[Plenary session of problem committees emergency surgery and surgical infection of interdepartmental scientific surgical board of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences and Ministry of Health and Social Development].
Symposium held on the occasion of the meeting of the Nordic Society of Dentistry for Children and the 80th Annual Meeting of the Scandinavian Association for Dental Research, 20-23 August 1997, Reykjavík, Iceland: Is caries prevention effective and cost-effective?
On November 13 and 14, 1996, a scientific symposium on oral rehydration therapy (ORT) was held at the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health in Baltimore, MD. The purpose of the meeting was to review the current treatment practices for the treatment of this disease in the United States. The group noted that diarrhea resulted in 300 to 400 deaths per year among children, approximately 200 000 hospitalizations, 1.5 million outpatient visits, and costs >$1 billion in direct medical costs. ORT is well established therapy for the treatment and prevention of dehydration due to diarrhea. The principles of ORT treatment include early adequate rehydration therapy using an appropriate oral rehydration solution (ORS), replacement of ongoing fluid losses from vomiting and diarrhea with ORS, and frequent feeding of appropriate foods as soon as dehydration is corrected. The effective use of ORT has saved millions of lives around the world. However, in the United States, ORT is grossly underused. Contrary to the recommendations of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), health care providers overuse intravenous hydration, prolong rehydration, delay reintroduction of feeding, and inappropriately withhold ORT, especially with children who are vomiting. The expert panel noted that the majority of deaths, hospitalization, and visits to emergency departments could be prevented by the appropriate use of ORT. They generated guidelines for the treatment and prevention of dehydration secondary to diarrhea. These measures, together with training providers, could substantially reduce diarrhea mortality and decrease hospitalizations of children by 100 000 per year in the next 5 years.
During the Montebello Conference on malignant serosal tumours at Lillehammer, Norway, in June 2004, a group of 30 international experts addressed the biologic and genetic aspects of malignant tumours affecting serosal cavities in the human body. Three neoplasms were mainly dealt with: mesotheliomas arising locally, ovarian carcinomas developing in close proximity to the serosa, and breast tumours in which the spread came from some distance. New, important data on the tumour microenvironment and the process of carcinogenesis with progression and acquisition of invasive properties shed new lights on the mechanisms, including proliferative properties, alterations of signal transduction pathways, and tissue remodelling by proteolytic enzymes in the metastasizing cells. Several of these markers have considerable diagnostic and clinical interest. In addition, new aspects of morphologic and immunocytochemical characteristics of the cells as well as genetic markers may soon become powerful tools for practical use. The molecular fingerprint of the individual tumours may also give guidelines for chemotherapy as well as biologic therapies, including induction of apoptosis. The easy accessibility of tumours from serosal fluids and possibilities for specific discrimination of the neoplastic cells from admixed leukocytes and other cells are promising avenues for cytodiagnostics.