We investigated the association of early achieved HbA1c level and magnitude of HbA1c reduction with subsequent risk of cardiovascular events or death in patients with type 2 diabetes who initiate metformin.
This was a population-based cohort study including all metformin initiators with HbA1c tests in Northern Denmark, 2000-2012. Six months after metformin initiation, we classified patients by HbA1c achieved (
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have effects on hemostasis and have been associated with an increased risk of bleeding. However, data relating the use of nonaspirin NSAIDs and risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are sparse. METHODS: Using data from the County Hospital Patient Register and the Civil Registration System of North Jutland County, Denmark, we identified 912 cases of first-time ICH and 9059 sex- and age-matched population-based controls in the period of 1991 to 1999. All prescriptions for nonaspirin NSAIDs before the date of admission for ICH were identified through a population-based prescription database. Conditional logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounding factors, including previous discharge diagnoses of hypertension, chronic bronchitis and emphysema, alcoholism, liver cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, and prescriptions for insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents, antihypertensive agents, lipid-lowering agents, low-dose aspirin, high-dose aspirin, and oral anticoagulants. RESULTS: No overall association was found between prescription for nonaspirin NSAIDs in the preceding 30, 60, or 90 days and risk of ICH; ie, odds ratios ranged from 0.92 (95% CI, 0.70 to 1.21) to 1.13 (95% CI, 0.81 to 1.58). Furthermore, there was no increased risk of ICH associated with prescription for nonaspirin NSAIDs when the study population was stratified by age, sex, and a previous discharge diagnosis of hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Patients prescribed nonaspirin NSAIDs were not at an overall increased risk of being hospitalized for ICH. This reassuring finding was seen in all examined subgroups, including the elderly and patients with a previous discharge diagnosis of hypertension.
We examined the association between quality of care and 30 day mortality in a nationwide cohort of patients hospitalized with hip fracture.
We used data from The Danish National Indicator Project, a quality improvement initiative with participation of more than 90% of Danish hospital departments caring for patients with hip fracture between August 16, 2005 and August 15, 2006. Quality of care was measured in terms of meeting five specific criteria: early assessment of the patient's nutritional risk, systematic pain assessment during mobilization, assessment of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) before the fracture, assessment of ADL before discharge, and initiation of treatment to prevent future osteoporotic fractures. The association between meeting each of the quality of care criteria for the patient and 30 day mortality was examined using logistic regression to adjust for potential confounders.
6,266 patients hospitalized with an incident episode of hip fracture were included in the study. For four of the five quality of care criteria, patients who met the criterion had substantially lower 30 day mortality after hip fracture. The adjusted mortality odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 0.42 (95% CI, 0.30 to 0.58) for assessment of ADL before discharge (excluding deaths during hospitalization) to 0.72 (95% CI, 0.52 to 1.00) for systematic pain assessment. We found an inverse dose-response relationship between the number of quality of care criteria met and 30 day mortality; the lowest mortality was found among patients for whom all five quality of care criteria were met, as compared with patients for whom no quality of care criteria were met: adjusted mortality OR 0.18 (95% CI, 0.09 to 0.36).
Higher quality of care during hospitalization with hip fracture was associated with lowered 30 day mortality.
Seasonal variation in the occurrence of cerebrovascular disease has been reported, but data about subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are few and inconclusive. We conducted a nationwide population-based study in Denmark to examine any seasonal pattern of hospitalization and case fatality of SAH. We identified 9,367 patients with SAH and found a modest indication of overall seasonal variation for the risk of hospitalization with this diagnosis. The seasonal pattern, with the highest incidence in January and the nadir in July, was mostly apparent for subjects aged >65 years (peak-to-trough ratio = 1.18; 95% CI 1.04-1.32). There was little difference by sex. The overall 30-day case fatality rate was 38% and showed less seasonal variation. We found evidence of weak seasonal variation in hospitalization for SAH and almost no seasonal variation in a 30-day case fatality rate after SAH.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between preadmission statin use and mortality among patients with bacteremia in a population-based setting. DESIGN: Observational study based on prospective registration of bacteremia episodes and mortality over a 6-yr period. SETTING: North Jutland County, Denmark (population, 500,000). PATIENTS: A total of 5,353 adult patients hospitalized with bacteremia from 1997 to 2002. Individuals treated with statins (n = 176) were identified by record-linkage with the County Prescription Database. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We compared mortality rates 0-30 and 31-180 days after bacteremia in patients with and without preadmission statin use, adjusted for gender, age group, level of comorbidity, alcohol-related conditions, use of immunosuppressive drugs and systemic antibiotics, and focus on infection. The 30-day mortality in statin users vs. nonusers was similar (20.0% vs. 21.6%, adjusted mortality rate ratio 0.93, 95% confidence interval 0.66-1.30). Among survivors after 30 days, however, statin therapy was associated with a substantially decreased mortality up until 180 days after the bacteremia (8.4% vs. 17.5%, adjusted mortality rate ratio 0.44, 95% confidence interval 0.24-0.80). This tendency toward similar short-term and decreased longer term mortality associated with statin use was observed consistently in both community-acquired and nosocomial bacteremia episodes and when analyses were restricted to patients with previous cardiovascular discharge diagnoses or diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence against the hypothesis that statin use has an effect on short-term mortality after bacteremia. Statin use was, however, associated with a substantially decreased mortality between 31 and 180 days after bacteremia.