerners, nutritional and genetic risks of metabolic disorders accumulate.
To perform a clinical-genealogical and molecular genetic analysis of X-linked spinal-bulbar amyotrophy (Kennedy's disease) in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia).
Six patients, aged from 30 to 60 years, from 4 unrelated Yakut families registered in the Republican genetics registry of hereditary and congenital abnormalities of the Sakha Republic were studied. The average age of onset was 45.1±4.4 years. A clinical-genealogical and molecular genetic methods were used.
The prevalence of spinal-bulbar amyotrophy Kennedy in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) is 1.3 per 100 thousand, among Yakut men is 2.8 per 100 thousand. Clinical manifestations of the disease in the patients included in the study were similar to those described previously in the literature. Patients underwent molecular genetic diagnosis in exon 1 of the androgen receptor (AR) gene. All of them carried the allele with more than 38 CAG repeats. There was an inverse correlation between the age at disease onset and the number of CAG-repeats. A method of DNA diagnosis of Kennedy's disease with visualization on an agarose gel has been introduced in genetic testing.
The Institute of Environmental Physiology of the Federal state budgetary institution of science Federal Center for integrated Arctic Research RAS, 249, av. Lomonosova, Arkhangelsk, 163061, Russian Federation; email@example.com.
The study involved 106 elderly people of the Arctic aged 61-74 years, 42 of them were residents of the Subarctic region (SR) and 64 residents of the Arctic region (AR). Using gas-liquid chromatography there was determined the serum content of saturated fatty acids (SFA): short-chain (SCFA), medium-chain (MCFA) and long-chain (LCFA); and the levels of carbohydrate metabolism parameters were determined by spectrophotometric methods. Correlation analysis showed that elderly people of SR had no significant interrelationships between the contents of SCFA, MCFA and LCFA, since all the correlation dependences were weak (r=0,2-0,29, p=0,08-0,786), against AR with a lower occurrence of high values of glucose (Glu), lactate (Lac) and low pyruvate (Pyr). In AR, with the highest occurrence of high and low values of GIu, the greatest number of its interrelations was noted with LCFA (palmitic, margarine, stearic, behenic, tricosanoic), then with MCFA (myristic, pentadecanoic) and SCFA (pelargonic), low values of Pyr with MCFA (lauric, myristic, ?MCFA) and SCFA (decanoic), and a slight decrease in the occurrence of high levels of Lac and Lac/Pyr with LCFA (palmitic, margarine, stearic, tricosanoic), MCFA (lauric, tridecanoic) and SCFA (caproic, capric).
Diseases connected with work in hay have been known in Iceland for a long time. In 1981 scientific studies of these diseases were started in Iceland at the request of the Farmers Union. The results of these studies are summarized in this article. In studies of hay a great amount of storage mites, moulds and thermophilic actinomycetes (microlyspora faeni) were found in addition to allergens from mice and pollen. Symptoms caused by hay dust were mainly from nose and eyes in people with positive skin tests, but cough, dyspnea and fever were equally common in those with negative skin tests. The most common causes of allergy in farming families were storage mites and cattle, but allergy to cats, dogs and grass pollen were less common rurally than in the Reykjavik area. When comparing individuals working in heavy hay dust with those working in cleaner air, the former group had a higher likelihood of having a positive precipitin test against micropolyspora faeni, fever after work in hay and airway obstruction. It was shown that Icelandic farmers were more likely to get emphysema than other people irrespective of smoking. In a large study of homes in the Reykjavik area almost no mites were found. In spite of this, positive specific IgE tests against dust mites were equally common as in Uppsala, Sweden, where dust mites were found in 16% of homes. In further studies it was found, that 57% of people in the study had been more and less exposed to hay dust. They had either been raised on a farm, been on a farm in the summer during childhood or owned horses and fed them with hay. We have argued that cross allergy to storage mites may be the cause of a rather common allergy to house dust mites. A new study of middle-aged individuals has shown that allergy to storage mites is a little more common in the Reykjavik area than in Aarhus, Bergen or Uppsala. The most likely explanation is that they have more often been exposed to hay dust.
Electric scooters have become popular in Iceland. The aim of the current study was to gather data on the incidence, causes, and severity of injuries due to the use of electric scooters in the Reykjavik area during the summer of 2020. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Individuals presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) at Landspitali between June 1 and August 31 were asked about the location and cause of accident, use of protective equipment, and use of recreational drugs and alcohol. Diagnosis and treatment data was gathered from hospital records. RESULTS: During the study period, 149 individuals presented with electric scooter injuries, on average 1.6/day. Patients' age ranged between 8 and 77 years, and 45% were younger than 18 years of age. In 60% of cases the cause of accident was that the patient was riding too fast, lost balance, or uneven road surface. Seventy-nine percent of children reported using a helmet, compared to only 17% of adults. No children reported having been under the influence of alcohol or recreational drugs at the time of the accident, compared to 40% of adults who reported that they were intoxicated. Fractures were diagnosed in 38% of patients, 6% needed hospital admission, but no patient suffered serious injury. CONCLUSION: During the summer of 2020, one to two individuals were injured daily in the Reykjavík capital area while using electic scooters, but no serious injuries occurred. Preventive measures to decrease injury rate from the use of electric scooters should focus on infrastructure, encourage helmet use, and education on the risk of injury associated with operating electric scooters while intoxicated.
This is a review of studies on the genetic polymorphism of modern and ancient populations of the north of Asia and America, with the aim of reconstructing the history of migrations of ancient marine hunters in the Okhotsk Sea region. The data on mitochondrial DNA polymorphism and the "Arctic" mutation distribution - the rs80356779-A variant of the CPT1A gene - were analyzed. It is known that the "Arctic" variant of the CPT1A gene is widely distributed in modern populations of the Eskimos, Chukchis, Koryaks, and other peoples of the Okhotsk Sea region, whose economic structure is associated with marine hunting. According to paleogenomic data, the earliest cases of the "Arctic" variant of the CPT1A gene were found in the Greenland and Canadian Paleoeskimos (4 thousand years ago), among representatives of the Tokarev culture of the Northern Priokhotye (3 thousand years ago), and among the bearers of the culture of the late Jomon of Hokkaido (3.5-3.8 thousand years ago). The results of the analysis revealed several migration events associated with the spread of marine hunters in the Okhotsk Sea region. The latest migration, which left traces on bearers of the Epi-Jomon culture (2.0-2.5 thousand years ago), introduced the mitochondrial haplogroup G1b and the "Arctic" variant of the CPT1A gene from the north of Priokhotye to Hokkaido and neighboring territories of the Amur Region. Traces of earlier migration, which also brought the "Arctic" mutation, were recorded in the Hokkaido population of the late Jomon period (3.5-3.8 thousand years ago). A phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genomes belonging to the rare haplogroup C1a, found in populations of the Far East and Japan, but phylogenetically related to the C1-haplogroups of the Amerindians, was carried out. The results of the analysis showed that the divergence of mitochondrial lineages within the C1a haplogroup occurred in the range from 7.9 to 6.6 thousand years ago, and the age of the Japanese branch of the C1a haplogroup is approximately 5.2 thousand years. It is not yet known whether this migration is associated with the spread of the "Arctic" variant of the CPT1A gene or the presence of C1a haplotypes in the population of the Japanese islands marks another, earlier, episode of the migration history linking the populations of Northwest Pacific and North America.