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Silent disaster: a European perspective on threat perception from Chernobyl far field fallout.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature71476
Source
J Trauma Stress. 2002 Dec;15(6):453-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2002
Author
Arnfinn Tønnessen
Bertil Mårdberg
Lars Weisaeth
Author Affiliation
Radiation Medicine Department, Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority/University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. arnfinn.tonnessen@nrpa.no
Source
J Trauma Stress. 2002 Dec;15(6):453-9
Date
Dec-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation - psychology
Adult
Attitude to Health
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
Environmental Exposure - analysis - prevention & control
Europe
Female
Humans
Information Dissemination
Male
Radioactive fallout - analysis
Sex Factors
Ukraine
Abstract
Surveys investigated the perceived threat of radioactive fallout and public coping following a "silent disaster" (Chernobyl) across Europe. Survey data from national representative samples in 12 European countries are compiled, 6 months and 2 years after the accident, across 12 countries. Exposure to information about the accident, and perception of the consequences of Chernobyl as a health threat, were significantly related to the level of fallout in each country. Another significant relationship was found between the level of fallout in these 12 countries and the proportion of respondents who reported having taken countermeasures. Information challenges for the authorities are highlighted.
PubMed ID
12482183 View in PubMed
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Psychiatric disorders among disaster bereaved: an interview study of individuals directly or not directly exposed to the 2004 tsunami.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98633
Source
Depress Anxiety. 2009;26(12):1127-33
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Pål Kristensen
Lars Weisaeth
Trond Heir
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Centre for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies, 0407 Oslo, Norway. Pal.Kristensen@nkvts.unirand.no
Source
Depress Anxiety. 2009;26(12):1127-33
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adjustment Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Bereavement
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depressive Disorder, Major - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Disasters
Family - psychology
Female
Grief
Humans
Interview, Psychological
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Risk factors
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Tsunamis
Young Adult
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Few studies have explored the long-term mental health consequences of disaster losses in bereaved, either exposed to the disaster themselves or not. This study examined the prevalence and predictors of mental disorders and psychological distress in bereaved individuals either directly or not directly exposed to the 2004 tsunami disaster. METHOD: A cross-sectional study of 111 bereaved Norwegians (32 directly and 79 not directly exposed) was conducted 2 years postdisaster. We used a face-to-face structured clinical interview to diagnose current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression (major depressive disorder, MDD) and a self-report scale to measure prolonged grief disorder (PGD). RESULTS: The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was twice as high among individuals directly exposed to the disaster compared to individuals who were not directly exposed (46.9 vs. 22.8 per 100). The prevalence of disorders among the directly exposed was PTSD (34.4%), MDD (25%), and PGD (23.3%), whereas the prevalence among the not directly exposed was PGD (14.3%), MDD (10.1%), and PTSD (5.2%). The co-occurrence of disorders was higher among the directly exposed (21.9 vs. 5.2%). Low education and loss of a child predicted PGD, whereas direct exposure to the disaster predicted PTSD. All three disorders were independently associated with functional impairment. CONCLUSIONS: The dual burden of direct trauma and loss can inflict a complex set of long-term reactions and mental health problems in bereaved individuals. The relationship between PGD and impaired functioning actualizes the incorporation of PGD in future diagnostic manuals of psychiatric disorders.
PubMed ID
19998267 View in PubMed
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Prevalence of psychiatric disorders and functional impairment after loss of a family member: a longitudinal study after the 2004 Tsunami.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271614
Source
Depress Anxiety. 2015 Jan;32(1):49-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2015
Author
Pål Kristensen
Lars Weisaeth
Ajmal Hussain
Trond Heir
Source
Depress Anxiety. 2015 Jan;32(1):49-56
Date
Jan-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Anxiety Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Attitude to Death
Bereavement
Depressive Disorder, Major - epidemiology - psychology
Disasters
Family - psychology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Prevalence
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - epidemiology - psychology
Tsunamis
Young Adult
Abstract
Bereavement following disasters is a devastating experience for family members. The aim of this study was to examine the long-term mental health effects of losing a loved one in a natural disaster.
Ninety-four Norwegians aged 18-80 years who lost close family members in the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami were evaluated 2 and 6 years after the disaster. The participants were either staying in an affected area at the time of the disaster (i.e., directly exposed) or not (i.e., not directly exposed). The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was assessed by the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I). Prolonged grief disorder (PGD) was self-reported using the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG), and functional impairment was self-reported using the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS).
We did not identify a significant decrease in the prevalence of PGD, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or major depressive disorder (MDD) from 2 to 6 years. Approximately, one-third of the bereaved (36%) had a psychiatric disorder 6 years after the tsunami. The most common disorder was PGD (12%) followed by general anxiety disorder (GAD, 11%), agoraphobia (11%), and MDD (10%). The prevalence of PTSD and MDD was higher among family members who were directly exposed to the disaster compared to those who were not (21 vs. 0%, and 25 vs. 3%). PGD was associated with functional impairment independent of other disorders.
Loss of a close family member in a natural disaster can have a substantial adverse long-term effect on mental health and everyday functioning.
PubMed ID
24817217 View in PubMed
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