While psychosocial theory claims that socioeconomic status (SES), acting through social comparisons, has an important influence on susceptibility to disease, materialistic theory says that socioeconomic position (SEP) and related access to material resources matter more. However, the relative role of SEP versus SES in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk has still not been examined.
We investigated the association between SES/SEP and COPD risk among 667 094 older adults, aged 55 to 60, residing in Sweden between 2006 and 2011. Absolute income in five groups by population quintiles depicted SEP and relative income expressed as quintile groups within each absolute income group represented SES. We performed sex-stratified logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios and the area under the receiver operator curve (AUC) to compare the discriminatory accuracy of SES and SEP in relation to COPD.
Even though both absolute (SEP) and relative income (SES) were associated with COPD risk, only absolute income (SEP) presented a clear gradient, so the poorest had a three-fold higher COPD risk than the richest individuals. While the AUC for a model including only age was 0.54 and 0.55 when including relative income (SES), it increased to 0.65 when accounting for absolute income (SEP). SEP rather than SES demonstrated a consistent association with COPD.
Our study supports the materialistic theory. Access to material resources seems more relevant to COPD risk than the consequences of low relative income.
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Center for Life Course Health Research, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, 90014 Oulu, Finland; Unit of Primary Health Care, Oulu University Hospital, OYS, P.O. Box 20, 90029 Oulu, Finland. Electronic address: email@example.com.
We explored whether registered unemployment is associated with impaired glucose metabolism in general population.
Based on Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 at 46 years, we analyzed the oral glucose tolerance tests of 1970 men and 2544 women in relation to their preceding three-year employment records in three categories of unemployment exposure: no (employed), low (=1-year) and high exposure (>1-year).
Among men, pre-diabetes was found in 19.2% of those with no unemployment, 23.0% with low and 27.0% with high exposure, the corresponding figures for screen-detected type 2 diabetes were 3.8%, 3.8% and 9.2% (p
CommentIn: Prim Care Diabetes. 2018 Feb;12 (1):92 PMID 28807657
The accuracy and trueness of results from a laboratory test, such as the HbA1c test, should not be taken for granted but must be checked continuously. A tool for this is the participation in external quality assessment (EQA) for all laboratories performing the HbA1c-test. An additional possibility to detect changes in trueness is to monitor variations in patient cohort mean or median values that is not explained by changes in treatment or selection of patients.
Results reported to an EQA scheme for HbA1c during 20 years have been extracted from Equalis database. The results are compared to current analytical performance specifications (APS) and to the mean HbA1c levels for the Swedish population of persons with type 2 diabetes.
The accuracy of the HbA1c test has improved during the period. The hospital lab methods used in Sweden now fulfil APS agreed by professional organizations in Sweden. The accuracy for point-of-care tests (POCT) methods vary over time and fulfil APS for some periods. The bias found for some of the methods might explain changes seen in patient mean values for HbA1c in Sweden during the period 2007-2017.
The global standardization of HbA1c has resulted in an improved comparability for HbA1c-results worldwide. But even small variation in trueness for the methods in use might have important impact on mean HbA1c values for cohorts of patients. When a systematic error is observed for a specific method it is therefore essential that manufacturers correct the method without delay.
To assess the accuracy of computed tomography in diagnosing acute appendicitis with a special reference to radiologist experience.
Data were collected prospectively in our randomized controlled trial comparing surgery and antibiotic treatment for uncomplicated acute appendicitis (APPAC trial, NCT01022567). We evaluated 1065 patients who underwent computed tomography for suspected appendicitis. The on-call radiologist preoperatively analyzed these computed tomography images. In this study, the radiologists were divided into experienced (consultants) and inexperienced (residents) ones, and the comparison of interpretations was made between these two radiologist groups.
Out of the 1065 patients, 714 had acute appendicitis and 351 had other or no diagnosis on computed tomography. There were 700 true-positive, 327 true-negative, 14 false-positive, and 24 false-negative cases. The sensitivity and the specificity of computed tomography were 96.7% (95% confidence interval, 95.1-97.8) and 95.9% (95% confidence interval, 93.2-97.5), respectively. The rate of false computed tomography diagnosis was 4.2% for experienced consultant radiologists and 2.2% for inexperienced resident radiologists (p?=?0.071). Thus, the experience of the radiologist had no effect on the accuracy of computed tomography diagnosis.
The accuracy of computed tomography in diagnosing acute appendicitis was high. The experience of the radiologist did not improve the diagnostic accuracy. The results emphasize the role of computed tomography as an accurate modality in daily routine diagnostics for acute appendicitis in all clinical emergency settings.
Physical activity in adolescence is promoted for its multi-dimensional health benefits. However, too intensive sports participation is associated with an increased injury risk. Our aim was to compare the occurrence of acute and overuse injuries in Finnish sports club members and non-members and to report training and competing habits associated with a higher injury risk in sports club members.
In this cross-sectional survey targeted at 14-16-year-old adolescents, a structured questionnaire was completed by 1077 sports club members and 812 non-members. The main outcome measures were self-reported acute and overuse injuries, their location and type.
At least one acute injury in the past year was reported by 44.0% of sports club members and 19.8% of non-members (P?
Spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is a cornerstone in pharmacovigilance. However, information about the underlying consumption of drugs is rarely used when analysing spontaneous reports. The purpose of this study was to combine ADR reports with drug consumption data to demonstrate the additional information this gives in various scenarios, comparing different drugs, gender-stratified sub-populations and changes in reporting over time.
We combined all Norwegian ADR reports in 2004-2013 from the EudraVigilance database (n?=?14.028) with dispensing data from the Norwegian Prescription Database (more than 800 million dispensed prescriptions during 2004-2013). This was done in order to calculate drug-specific consumption-adjusted adverse drug reaction reporting rates (CADRRs) by dividing the number of reports for each drug with the number of users of the drug during the same time period.
Among the ten drugs with the highest number of ADR reports and the ten drugs with the highest CADRR, only four drugs were in both categories. This indicates that drugs with a high number of reports often also have a high number of users and that CADRR captures drugs with potentially relevant safety issues but a smaller number of users. Comparing reported ADRs in females and males using methylphenidate, we found that the two groups report different ADRs. Finally, we showed that changes in ADR reporting for simvastatin and atorvastatin during 2004-2013 were due to changes in consumption and that atorvastatin had a higher CADRR but fewer reports than simvastatin.
CADRR provides additional information compared with number of reports alone in studies using spontaneous reports. It is important for researchers to adjust for consumption whenever possible in pharmacovigilance studies.
Cites: JAMA. 2002 May 1;287(17):2215-20 PMID 11980521
To evaluate the association between maternal body mass index and neonatal outcomes in adolescents and to compare neonatal outcomes between overweight and obese adolescents and obstetric low-risk adult women.
Retrospective cohort study using data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register.
All 31,386 primiparous adolescents younger than 20 years of age and 178,844 "standard" women, defined as normal weight, obstetric low-risk adult women who delivered between 1992 and 2013. The adolescents were categorized according to weight and height in early pregnancy into body mass index groups according to the World Health Organization classification. Logistic regression models were used.
Neonatal outcomes in relation to maternal body mass index groups.
In the adolescents, 6109/31,386 (19.5%) and 2287/31,386 (7.3%) were overweight and obese, respectively. Compared with normal weight adolescents, overweight adolescents had a lower risk of having small for gestational age neonates, and higher risks for having neonates with macrosomia, and being large for gestational age and with Apgar score less than 7 at 5 minutes. The obese adolescents had increased risk for having neonates being large for gestational age (3.8% vs 1.3%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.97 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.30-3.84]), with macrosomia (>4500 g) (4.6% vs 1.4%; aOR, 2.95 [95% CI, 2.33-3.73]), and with Apgar score less than 7 at 5 minutes (2.2% vs 1.1%; aOR, 1.98 [95% CI, 1.43-2.76]) than normal weight adolescents. Compared with the standard women, overweight and obese adolescents had overall more adverse neonatal outcomes.
Overweight and obese adolescents had predominantly increased risks for adverse neonatal outcomes compared with normal weight adolescents and standard women.
This study evaluates the agreement between different methods to assess moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a large sample of Finnish adults. Methods were classified and examined pairwise (accelerometer vs diary; questionnaire vs interview). Proportion of participants meeting the aerobic health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) recommendation was compared pairwise between all four methods. The present study of 1916 adults aged 18-75 years (mean age 50 years, 57% women) is a sub-sample of population-based Health 2011 Study conducted by the National Institute of Health and Welfare in Finland. Participants used accelerometer for 7 days and completed physical activity (PA) diary during the same period. PA questionnaire and interview were completed retrospectively to assess typical weekly PA over the past year. Agreement between the methods was analyzed with paired samples t-test and Bland-Altman plot. Kappa-test was used to compare the prevalence of meeting the HEPA recommendation. The accelerometer resulted in 13 minutes (P
Department of Respiratory Medicine, Seinäjoki Central Hospital, Seinäjoki, Finland; Department of Respiratory Medicine, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2017 Jan - Feb; 5(1):189-191.e3