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A 24-Year Follow-up Study on Recidivism in Male Mentally Disordered Sexual Offenders With and Without Psychotic Disorders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature311282
Source
J Forensic Sci. 2020 Sep; 65(5):1610-1618
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Date
Sep-2020
Author
Christian Baudin
Thomas Nilsson
Märta Wallinius
Joakim Sturup
Peter Andiné
Author Affiliation
Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Source
J Forensic Sci. 2020 Sep; 65(5):1610-1618
Date
Sep-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Cohort Studies
Criminals
Follow-Up Studies
Forensic Psychiatry
Humans
Male
Mentally Ill Persons - statistics & numerical data
Middle Aged
Psychotic Disorders - psychology
Recidivism - statistics & numerical data
Sex Offenses
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
There is a lack of knowledge on mentally disordered sex offenders (MDSOs) targeting adult victims, especially regarding recidivism patterns and the specific subgroup with psychiatric disorders. This paper presents index offense data, clinical data, and recidivism patterns over up to 24 years in a cohort of 146 MDSOs, with and without psychotic disorders, sentenced in Sweden between 1993 and 1997. At the time of the offense, all offenders were affected by clinical, developmental, and criminal history factors. MDSOs with psychotic disorders only marginally differed from those without, the former being less likely to have been institutionalized during childhood, intoxicated during the index offense, or diagnosed with a personality disorder, substance use disorder, or paraphilic disorder. In the cohort, 3.4% of the MDSOs were reconvicted for a new sex offense over 2 years, 9.6% over 5 years, 13.0% over 10 years, and 17.1% over the entire follow-up period of 24 years. In MDSOs with psychotic disorders, no subjects were reconvicted during the first 2 years, while 2.6% were reconvicted over 5 years, 5.3% over 10 years, and 7.9% over 24 years. Recidivism rates for violent and general reoffenses were 39.0% and 37.7%, respectively, for the cohort of MDSOs, and subjects with psychotic disorders reoffended significantly later in general offenses. In conclusion, MDSOs with psychotic disorders showed the same recidivism pattern as MDSOs without psychotic disorders. Furthermore, recidivism research may preferably focus on follow-up periods of 5-10 years since most offenders appear to recidivate within this timeframe.
PubMed ID
32311773 View in PubMed
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Absolute rather than relative income is a better socioeconomic predictor of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Swedish adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292715
Source
Int J Equity Health. 2017 05 04; 16(1):70
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
05-04-2017
Author
Sten Axelsson Fisk
Juan Merlo
Author Affiliation
Unit for Social Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, CRC, Jan Waldeströms gata, 35, S-205 02, Malmö, Sweden. sten.axelsson_fisk@med.lu.se.
Source
Int J Equity Health. 2017 05 04; 16(1):70
Date
05-04-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Aged
Female
Humans
Incidence
Income - statistics & numerical data
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
Prevalence
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - economics - epidemiology
Risk assessment
Social Class
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
While psychosocial theory claims that socioeconomic status (SES), acting through social comparisons, has an important influence on susceptibility to disease, materialistic theory says that socioeconomic position (SEP) and related access to material resources matter more. However, the relative role of SEP versus SES in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk has still not been examined.
We investigated the association between SES/SEP and COPD risk among 667 094 older adults, aged 55 to 60, residing in Sweden between 2006 and 2011. Absolute income in five groups by population quintiles depicted SEP and relative income expressed as quintile groups within each absolute income group represented SES. We performed sex-stratified logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios and the area under the receiver operator curve (AUC) to compare the discriminatory accuracy of SES and SEP in relation to COPD.
Even though both absolute (SEP) and relative income (SES) were associated with COPD risk, only absolute income (SEP) presented a clear gradient, so the poorest had a three-fold higher COPD risk than the richest individuals. While the AUC for a model including only age was 0.54 and 0.55 when including relative income (SES), it increased to 0.65 when accounting for absolute income (SEP). SEP rather than SES demonstrated a consistent association with COPD.
Our study supports the materialistic theory. Access to material resources seems more relevant to COPD risk than the consequences of low relative income.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28472960 View in PubMed
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Accumulated exposure to unemployment is related to impaired glucose metabolism in middle-aged men: A follow-up of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291192
Source
Prim Care Diabetes. 2017 Aug; 11(4):365-372
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Date
Aug-2017
Author
Nina Rautio
Tuulia Varanka-Ruuska
Eeva Vaaramo
Saranya Palaniswamy
Rozenn Nedelec
Jouko Miettunen
Jaro Karppinen
Juha Auvinen
Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi
Sylvain Sebert
Leena Ala-Mursula
Author Affiliation
Center for Life Course Health Research, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, 90014 Oulu, Finland; Unit of Primary Health Care, Oulu University Hospital, OYS, P.O. Box 20, 90029 Oulu, Finland. Electronic address: nina.rautio@oulu.fi.
Source
Prim Care Diabetes. 2017 Aug; 11(4):365-372
Date
Aug-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Biomarkers - blood
Blood Glucose - metabolism
Chi-Square Distribution
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - blood - diagnosis - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Glucose Tolerance Test
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Odds Ratio
Prediabetic State - blood - diagnosis - epidemiology
Registries
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Time Factors
Unemployment
Abstract
We explored whether registered unemployment is associated with impaired glucose metabolism in general population.
Based on Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 at 46 years, we analyzed the oral glucose tolerance tests of 1970 men and 2544 women in relation to their preceding three-year employment records in three categories of unemployment exposure: no (employed), low (=1-year) and high exposure (>1-year).
Among men, pre-diabetes was found in 19.2% of those with no unemployment, 23.0% with low and 27.0% with high exposure, the corresponding figures for screen-detected type 2 diabetes were 3.8%, 3.8% and 9.2% (p
Notes
CommentIn: Prim Care Diabetes. 2018 Feb;12 (1):92 PMID 28807657
PubMed ID
28456438 View in PubMed
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Accuracy of HbA1c as Monitored by External Quality Assessment and Compared With Patient Mean Values.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301950
Source
J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2018 07; 12(4):771-779
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Date
07-2018
Author
Gunnar Nordin
Author Affiliation
1 Equalis, Uppsala, Sweden.
Source
J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2018 07; 12(4):771-779
Date
07-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - blood
Glycated Hemoglobin A - analysis
Humans
Laboratory Proficiency Testing - methods - standards
Sweden
Abstract
The accuracy and trueness of results from a laboratory test, such as the HbA1c test, should not be taken for granted but must be checked continuously. A tool for this is the participation in external quality assessment (EQA) for all laboratories performing the HbA1c-test. An additional possibility to detect changes in trueness is to monitor variations in patient cohort mean or median values that is not explained by changes in treatment or selection of patients.
Results reported to an EQA scheme for HbA1c during 20 years have been extracted from Equalis database. The results are compared to current analytical performance specifications (APS) and to the mean HbA1c levels for the Swedish population of persons with type 2 diabetes.
The accuracy of the HbA1c test has improved during the period. The hospital lab methods used in Sweden now fulfil APS agreed by professional organizations in Sweden. The accuracy for point-of-care tests (POCT) methods vary over time and fulfil APS for some periods. The bias found for some of the methods might explain changes seen in patient mean values for HbA1c in Sweden during the period 2007-2017.
The global standardization of HbA1c has resulted in an improved comparability for HbA1c-results worldwide. But even small variation in trueness for the methods in use might have important impact on mean HbA1c values for cohorts of patients. When a systematic error is observed for a specific method it is therefore essential that manufacturers correct the method without delay.
PubMed ID
29916732 View in PubMed
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The Accuracy of Low-dose Computed Tomography Protocol in Patients With Suspected Acute Appendicitis: The OPTICAP Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature309743
Source
Ann Surg. 2020 02; 271(2):332-338
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
02-2020
Author
Suvi Sippola
Johanna Virtanen
Ville Tammilehto
Juha Grönroos
Saija Hurme
Hannele Niiniviita
Elina Lietzen
Paulina Salminen
Author Affiliation
Division of Digestive Surgery and Urology, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
Source
Ann Surg. 2020 02; 271(2):332-338
Date
02-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Appendectomy
Appendicitis - diagnostic imaging - surgery
Contrast Media
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Radiation Dosage
Tomography, X-Ray Computed - methods
Abstract
To compare diagnostic accuracy of contrast enhanced low-dose computed tomography (CT) accomplished in the OPTICAP trial phantom phase to standard CT in patients with suspected acute appendicitis.
Increasing use of CT as the gold standard in diagnosing acute appendicitis has raised concerns regarding radiation exposure. Unenhanced low-dose CT protocols have shown similar diagnostic accuracy with standard CT for diagnosing appendicitis. To our knowledge, there are no other trials in which the same patient with suspected acute appendicitis underwent both standard and low-dose CT allowing interpatient comparison.
OPTICAP is an interpatient protocol sequence randomized noninferiority single-center trial performed at Turku University Hospital between November, 2015 and August, 2016. Sixty patients with suspected acute appendicitis and body mass index
PubMed ID
30048324 View in PubMed
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The accuracy of preliminary diagnoses made by paramedics - a cross-sectional comparative study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature305210
Source
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2020 Jul 23; 28(1):70
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Date
Jul-23-2020
Author
Outi Koivulahti
Miretta Tommila
Elina Haavisto
Author Affiliation
Department of Nursing Science, University of Turku, Department of Nursing Science 20014 University of Turku, Turku Finland and Satakunta Central Hospital, Sairaalantie 3, 28500, Pori, Finland. outi@koivulahti.net.
Source
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2020 Jul 23; 28(1):70
Date
Jul-23-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Allied Health Personnel
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diagnosis
Diagnostic Errors - statistics & numerical data
Educational Status
Emergency medical services
Finland
Humans
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
Clinical decision-making skills of paramedics have been emphasized because of the growing complexity of emergency medicine nursing. A preliminary diagnosis made by a paramedic has an essential role in directing the subsequent care. An accurate preliminary diagnosis improves the patient's outcome. The research in this area is relatively scarce and there are no previous studies in Finland describing the accuracy of preliminary diagnoses made by paramedics. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether paramedics are making accurate preliminary diagnoses for the patients they are transporting to hospital. In addition, the aim was to describe the variables related to an accurate preliminary diagnosis.
A cross-sectional comparative approach was used and conducted through a questionnaire to gather data from the paramedics. A total of 71 paramedics participated in the study and 378 patient cases were included. The paramedics were asked to describe the basic information of a case, to state their preliminary diagnosis, and give their own educational background. The accuracy of the paramedic's preliminary diagnosis was compared with the discharge diagnosis of the ED physicians retrieved from hospital's patient records. Logistic regression analysis and a binomial test were used to test the statistical significance.
The agreement between the paramedics' preliminary diagnosis vs. hospital diagnosis was 70% (n?=?261). Diagnostic accuracy varied according to the medical condition from mental diseases and intoxication (86%, p?=?0,000), cerebral strokes (81%, p?=?0,007) to infections (31% p?=?0,029). The educational background of a bachelor-degree-level paramedic (p?=?0,016, 95% Cl 1,7-139,6) and a good self-assessment value (p?=?0,003, 95% Cl 1,2-2,7) were related to making a correct diagnosis.
Paramedics are able to determine preliminary diagnoses at satisfactory level. The relationship between educational background and diagnostic accuracy suggests that there is a definitive need for a specific pre-hospital nursing education.
PubMed ID
32703267 View in PubMed
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The Accuracy of the Computed Tomography Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis: Does the Experience of the Radiologist Matter?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294920
Source
Scand J Surg. 2018 Mar; 107(1):43-47
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Randomized Controlled Trial
Date
Mar-2018
Author
E Lietzén
P Salminen
I Rinta-Kiikka
H Paajanen
T Rautio
P Nordström
M Aarnio
T Rantanen
J Sand
J-P Mecklin
A Jartti
J Virtanen
P Ohtonen
N Ånäs
J M Grönroos
Author Affiliation
1 Division of Digestive Surgery and Urology, Department of Acute and Digestive Surgery, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
Source
Scand J Surg. 2018 Mar; 107(1):43-47
Date
Mar-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Randomized Controlled Trial
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use
Appendectomy - methods
Appendicitis - diagnostic imaging - drug therapy - surgery
Clinical Competence
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Prognosis
Prospective Studies
Radiologists
Risk assessment
Tomography, X-Ray Computed - methods
Treatment Outcome
Young Adult
Abstract
To assess the accuracy of computed tomography in diagnosing acute appendicitis with a special reference to radiologist experience.
Data were collected prospectively in our randomized controlled trial comparing surgery and antibiotic treatment for uncomplicated acute appendicitis (APPAC trial, NCT01022567). We evaluated 1065 patients who underwent computed tomography for suspected appendicitis. The on-call radiologist preoperatively analyzed these computed tomography images. In this study, the radiologists were divided into experienced (consultants) and inexperienced (residents) ones, and the comparison of interpretations was made between these two radiologist groups.
Out of the 1065 patients, 714 had acute appendicitis and 351 had other or no diagnosis on computed tomography. There were 700 true-positive, 327 true-negative, 14 false-positive, and 24 false-negative cases. The sensitivity and the specificity of computed tomography were 96.7% (95% confidence interval, 95.1-97.8) and 95.9% (95% confidence interval, 93.2-97.5), respectively. The rate of false computed tomography diagnosis was 4.2% for experienced consultant radiologists and 2.2% for inexperienced resident radiologists (p?=?0.071). Thus, the experience of the radiologist had no effect on the accuracy of computed tomography diagnosis.
The accuracy of computed tomography in diagnosing acute appendicitis was high. The experience of the radiologist did not improve the diagnostic accuracy. The results emphasize the role of computed tomography as an accurate modality in daily routine diagnostics for acute appendicitis in all clinical emergency settings.
PubMed ID
28929862 View in PubMed
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Acute and overuse injuries among sports club members and non-members: the Finnish Health Promoting Sports Club (FHPSC) study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299711
Source
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2019 Jan 19; 20(1):32
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Date
Jan-19-2019
Author
L Ristolainen
K Toivo
J Parkkari
S Kokko
L Alanko
O J Heinonen
R Korpelainen
K Savonen
H Selänne
T Vasankari
L Kannas
J Villberg
U M Kujala
Author Affiliation
Orton Orthopaedic Hospital, Orton, Helsinki, Finland. leena.ristolainen@hotmail.fi.
Source
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2019 Jan 19; 20(1):32
Date
Jan-19-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adolescent
Athletic Injuries - diagnosis - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Cumulative Trauma Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology
Exercise - physiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Health Promotion - methods
Humans
Male
Risk factors
Sports - physiology
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
Physical activity in adolescence is promoted for its multi-dimensional health benefits. However, too intensive sports participation is associated with an increased injury risk. Our aim was to compare the occurrence of acute and overuse injuries in Finnish sports club members and non-members and to report training and competing habits associated with a higher injury risk in sports club members.
In this cross-sectional survey targeted at 14-16-year-old adolescents, a structured questionnaire was completed by 1077 sports club members and 812 non-members. The main outcome measures were self-reported acute and overuse injuries, their location and type.
At least one acute injury in the past year was reported by 44.0% of sports club members and 19.8% of non-members (P?
PubMed ID
30660197 View in PubMed
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Addressing alcohol in routine healthcare in Sweden-population-based surveys in 2010 and 2017.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature310220
Source
Eur J Public Health. 2019 08 01; 29(4):748-753
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-01-2019
Author
Nadine E Karlsson
Amy J O'Donnell
Latifa Abidi
Janna M E Skagerström
Per M Nilsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
Source
Eur J Public Health. 2019 08 01; 29(4):748-753
Date
08-01-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Alcohol Drinking - psychology - therapy
Communication
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Forecasting
Health Surveys - statistics & numerical data - trends
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Population Surveillance - methods
Professional-Patient Relations
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden
Time Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
The aim of the study was to compare how alcohol was addressed in routine healthcare practice in Sweden in 2010 and 2017, following the 2011 implementation of national drinking guidelines.
Population-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2010 and in 2017. Subjects were 3200 respondents in 2010 (response rate 54%) and 3000 respondents in 2017 (response rate 51%) in Sweden. Both the 2010 and 2017 surveys collected data on: socio-demographics; alcohol consumption; healthcare visits in the past 12 months and characteristics of alcohol conversations in healthcare (duration, contents, experience and effects).
It was significantly more likely that respondents had a conversation about alcohol in healthcare in 2017 than in 2010 (OR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.27-1.75; P
PubMed ID
31348833 View in PubMed
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Adverse drug reaction reporting: how can drug consumption information add to analyses using spontaneous reports?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294818
Source
Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2018 Apr; 74(4):497-504
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Date
Apr-2018
Author
Kristian Svendsen
Kjell H Halvorsen
Solveig Vorren
Hilde Samdal
Beate Garcia
Author Affiliation
Tromsø Hospital Pharmacy, University Hospital of North Norway, N-9038, Tromsø, Norway. kristian.0411@gmail.com.
Source
Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2018 Apr; 74(4):497-504
Date
Apr-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems
Atorvastatin Calcium - adverse effects
Central Nervous System Stimulants - adverse effects
Databases, Factual
Drug Utilization Review
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions - diagnosis - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors - adverse effects
Male
Methylphenidate - adverse effects
Norway - epidemiology
Pharmaceutical Services
Pharmacovigilance
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Simvastatin - adverse effects
Abstract
Spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is a cornerstone in pharmacovigilance. However, information about the underlying consumption of drugs is rarely used when analysing spontaneous reports. The purpose of this study was to combine ADR reports with drug consumption data to demonstrate the additional information this gives in various scenarios, comparing different drugs, gender-stratified sub-populations and changes in reporting over time.
We combined all Norwegian ADR reports in 2004-2013 from the EudraVigilance database (n?=?14.028) with dispensing data from the Norwegian Prescription Database (more than 800 million dispensed prescriptions during 2004-2013). This was done in order to calculate drug-specific consumption-adjusted adverse drug reaction reporting rates (CADRRs) by dividing the number of reports for each drug with the number of users of the drug during the same time period.
Among the ten drugs with the highest number of ADR reports and the ten drugs with the highest CADRR, only four drugs were in both categories. This indicates that drugs with a high number of reports often also have a high number of users and that CADRR captures drugs with potentially relevant safety issues but a smaller number of users. Comparing reported ADRs in females and males using methylphenidate, we found that the two groups report different ADRs. Finally, we showed that changes in ADR reporting for simvastatin and atorvastatin during 2004-2013 were due to changes in consumption and that atorvastatin had a higher CADRR but fewer reports than simvastatin.
CADRR provides additional information compared with number of reports alone in studies using spontaneous reports. It is important for researchers to adjust for consumption whenever possible in pharmacovigilance studies.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29255992 View in PubMed
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643 records – page 1 of 65.