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Preventing after-effects of disaster trauma: the information and support centre.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature178180
Source
Prehosp Disaster Med. 2004 Jan-Mar;19(1):86-9
Publication Type
Article
Author
Lars Weisaeth
Author Affiliation
University of Oslo, The Military Medical Competence Center, Oslo, Norway. lars.weisath@psykiatri.uio.no
Source
Prehosp Disaster Med. 2004 Jan-Mar;19(1):86-9
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Disasters
Family
Hotlines
Humans
Information Services
Norway
Patient care team
Relief Work
Social Support
Survivors
Triage
Abstract
This paper describes the establishment and activities of the Information and Support Centres developed in Norway in the aftermath of large-scale accidents and disasters between 1980 and 1990. The function of these Centres is to provide rapid, authoritative information and psychosocial support services for the next-of-kin of disaster victims, including the families of those missing. By gathering together those affected by a particular event, the Centres provide a setting in which individuals and families can support each other. The activities of the psychosocial team include triage for mental-health emergencies, orienting survivors to immediately available local services, communication with family, friends, and community, and other forms of psychological first aid. The psychosocial team also provides linkages to local health, clergy, and other local resources that are near to the family's home and could provide continued care if necessary.
PubMed ID
15453164 View in PubMed
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Psychiatric disorders among disaster bereaved: an interview study of individuals directly or not directly exposed to the 2004 tsunami.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98633
Source
Depress Anxiety. 2009;26(12):1127-33
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Pål Kristensen
Lars Weisaeth
Trond Heir
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Centre for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies, 0407 Oslo, Norway. Pal.Kristensen@nkvts.unirand.no
Source
Depress Anxiety. 2009;26(12):1127-33
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adjustment Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Bereavement
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depressive Disorder, Major - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Disasters
Family - psychology
Female
Grief
Humans
Interview, Psychological
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Risk factors
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Tsunamis
Young Adult
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Few studies have explored the long-term mental health consequences of disaster losses in bereaved, either exposed to the disaster themselves or not. This study examined the prevalence and predictors of mental disorders and psychological distress in bereaved individuals either directly or not directly exposed to the 2004 tsunami disaster. METHOD: A cross-sectional study of 111 bereaved Norwegians (32 directly and 79 not directly exposed) was conducted 2 years postdisaster. We used a face-to-face structured clinical interview to diagnose current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression (major depressive disorder, MDD) and a self-report scale to measure prolonged grief disorder (PGD). RESULTS: The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was twice as high among individuals directly exposed to the disaster compared to individuals who were not directly exposed (46.9 vs. 22.8 per 100). The prevalence of disorders among the directly exposed was PTSD (34.4%), MDD (25%), and PGD (23.3%), whereas the prevalence among the not directly exposed was PGD (14.3%), MDD (10.1%), and PTSD (5.2%). The co-occurrence of disorders was higher among the directly exposed (21.9 vs. 5.2%). Low education and loss of a child predicted PGD, whereas direct exposure to the disaster predicted PTSD. All three disorders were independently associated with functional impairment. CONCLUSIONS: The dual burden of direct trauma and loss can inflict a complex set of long-term reactions and mental health problems in bereaved individuals. The relationship between PGD and impaired functioning actualizes the incorporation of PGD in future diagnostic manuals of psychiatric disorders.
PubMed ID
19998267 View in PubMed
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Prevalence of psychiatric disorders and functional impairment after loss of a family member: a longitudinal study after the 2004 Tsunami.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271614
Source
Depress Anxiety. 2015 Jan;32(1):49-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2015
Author
Pål Kristensen
Lars Weisaeth
Ajmal Hussain
Trond Heir
Source
Depress Anxiety. 2015 Jan;32(1):49-56
Date
Jan-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Anxiety Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Attitude to Death
Bereavement
Depressive Disorder, Major - epidemiology - psychology
Disasters
Family - psychology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Prevalence
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - epidemiology - psychology
Tsunamis
Young Adult
Abstract
Bereavement following disasters is a devastating experience for family members. The aim of this study was to examine the long-term mental health effects of losing a loved one in a natural disaster.
Ninety-four Norwegians aged 18-80 years who lost close family members in the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami were evaluated 2 and 6 years after the disaster. The participants were either staying in an affected area at the time of the disaster (i.e., directly exposed) or not (i.e., not directly exposed). The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was assessed by the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I). Prolonged grief disorder (PGD) was self-reported using the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG), and functional impairment was self-reported using the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS).
We did not identify a significant decrease in the prevalence of PGD, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or major depressive disorder (MDD) from 2 to 6 years. Approximately, one-third of the bereaved (36%) had a psychiatric disorder 6 years after the tsunami. The most common disorder was PGD (12%) followed by general anxiety disorder (GAD, 11%), agoraphobia (11%), and MDD (10%). The prevalence of PTSD and MDD was higher among family members who were directly exposed to the disaster compared to those who were not (21 vs. 0%, and 25 vs. 3%). PGD was associated with functional impairment independent of other disorders.
Loss of a close family member in a natural disaster can have a substantial adverse long-term effect on mental health and everyday functioning.
PubMed ID
24817217 View in PubMed
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Prevalence and predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in physically injured victims of non-domestic violence. A longitudinal study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature163325
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2007 Jul;42(7):583-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2007
Author
Venke A Johansen
Astrid K Wahl
Dag Erik Eilertsen
Lars Weisaeth
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Health, Buskerud University College, Buskerud, Norway. venke.a.johansen@helse-bergen.no
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2007 Jul;42(7):583-93
Date
Jul-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Affective Symptoms - epidemiology - psychology
Aged
Crime Victims - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Perception
Predictive value of tests
Prevalence
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Self Efficacy
Severity of Illness Index
Social Support
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - epidemiology - psychology
Violence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Wounds and Injuries - etiology - psychology
Abstract
Victims of violent assault experience diverse post-event emotional problems such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and they may have multiple emotional problems. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of PTSD in a longitudinal design.
The levels of physical injury, perceived life threat, prior experience of violence, peritraumatic dissociation (PD), acute PTSD, perceived self-efficacy and perceived social support are considered possible predictors. This study had a single group (N = 70), longitudinal design with three repeated measures over a period of 12 months. Questionnaires used were: Impact of Event Scale-15 and 22 (IES-15 and 22), Post-Traumatic Symptom Scale-10 (PTSS-10), Peritraumatic Dissociation (PD) 7-item self-report measure, Social Provisions Scale (SPS) and Generalized Self-Efficacy scale (GSE).
Results showed a high prevalence and severity of PTSD on all outcomes, for instance 31% scored as probable PTSD-cases and 14% as risk level cases by IES-15 at T3. Either injury severity or prior experience of being a victim of violence predicted PTSD in this study. Early PTSD predicted subsequent PTSD, and perceived life threat was a predictor of PD. Furthermore, lack of perceived social support was a predictor of PTSD symptoms at T3. In addition, low perceived self-efficacy was a predictor of PTSD and influenced perceived social support at T1.
Our results showed that experience of non-domestic violence may cause serious chronic emotional problems, and therefore it is important to be aware of early symptoms indicating needs for special follow-ups.
PubMed ID
17530151 View in PubMed
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