The peopling of the Americas has been the subject of extensive genetic, archaeological and linguistic research; however, central questions remain unresolved. One contentious issue is whether the settlement occurred by means of a single migration or multiple streams of migration from Siberia. The pattern of dispersals within the Americas is also poorly understood. To address these questions at a higher resolution than was previously possible, we assembled data from 52 Native American and 17 Siberian groups genotyped at 364,470 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Here we show that Native Americans descend from at least three streams of Asian gene flow. Most descend entirely from a single ancestral population that we call 'First American'. However, speakers of Eskimo-Aleut languages from the Arctic inherit almost half their ancestry from a second stream of Asian gene flow, and the Na-Dene-speaking Chipewyan from Canada inherit roughly one-tenth of their ancestry from a third stream. We show that the initial peopling followed a southward expansion facilitated by the coast, with sequential population splits and little gene flow after divergence, especially in South America. A major exception is in Chibchan speakers on both sides of the Panama isthmus, who have ancestry from both North and South America.
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The Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) identified four pathological elements that were of prognostic value and additive to known clinical and laboratory variables in predicting patient outcome. These features are segmental glomerulosclerosis/adhesion, mesangial hypercellularity, endocapillary proliferation, and tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis. Here, we tested the Oxford results using an independent cohort of 187 adults and children with IgAN from 4 centers in North America by comparing the performance of the logistic regression model and the predictive value of each of the four lesions in both data sets. The cohorts had similar clinical and histological findings, presentations, and clinicopathological correlations. During follow-up, however, the North American cohort received more immunosuppressive and antihypertensive therapies. Identifying patients with a rapid decline in the rate of renal function using the logistic model from the original study in the validation data set was good (c-statistic 0.75), although less precise than in the original study (0.82). Individually, each pathological variable offered the same predictive value in both cohorts except mesangial hypercellularity, which was a weaker predictor. Thus, this North American cohort validated the Oxford IgAN classification and supports its utilization. Further studies are needed to determine the relationship to the impact of treatment and to define the value of the mesangial hypercellularity score.
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes increases the risk for microvascular disease. The retina and the brain both have intricate microvascular systems that are developmentally similar. We sought to examine whether microvascular lesions in the retina and in the brain are associated and whether this association differs among people with and without diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The analysis included 4,218 participants of the Icelandic population-based Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study who were born in 1907-1935 and who were previously followed as a part of the Reykjavik Study. Retinal focal arteriolar narrowing, arteriovenous (AV) nicking, and microaneurysms/hemorrhages were evaluated on digital retinal images of both eyes. Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) were evaluated from magnetic resonance images. Data were analyzed with logistic and multinomial logistic regression models controlling for demographics, major cardiovascular risk factors, cerebral infarcts, and white matter lesions. RESULTS: Evidence of brain microbleeds was found in 485 (11.5%) people, including 192 with multiple (>or=2) microbleeds. Subjects with signs of retinal microvascular lesions were at a significantly increased likelihood for having multiple CMBs. People with diabetes in combination with the presence of either retinal AV nicking (odds ratio [OR] 2.47 [95% CI 1.42-4.31]) or retinal microaneurysms/hemorrhages (2.28 [1.24-4.18]) were significantly more likely to have multiple CMBs. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal microvascular abnormalities and brain microbleeds may occur together in older adults. People with both diabetes and signs of retinal microvascular lesions (AV nicking and microaneurysms/hemorrhages) are more likely to have multiple microbleeds in the brain. Microvascular disease in diabetes extends to the brain.
BACKGROUND: We evaluated coagulation activity in relation to gender in patients with acute coronary syndromes and in healthy individuals of similar age, and related coagulation activity to levels of Xa inhibition during dalteparin treatment. METHODS: Serial blood samples were obtained from 555 (172 women) of 2267 patients in the Scandinavian FRISC II study, and a single sample in 457 (151 women) apparently healthy age- and sex-matched individuals. After randomization, all patients received dalteparin 120 IU/kg s.c. (maximum 10,000 IU) twice daily for 5 to 7 days inhospital and thereafter placebo (n = 285) or sex- and weight-adjusted doses of dalteparin (5000 or 7500 IU) twice daily (n = 270) for 3 months. RESULTS: Before randomization, 96% of the patients had open-label anticoagulation with unfractionated heparin or dalteparin. Therapeutic anti-Xa levels (> 0.5 IU/mL) were found in 74%, 55%, 58%, and 33% of the dalteparin-treated patients at randomization, 2 days, 4 to 7 weeks, and 3 months, respectively, and were significantly related to lower levels of coagulation activity, ie, factor VIIa, prothrombin fragment 1+2, and D-dimer, during prolonged treatment. Female patients had higher anti-Xa levels than men at randomization (median 0.69 vs 0.60 IU/mL, P = .01) and at 2 days (0.65 vs 0.59 IU/mL, P
We evaluated the influence of measurement site on the ranking (low to high) of abdominal subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissue. We also determined the influence of measurement site on the prediction of abdominal SAT and VAT mass. The subjects included 100 men with computed tomography (CT) measurements at L4-L5 and L3-L4 levels and 100 men with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements at L4-L5 and 5 cm above L4-L5 (L4-L5 +5 cm). Corresponding mass values were determined by using multiple-image protocols. For SAT, 90 and 92 of the 100 subjects for CT and MRI, respectively, had a difference in rank position at the two levels. The change in rank position exceeded the error or measurement for approximately 75% of the subjects for both methods. For VAT, 91 and 95 of the 100 subjects for CT and MRI, respectively, had a difference in rank position at the two levels. The change in rank position exceeded the error of measurement for 36% of the subjects for CT and for 8% of the subjects for MRI. For both imaging modalities, the variance explained in SAT and VAT mass (kg) was comparable for L4-L5, L4-L5 +5 cm, and L3-L4 levels. In conclusion, the ranking of subjects for abdominal SAT and VAT quantity is influenced by measurement location. However, the ability to predict SAT and VAT mass by using single images obtained at the L4-L5, L4-L5 +5 cm, or L3-L4 levels is comparable.
To compare 3-month stroke outcomes and stroke-related health care resource use between the US and Canada in the Glycine Antagonist in Neuroprotection (GAIN) Americas study. Delivery of medical care for stroke patients, often driven by efforts to curb costs, varies substantially between countries. Data on the potential impact of these variations on clinical outcomes are sparse.
The analysis of health care resource included total length of stay (LOS) in hospital, intensive care unit (ICU), and acute-care ward or rehabilitation unit, or both; number of outpatient rehabilitation sessions and visits to a physician; place of residence after discharge; and employment status. Cox proportional hazards models and logistic regression were used to calculate survival hazards and predictors of favorable functional outcome (Barthel Index of 95 to 100).
One thousand six hundred four patients who were independent before stroke (mean age: 69.9+/-12.7 years, 53% men, 85% ischemic stroke, 69% in the US) were included. Three-month survival and functional outcome did not differ between the US and Canada. Survival rate was 80% in both countries. Favorable functional outcome was achieved in 43% of Canadian and 47% of US patients. Fewer Canadian patients received treatment in ICU (19% versus 63% in the US), and Canadians had longer stays in hospital or rehabilitation facility (median: 33 days versus 16 days in the US).
Despite similar 3-month survival and functional outcome, patterns of health care resource varied substantially between the US and Canada. US patients had more intensive early care; Canadian patients had longer hospitalizations and rehabilitation care. Further research is required to determine the most cost-effective treatment and rehabilitation plan for people who have a stroke.
According to the traditional view, the glove protects the patient from the bacterial growth of the surgeons' hands and doing so prevents infections. Today, with growing incidences of HIV and Hepatitis B and C, surgical gloves are also important as protection for the surgeon. We compared the safety of double indicator gloves to standard single surgical gloves by investigating how often surgical gloves are punctured in laparoscopic and open gastrointestinal surgery.
As study material we gathered all gloves that had been used in gastrointestinal surgery in Satakunta Central Hospital during two months. 814 gloves from 274 operations were tested by using standardized water filling test method.
In open surgery 67 gloves out of 694 had been punctured (9.6 percent). Puncture occurred in 22.5 percent of operations (53 out of 236). During open surgery 24 holes out of 35 were undetected with single gloves (69 percent). With double indicator gloves, only 3 out of 31 holes were unnoticed (10 percent). Long duration of operation increased the risk of puncture. In laparoscopic operations 4 gloves out of 120 had been perforated (3.3 percent).
Double surgical gloves give markedly better protection in surgery. This is important especially in high risk operations.
Delivering psychotherapy by videoconference could significantly increase the accessibility of empirically validated treatments. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) for panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) when the therapy is delivered either face-to-face or by videoconference. A sample of 21 participants was treated either face-to-face or by videoconference. Results showed that CBT delivered by videoconference was as effective as CBT delivered face-to-face. There was a statistically significant reduction in all measures, and the number of panic-free participants among those receiving CBT by videoconference was 81% at post-treatment and 91% at the 6-month follow-up. None of the comparisons with face-to-face psychotherapy suggested that CBT delivered by videoconference was less effective. These results were confirmed by analyses of effect size. The participants reported the development of an excellent therapeutic alliance in videoconference as early as the first therapy session. The importance of these results for treatment accessibility is discussed. Hypotheses are proposed to explain the rapid creation of strong therapeutic alliances in videoconferencing.
Norway is a small country and we have few examples of medical scientists that has discovered and cultivated unknown territory. One very good example is the man who discovered the first link between metabolic disease and brain development. Asbjørn Følling was born in 1888 and discovered "his disease" (phenylketonuria = PKU) in 1934. This article gives a description of his life, discovery and work.
Christian August Egeberg (1809-74) was a Norwegian military surgeon who practised surgery and family medicine in the capital city of Christiania and in neighbouring rural Baerum. He saw the medical profession's need for establishing a scientific community, for information-seeking and knowledge updates. He was among the founders of the Norwegian Medical Society in 1833 and in 1838 initiated a series of Scandinavian scientific conferences which lasted until 1929. In 1855 he established a notification system for contagious diseases with reports submitted every month from practising physician. The system was intended to provide a basis for surveillance of the so-called epidemic constitution, so that appropriate measures might be taken against prevailing diseases.