The effect of oral administration of glucosyltransferase (GTF) from Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 on levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody to GTF in parotid saliva and on the number of indigenous Streptococcus mutans in the whole saliva was studied in young adult males. GTF combined with aluminum phosphate (AP) was administered in capsules to 14 subjects, while sodium phosphate buffer combined with AP was administered in the same way to 11 control subjects. Thirteen administrations were given during the first immunization regimen, and five administrations, approximately 3 months later, constituted the second immunization regimen. All subjects were given professional dental prophylaxis immediately prior to each immunization. Each subject served as his own control by using antibody and bacterial data collected prior to antigen administration for comparison. After the first immunization regimen, the GTF vaccine group exhibited a significantly higher distribution (P less than 0.05) of normalized parotid saliva IgA antibody elevations than observed in the placebo group. Between the first and second immunization regimens a significant increase (P less than 0.05) in parotid salivary anti-GTF activity also occurred in the GTF vaccine but not the placebo group. No significant differences between these two groups were observed on any occasion when serum IgG or IgA antibody to GTF was analyzed. Comparison of the group mean log ratios (post- to prevaccine administration) of S. mutans to total streptococci in whole saliva revealed that the GTF vaccine group values were always lower than those of the placebo group. These differences reached significance (P less than 0.01) on three of the last four sampling occasions (days 21, 35, and 42) following initiation of the first immunization regimen. The mean log ratios of the GTF vaccine group were also lower than those of the placebo group after the second immunization regimen but did not reach significance. These data indicate that oral administration of GTF from the mutans streptococci has the potential to elicit a salivary IgA antibody response when combined with an aluminum-based adjuvant and that this response can interfere with the reaccumulation of indigenous S. mutans following dental prophylaxis.
Cites: Infect Immun. 1981 Nov;34(2):407-157309233
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Apr;84(8):2449-533470804
In a prospective controlled trial of conservative therapy (vasopressin/balloon tamponade (control group] versus endoscopic sclerotherapy (ST) for the acute bleeding and at rebleeding, 107 cirrhotic patients with major variceal haemorrhage were studied from 1979 to 1983. The prospective follow-up study is now presented of the 51 patients surviving for more than 1 year. The present ST group (30 patients) was followed for a median of 5 years (range, 1-7.5 years), and the controls for 4 years (3-5.5 years). Variceal eradication was obtained in 22 ST patients in the 1st year after a median of 6 months and 5 ST sessions, and in 7 ST patients after 21 months and 9 ST sessions. The delay was due to alcoholic abuse. Eleven ST patients and 11 controls (NS) rebled on 30 and 45 occasions during a total follow-up time of 1364 and 696 months and 0.0220 and 0.0647 bleeds per patient-month, respectively (p = 0.098). Eight ST patients experienced 12 variceal bleeds, 11 controls had 39 haemorrhages with variceal aetiology, 0.0088 and 0.0560 bleeds per patient-month (p = 0.016), respectively. Five ST patients had recurrent varices on nine occasions with five episodes of bleeding a median of 13 months after completion of the initial serial ST. Reelimination was achieved with a median of three ST sessions during 3 months, but three patients had a second variceal recurrence 14-24 months later, successfully treated with one ST session in two of them. There was no difference in survival.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
We compared plasma glucose and insulin responses to an Aboriginal bushfood and its western equivalent in healthy Aborigines and Caucasians. Bush potato (Ipomoea costata), an Aboriginal bushfood which is slowly digested in vitro, and potato (Solanum tuberosum), which has a high glycemic index, were studied. The areas under the glucose and insulin curves for Aborigines were 34% and 42% smaller, respectively, after bush potato than after potato (p less than 0.05). In Caucasians only the insulin response to bush potato was lower (by 19%) than that to potato (p less than 0.05). Compared with Caucasians, Aborigines produced 2.5 times greater glucose and insulin responses to potato (p less than 0.025). Their insulin responses to bush potato were also twice as large (p less than 0.05) although glucose responses were not significantly different. These findings add weight to the hypothesis that rapidly digested carbohydrate in western diets may be one of the factors in the lifestyle change which precipitates diabetes in indigenous populations.
A controlled trial was conducted to examine the effects of superimposing an interdisciplinary geriatric consultation team upon the conventional patterns of care in medical wards of an acute care hospital. Two hundred and twenty-two patients, aged 69 years of age or older, admitted from the emergency room to two trial wards and 182 similar patients admitted to two control wards where the team did not work, were followed. Evaluations at admission, two and four weeks, and three and six months postadmission by independent evaluators allowed comparisons between the care groups with reference to survival, length of stay, disposition, physical, mental, and social functional levels, and use of services after discharge. Data from charts and treatment logs allowed the care processes to be compared. Findings determined that patients in the two groups were alike on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics at entry. Results demonstrated that patients in the trial and control groups fared similarly on the outcome measures at each evaluation point, although a trend toward better survival among team patients was noted. It was concluded that the addition of a consultative geriatric team to the medical wards failed to show a significant impact on patient outcomes.
We investigated the sustained effect of 12-week supplementation of 2.880 g/day of omega-3 fatty acids on platelet aggregability, platelet produced thromboxane B2 concentration and serum fatty acid composition in a double-blind controlled trial in 44 healthy mildly overweight eastern Finnish men recruited from a representative population sample. The supplementation was discontinued seven days before the biochemical measurements. Body weight, alcohol consumption and dietary composition remained constant during the study. Even though the percentage of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 omega 3) in total serum lipids increased by 37% (p less than 0.01) and that of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (20:3 omega 6) decreased by 18% (p less than 0.01) more in the omega-3 supplemented than placebo group during supplementation, there were no significant differences in the changes in either the ADP induced platelet aggregation or in vitro platelet produced thromboxane B2 concentration between the groups. These data suggest that omega-3 fatty acids have no detectable sustained effect either on ADP induced platelet aggregation or on thromboxane produced by the platelets in vitro.
A randomized multicentre study of Copper-T-200 (CuT), Multiload-250 (ML) and Nova-T (NoT) was conducted to evaluate the clinical performance of these three IUDs in the hands of general practitioners with varying experience in the different insertion techniques. After 36 months of use a total of 19,821 treatment cycles was accumulated. The continuation rate was 69.7% for CuT, 60.9% for ML and 61.8% for NoT. The cumulative expulsion rate after 36 months was 5.0% and equally distributed among centres and types of IUD. Removal for medical reasons was 11.4% and also equally distributed among the centres and the types of IUD. The pregnancy rate was insignificantly higher for the NoT compared with the two other types.
To review the evidence on and estimate the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in bipolar disorder.
A systematic search using MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and bibliographies (1946 - May, 2013) was conducted. Case-control and cohort studies of bipolar disorder patients age 15 or older with myocardial infarction or stroke as outcomes were included. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed quality. Estimates of effect were summarized using random-effects meta-analysis.
Five cohort studies including 13 115 911 participants (27 092 bipolar) were included. Due to the use of registers, different statistical methods, and inconsistent adjustment for confounders, there was significant methodological heterogeneity among studies. The exploratory meta-analysis yielded no evidence for a significant increase in the risk of myocardial infarction: [relative risk (RR): 1.09, 95% CI 0.96-1.24, P = 0.20; I(2) = 6%]. While there was evidence of significant study heterogeneity, the risk of stroke in bipolar disorder was significantly increased (RR 1.74, 95% CI 1.29-2.35; P = 0.0003; I(2) = 83%).
There may be a differential risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in patients with bipolar disorder. Confidence in these pooled estimates was limited by the small number of studies, significant heterogeneity and dissimilar methodological features.
We generated genome-wide data from 69 Europeans who lived between 8,000-3,000 years ago by enriching ancient DNA libraries for a target set of almost 400,000 polymorphisms. Enrichment of these positions decreases the sequencing required for genome-wide ancient DNA analysis by a median of around 250-fold, allowing us to study an order of magnitude more individuals than previous studies and to obtain new insights about the past. We show that the populations of Western and Far Eastern Europe followed opposite trajectories between 8,000-5,000 years ago. At the beginning of the Neolithic period in Europe, ~8,000-7,000 years ago, closely related groups of early farmers appeared in Germany, Hungary and Spain, different from indigenous hunter-gatherers, whereas Russia was inhabited by a distinctive population of hunter-gatherers with high affinity to a ~24,000-year-old Siberian. By ~6,000-5,000 years ago, farmers throughout much of Europe had more hunter-gatherer ancestry than their predecessors, but in Russia, the Yamnaya steppe herders of this time were descended not only from the preceding eastern European hunter-gatherers, but also from a population of Near Eastern ancestry. Western and Eastern Europe came into contact ~4,500 years ago, as the Late Neolithic Corded Ware people from Germany traced ~75% of their ancestry to the Yamnaya, documenting a massive migration into the heartland of Europe from its eastern periphery. This steppe ancestry persisted in all sampled central Europeans until at least ~3,000 years ago, and is ubiquitous in present-day Europeans. These results provide support for a steppe origin of at least some of the Indo-European languages of Europe.
Comment In: Nature. 2015 Jun 11;522(7555):164-526062506
Patient preference for the choice of treatment modality for prostate cancer has increasingly gained attention.
To assess the impact of client-oriented decision on long-term mortality, disease progression and biochemical failure compared with standard treatment protocol (TP).
With data from a Finnish multicentre, randomized controlled trial with two arms [104 in the enhanced patient participation (EPP) arm and 106 in the TP arm], disease-specific and disease-free survival, biochemical failure with elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and disease progression were compared between the two arms using Wilcoxon test and also Cox proportional hazards regression model.
Patients in the EPP arm had a higher risk of death by 37% [HR, 1.37 (0.87-2.17)] compared with those in the TP arm. Patients in the EPP arm were at increased risk of having biochemical failure by 14% [HR, 1.14 (0.72-1.79)] and for having disease progression by 2% [HR, 1.02 (0.61-1.70)] compared with those in the TP arm. All the differences were non-significant.
Patients actively involved in the choice of treatment had higher risk of prostate cancer death but only slightly increased risk of biochemical failure and clinical disease progression. These findings would provide a good reference when patient autonomy for the choice of treatment modality is addressed.
Results of registration trial of combination vaccine for prevention of hepatitis A and B are presented. The trial was conducted in 5 centers of Russia in 2004-2005 with full accordance to good clinical practice requirements and standards for multicenter open randomized trials. Immunogenicity of studied combination vaccine Twinrix was evaluated in comparison with two simultaneously administered monovalent vaccines against hepatitis A and B (Havrix and Engerix-B) in 200 healthy subjects aged 18-40, which were seronegative to hepatitis A and B. Reactogenicity based on interviewed and non-interviewed symptoms ranged on intensity was assessed also. 1 month after completion of primary vaccination all subjects in both groups were seropositive to hepatitis A. Sero-protection level of antibodies to hepatitis B virus was detected in 98.9% of participants vaccinated with Twinrix and in 95.6% of participants vaccinated with Engerix-B and Havrix. Overall, reactogenicity of vaccines was minor, marked adverse events caused by vaccination were rare (approximately 1%). Study shows that combination vaccine against hepatitis A and B (Twinrix) at least non inferior in terms of immunogenicity, safety and tolerability to monovalent vaccines (Havrix and Engerix-B), were registered in Russia.