Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
There is a lack of knowledge on mentally disordered sex offenders (MDSOs) targeting adult victims, especially regarding recidivism patterns and the specific subgroup with psychiatric disorders. This paper presents index offense data, clinical data, and recidivism patterns over up to 24 years in a cohort of 146 MDSOs, with and without psychotic disorders, sentenced in Sweden between 1993 and 1997. At the time of the offense, all offenders were affected by clinical, developmental, and criminal history factors. MDSOs with psychotic disorders only marginally differed from those without, the former being less likely to have been institutionalized during childhood, intoxicated during the index offense, or diagnosed with a personality disorder, substance use disorder, or paraphilic disorder. In the cohort, 3.4% of the MDSOs were reconvicted for a new sex offense over 2 years, 9.6% over 5 years, 13.0% over 10 years, and 17.1% over the entire follow-up period of 24 years. In MDSOs with psychotic disorders, no subjects were reconvicted during the first 2 years, while 2.6% were reconvicted over 5 years, 5.3% over 10 years, and 7.9% over 24 years. Recidivism rates for violent and general reoffenses were 39.0% and 37.7%, respectively, for the cohort of MDSOs, and subjects with psychotic disorders reoffended significantly later in general offenses. In conclusion, MDSOs with psychotic disorders showed the same recidivism pattern as MDSOs without psychotic disorders. Furthermore, recidivism research may preferably focus on follow-up periods of 5-10 years since most offenders appear to recidivate within this timeframe.
While psychosocial theory claims that socioeconomic status (SES), acting through social comparisons, has an important influence on susceptibility to disease, materialistic theory says that socioeconomic position (SEP) and related access to material resources matter more. However, the relative role of SEP versus SES in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk has still not been examined.
We investigated the association between SES/SEP and COPD risk among 667 094 older adults, aged 55 to 60, residing in Sweden between 2006 and 2011. Absolute income in five groups by population quintiles depicted SEP and relative income expressed as quintile groups within each absolute income group represented SES. We performed sex-stratified logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios and the area under the receiver operator curve (AUC) to compare the discriminatory accuracy of SES and SEP in relation to COPD.
Even though both absolute (SEP) and relative income (SES) were associated with COPD risk, only absolute income (SEP) presented a clear gradient, so the poorest had a three-fold higher COPD risk than the richest individuals. While the AUC for a model including only age was 0.54 and 0.55 when including relative income (SES), it increased to 0.65 when accounting for absolute income (SEP). SEP rather than SES demonstrated a consistent association with COPD.
Our study supports the materialistic theory. Access to material resources seems more relevant to COPD risk than the consequences of low relative income.
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Center for Life Course Health Research, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, 90014 Oulu, Finland; Unit of Primary Health Care, Oulu University Hospital, OYS, P.O. Box 20, 90029 Oulu, Finland. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
We explored whether registered unemployment is associated with impaired glucose metabolism in general population.
Based on Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 at 46 years, we analyzed the oral glucose tolerance tests of 1970 men and 2544 women in relation to their preceding three-year employment records in three categories of unemployment exposure: no (employed), low (=1-year) and high exposure (>1-year).
Among men, pre-diabetes was found in 19.2% of those with no unemployment, 23.0% with low and 27.0% with high exposure, the corresponding figures for screen-detected type 2 diabetes were 3.8%, 3.8% and 9.2% (p
CommentIn: Prim Care Diabetes. 2018 Feb;12 (1):92 PMID 28807657
The accuracy and trueness of results from a laboratory test, such as the HbA1c test, should not be taken for granted but must be checked continuously. A tool for this is the participation in external quality assessment (EQA) for all laboratories performing the HbA1c-test. An additional possibility to detect changes in trueness is to monitor variations in patient cohort mean or median values that is not explained by changes in treatment or selection of patients.
Results reported to an EQA scheme for HbA1c during 20 years have been extracted from Equalis database. The results are compared to current analytical performance specifications (APS) and to the mean HbA1c levels for the Swedish population of persons with type 2 diabetes.
The accuracy of the HbA1c test has improved during the period. The hospital lab methods used in Sweden now fulfil APS agreed by professional organizations in Sweden. The accuracy for point-of-care tests (POCT) methods vary over time and fulfil APS for some periods. The bias found for some of the methods might explain changes seen in patient mean values for HbA1c in Sweden during the period 2007-2017.
The global standardization of HbA1c has resulted in an improved comparability for HbA1c-results worldwide. But even small variation in trueness for the methods in use might have important impact on mean HbA1c values for cohorts of patients. When a systematic error is observed for a specific method it is therefore essential that manufacturers correct the method without delay.
To compare diagnostic accuracy of contrast enhanced low-dose computed tomography (CT) accomplished in the OPTICAP trial phantom phase to standard CT in patients with suspected acute appendicitis.
Increasing use of CT as the gold standard in diagnosing acute appendicitis has raised concerns regarding radiation exposure. Unenhanced low-dose CT protocols have shown similar diagnostic accuracy with standard CT for diagnosing appendicitis. To our knowledge, there are no other trials in which the same patient with suspected acute appendicitis underwent both standard and low-dose CT allowing interpatient comparison.
OPTICAP is an interpatient protocol sequence randomized noninferiority single-center trial performed at Turku University Hospital between November, 2015 and August, 2016. Sixty patients with suspected acute appendicitis and body mass index
Department of Nursing Science, University of Turku, Department of Nursing Science 20014 University of Turku, Turku Finland and Satakunta Central Hospital, Sairaalantie 3, 28500, Pori, Finland. email@example.com.
Clinical decision-making skills of paramedics have been emphasized because of the growing complexity of emergency medicine nursing. A preliminary diagnosis made by a paramedic has an essential role in directing the subsequent care. An accurate preliminary diagnosis improves the patient's outcome. The research in this area is relatively scarce and there are no previous studies in Finland describing the accuracy of preliminary diagnoses made by paramedics. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether paramedics are making accurate preliminary diagnoses for the patients they are transporting to hospital. In addition, the aim was to describe the variables related to an accurate preliminary diagnosis.
A cross-sectional comparative approach was used and conducted through a questionnaire to gather data from the paramedics. A total of 71 paramedics participated in the study and 378 patient cases were included. The paramedics were asked to describe the basic information of a case, to state their preliminary diagnosis, and give their own educational background. The accuracy of the paramedic's preliminary diagnosis was compared with the discharge diagnosis of the ED physicians retrieved from hospital's patient records. Logistic regression analysis and a binomial test were used to test the statistical significance.
The agreement between the paramedics' preliminary diagnosis vs. hospital diagnosis was 70% (n?=?261). Diagnostic accuracy varied according to the medical condition from mental diseases and intoxication (86%, p?=?0,000), cerebral strokes (81%, p?=?0,007) to infections (31% p?=?0,029). The educational background of a bachelor-degree-level paramedic (p?=?0,016, 95% Cl 1,7-139,6) and a good self-assessment value (p?=?0,003, 95% Cl 1,2-2,7) were related to making a correct diagnosis.
Paramedics are able to determine preliminary diagnoses at satisfactory level. The relationship between educational background and diagnostic accuracy suggests that there is a definitive need for a specific pre-hospital nursing education.
To assess the accuracy of computed tomography in diagnosing acute appendicitis with a special reference to radiologist experience.
Data were collected prospectively in our randomized controlled trial comparing surgery and antibiotic treatment for uncomplicated acute appendicitis (APPAC trial, NCT01022567). We evaluated 1065 patients who underwent computed tomography for suspected appendicitis. The on-call radiologist preoperatively analyzed these computed tomography images. In this study, the radiologists were divided into experienced (consultants) and inexperienced (residents) ones, and the comparison of interpretations was made between these two radiologist groups.
Out of the 1065 patients, 714 had acute appendicitis and 351 had other or no diagnosis on computed tomography. There were 700 true-positive, 327 true-negative, 14 false-positive, and 24 false-negative cases. The sensitivity and the specificity of computed tomography were 96.7% (95% confidence interval, 95.1-97.8) and 95.9% (95% confidence interval, 93.2-97.5), respectively. The rate of false computed tomography diagnosis was 4.2% for experienced consultant radiologists and 2.2% for inexperienced resident radiologists (p?=?0.071). Thus, the experience of the radiologist had no effect on the accuracy of computed tomography diagnosis.
The accuracy of computed tomography in diagnosing acute appendicitis was high. The experience of the radiologist did not improve the diagnostic accuracy. The results emphasize the role of computed tomography as an accurate modality in daily routine diagnostics for acute appendicitis in all clinical emergency settings.
Physical activity in adolescence is promoted for its multi-dimensional health benefits. However, too intensive sports participation is associated with an increased injury risk. Our aim was to compare the occurrence of acute and overuse injuries in Finnish sports club members and non-members and to report training and competing habits associated with a higher injury risk in sports club members.
In this cross-sectional survey targeted at 14-16-year-old adolescents, a structured questionnaire was completed by 1077 sports club members and 812 non-members. The main outcome measures were self-reported acute and overuse injuries, their location and type.
At least one acute injury in the past year was reported by 44.0% of sports club members and 19.8% of non-members (P?
The aim of the study was to compare how alcohol was addressed in routine healthcare practice in Sweden in 2010 and 2017, following the 2011 implementation of national drinking guidelines.
Population-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2010 and in 2017. Subjects were 3200 respondents in 2010 (response rate 54%) and 3000 respondents in 2017 (response rate 51%) in Sweden. Both the 2010 and 2017 surveys collected data on: socio-demographics; alcohol consumption; healthcare visits in the past 12 months and characteristics of alcohol conversations in healthcare (duration, contents, experience and effects).
It was significantly more likely that respondents had a conversation about alcohol in healthcare in 2017 than in 2010 (OR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.27-1.75; P
Spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is a cornerstone in pharmacovigilance. However, information about the underlying consumption of drugs is rarely used when analysing spontaneous reports. The purpose of this study was to combine ADR reports with drug consumption data to demonstrate the additional information this gives in various scenarios, comparing different drugs, gender-stratified sub-populations and changes in reporting over time.
We combined all Norwegian ADR reports in 2004-2013 from the EudraVigilance database (n?=?14.028) with dispensing data from the Norwegian Prescription Database (more than 800 million dispensed prescriptions during 2004-2013). This was done in order to calculate drug-specific consumption-adjusted adverse drug reaction reporting rates (CADRRs) by dividing the number of reports for each drug with the number of users of the drug during the same time period.
Among the ten drugs with the highest number of ADR reports and the ten drugs with the highest CADRR, only four drugs were in both categories. This indicates that drugs with a high number of reports often also have a high number of users and that CADRR captures drugs with potentially relevant safety issues but a smaller number of users. Comparing reported ADRs in females and males using methylphenidate, we found that the two groups report different ADRs. Finally, we showed that changes in ADR reporting for simvastatin and atorvastatin during 2004-2013 were due to changes in consumption and that atorvastatin had a higher CADRR but fewer reports than simvastatin.
CADRR provides additional information compared with number of reports alone in studies using spontaneous reports. It is important for researchers to adjust for consumption whenever possible in pharmacovigilance studies.
Cites: JAMA. 2002 May 1;287(17):2215-20 PMID 11980521