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Antiarrhythmic therapy and risk of death in patients with atrial fibrillation: a nationwide study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150959
Source
Europace. 2009 Jul;11(7):886-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2009
Author
Søren Skøtt Andersen
Morten Lock Hansen
Gunnar H Gislason
Tina Ken Schramm
Fredrik Folke
Emil Fosbøl
Steen Z Abildstrøm
Mette Madsen
Lars Køber
Christian Torp-Pedersen
Author Affiliation
Department of Cardiology, Gentofte University Hospital, Niels Andersens Vej 65, Hellerup, Copenhagen DK-2900, Denmark. ssa@heart.dk
Source
Europace. 2009 Jul;11(7):886-91
Date
Jul-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents - therapeutic use
Atrial Fibrillation - drug therapy - mortality
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Proportional Hazards Models
Registries
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Survival Analysis
Survival Rate
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
To examine the risk of death associated with antiarrhythmic drug (AAD) therapy in a nationwide unselected cohort of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF).
All patients admitted with AF in Denmark from 1995 to 2004 and their subsequent use of AADs were identified by individual-level linkage of nationwide registries. Multivariable Cox proportional-hazard models with time-dependent covariates were used to analyse the risk of death associated with AAD therapy. A total of 141,500 patients were included in the study; of these 3356 (2.4%) patients received treatment with flecainide, 3745 (2.6%) propafenone, 23,346 (16.5%) sotalol, and 10,376 (7.3%) amiodarone. Annualized mortality rates were 2.54, 4.25, 5.29, and 7.42 per year per 100 person years for flecainide, propafenone, sotalol, and amiodarone, respectively. Multivariable Cox proportional-hazard models did not show increased risk of death associated with any of the AADs. Hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for flecainide 0.38 (0.32-0.44), propafenone 0.65 (0.58-0.71), sotalol 0.65 (0.63-0.67), and amiodarone 0.94 (0.89-1.00).
In an unselected cohort of patients with AF, antiarrhythmic treatment with flecainide, propafenone, sotalol, or amiodarone was not associated with increased risk of death. From a safety perspective, this indicates appropriate selection of patients for AAD therapy.
Notes
Comment In: Europace. 2009 Jul;11(7):840-119546183
Comment In: Europace. 2009 Jul;11(7):837-919546182
PubMed ID
19443433 View in PubMed
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Association of national initiatives to improve cardiac arrest management with rates of bystander intervention and patient survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature106936
Source
JAMA. 2013 Oct 2;310(13):1377-84
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2-2013
Author
Mads Wissenberg
Freddy K Lippert
Fredrik Folke
Peter Weeke
Carolina Malta Hansen
Erika Frischknecht Christensen
Henning Jans
Poul Anders Hansen
Torsten Lang-Jensen
Jonas Bjerring Olesen
Jesper Lindhardsen
Emil L Fosbol
Søren L Nielsen
Gunnar H Gislason
Lars Kober
Christian Torp-Pedersen
Author Affiliation
Department of Cardiology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Hellerup, Denmark. mads.wissenberg.joergensen@regionh.dk
Source
JAMA. 2013 Oct 2;310(13):1377-84
Date
Oct-2-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
Causality
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Government Programs
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest - mortality - therapy
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Survival Analysis
Time Factors
Abstract
Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is a major health problem associated with poor outcomes. Early recognition and intervention are critical for patient survival. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is one factor among many associated with improved survival.
To examine temporal changes in bystander resuscitation attempts and survival during a 10-year period in which several national initiatives were taken to increase rates of bystander resuscitation and improve advanced care.
Patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest for which resuscitation was attempted were identified between 2001 and 2010 in the nationwide Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry. Of 29,111 patients with cardiac arrest, we excluded those with presumed noncardiac cause of arrest (n?=?7390) and those with cardiac arrests witnessed by emergency medical services personnel (n?=?2253), leaving a study population of 19,468 patients.
Temporal trends in bystander CPR, bystander defibrillation, 30-day survival, and 1-year survival.
The median age of patients was 72 years; 67.4% were men. Bystander CPR increased significantly during the study period, from 21.1% (95% CI, 18.8%-23.4%) in 2001 to 44.9% (95% CI, 42.6%-47.1%) in 2010 (P?
PubMed ID
24084923 View in PubMed
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Atrial fibrillation in heart failure is associated with an increased risk of death only in patients with ischaemic heart disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144121
Source
Eur J Heart Fail. 2010 Jul;12(7):692-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2010
Author
Jakob Raunsø
Ole Dyg Pedersen
Helena Dominguez
Morten Lock Hansen
Jacob Eifer Møller
Jesper Kjaergaard
Christian Hassager
Christian Torp-Pedersen
Lars Køber
Author Affiliation
Department of Cardiology, Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Post 67, Niels Andersens Vej 65, 2900 Hellerup, Denmark. jrj@heart.dk
Source
Eur J Heart Fail. 2010 Jul;12(7):692-7
Date
Jul-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Atrial Fibrillation - epidemiology - mortality
Chronic Disease
Denmark - epidemiology
Disease Progression
Female
Heart Failure - epidemiology - mortality
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Myocardial Ischemia - epidemiology
Prognosis
Risk factors
Survival Analysis
Abstract
The prognostic importance of atrial fibrillation (AF) in heart failure (HF) populations is controversial and may depend on patient selection. In the present study, we investigated the prognostic impact of AF in a large population with HF of various aetiologies.
We included 2881 patients admitted to hospital with symptoms of worsening HF over a 4-year period (2001-2004), all patients were participants in the Echocardiography and Heart Outcome Study (ECHOS). Patients were followed for up to 7 years for all-cause mortality stratified according to heart rhythm (sinus rhythm, paroxysmal, or chronic AF) and according to the presence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). During follow-up, 1934 patients (67%) died. In HF patients with a history of IHD, chronic AF was associated with an increased risk of death [hazard ratio (HR) 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18-1.77; P
PubMed ID
20403817 View in PubMed
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Bystander Efforts and 1-Year Outcomes in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282560
Source
N Engl J Med. 2017 05 04;376(18):1737-1747
Publication Type
Article
Date
05-04-2017
Author
Kristian Kragholm
Mads Wissenberg
Rikke N Mortensen
Steen M Hansen
Carolina Malta Hansen
Kristinn Thorsteinsson
Shahzleen Rajan
Freddy Lippert
Fredrik Folke
Gunnar Gislason
Lars Køber
Kirsten Fonager
Svend E Jensen
Thomas A Gerds
Christian Torp-Pedersen
Bodil S Rasmussen
Source
N Engl J Med. 2017 05 04;376(18):1737-1747
Date
05-04-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
Denmark
Electric Countershock
Female
Humans
Hypoxia, Brain - epidemiology - etiology
Institutionalization - statistics & numerical data
Intention to Treat Analysis
Male
Middle Aged
Nursing Homes
Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest - complications - mortality - therapy
Risk
Survival Analysis
Volunteers
Abstract
The effect of bystander interventions on long-term functional outcomes among survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest has not been extensively studied.
We linked nationwide data on out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in Denmark to functional outcome data and reported the 1-year risks of anoxic brain damage or nursing home admission and of death from any cause among patients who survived to day 30 after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We analyzed risks according to whether bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or defibrillation was performed and evaluated temporal changes in bystander interventions and outcomes.
Among the 2855 patients who were 30-day survivors of an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest during the period from 2001 through 2012, a total of 10.5% had brain damage or were admitted to a nursing home and 9.7% died during the 1-year follow-up period. During the study period, among the 2084 patients who had cardiac arrests that were not witnessed by emergency medical services (EMS) personnel, the rate of bystander CPR increased from 66.7% to 80.6% (P
PubMed ID
28467879 View in PubMed
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Cause-specific cardiovascular risk associated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs among healthy individuals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature143012
Source
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2010 Jul;3(4):395-405
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2010
Author
Emil Loldrup Fosbøl
Fredrik Folke
Søren Jacobsen
Jeppe N Rasmussen
Rikke Sørensen
Tina Ken Schramm
Søren S Andersen
Søren Rasmussen
Henrik Enghusen Poulsen
Lars Køber
Christian Torp-Pedersen
Gunnar H Gislason
Author Affiliation
Department of Cardiology, Gentofte University Hospital, Hellerup, Denmark. ELF@heart.dk
Source
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2010 Jul;3(4):395-405
Date
Jul-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - etiology - mortality - physiopathology
Cause of Death
Cross-Over Studies
Denmark
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Risk factors
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - etiology - mortality - physiopathology
Survival Analysis
Abstract
Studies have raised concern on the cardiovascular safety of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We studied safety of NSAID therapy in a nationwide cohort of healthy individuals.
With the use of individual-level linkage of nationwide administrative registers, we identified a cohort of individuals without hospitalizations 5 years before first prescription claim of NSAIDs and without claimed drug prescriptions for selected concomitant medication 2 years previously. The risk of cardiovascular death, a composite of coronary death or nonfatal myocardial infarction, and fatal or nonfatal stroke associated with the use of NSAIDs was estimated by case-crossover and Cox proportional hazard analyses. The entire Danish population age 10 years or more consisted of 4,614,807 individuals on January 1, 1997, of which 2,663,706 (57.8%) claimed at least 1 prescription for NSAIDs during 1997 to 2005. Of these; 1,028,437 individuals were included in the study after applying selection criteria regarding comorbidity and concomitant pharmacotherapy. Use of the nonselective NSAID diclofenac and the selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor rofecoxib was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death (odds ratio, 1.91; 95% confidence interval, 1.62 to 2.42; and odds ratio, 1.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 2.59, respectively), with a dose-dependent increase in risk. There was a trend for increased risk of fatal or nonfatal stroke associated with ibuprofen treatment (odds ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.63), but naproxen was not associated with increased cardiovascular risk (odds ratio for cardiovascular death, 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.50 to 1.42).
Individual NSAIDs have different degrees of cardiovascular safety, which must be considered when choosing appropriate treatment. In particular, rofecoxib and diclofenac were associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity and should be used with caution in most individuals, whereas our results suggest that naproxen has a safer cardiovascular risk-profile.
PubMed ID
20530789 View in PubMed
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Comparison of the clinical outcome of different beta-blockers in heart failure patients: a retrospective nationwide cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature260851
Source
Eur J Heart Fail. 2014 Jun;16(6):678-84
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2014
Author
Rasmus Bølling
Nikolai Madrid Scheller
Lars Køber
Henrik Enghusen Poulsen
Gunnar H Gislason
Christian Torp-Pedersen
Source
Eur J Heart Fail. 2014 Jun;16(6):678-84
Date
Jun-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adrenergic beta-Antagonists - therapeutic use
Aged
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Heart Failure - drug therapy - mortality
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Proportional Hazards Models
Retrospective Studies
Survival Analysis
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
To compare survival on different beta-blockers in heart failure.
We identified all Danish patients =35?years of age who were hospitalized with a first admission for heart failure and who initiated treatment with a beta-blocker within 60?days of discharge. The study period was 1995-2011. The main outcome was all-cause mortality and all-cause hospitalization. Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare survival. The study included 58?634 patients of whom 30.121 (51.4%) died and 46.990 (80.1%) were hospitalized during follow-up. The mean follow-up time was 4.1?years. In an unadjusted model carvedilol was associated with a lower mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 0.737, 0.714-0.761] compared with metoprolol (reference) while bisoprolol was not associated with an increased mortality (HR 1.020, 0.973-1.069). In a model adjusted for possible confounders and stratified according to beta-blocker dosages, patients that received high-dose carvedilol (=50?mg daily) had a lower all-cause mortality risk (HR 0.873, 0.789-0.966) than patients receiving high-dose (=200?mg daily) metoprolol (reference). High-dose bisoprolol (=10?mg daily) was associated with a greater risk of death (HR 1.125, 1.004-1.261). High-dose carvedilol was associated with significantly lower all-cause hospitalization risk (HR 0.842, 0.774-0.915) than high-dose metoprolol (reference), while high-dose bisoprolol had insignificantly lower risk than high-dose metoprolol (HR 0.948, 0.850-1.057).
Heart failure patients receiving high-dose carvedilol (=50?mg daily) showed significantly lower all-cause mortality risk and hospitalization risk, compared with other beta-blockers.
Notes
Comment In: Eur J Heart Fail. 2014 Jun;16(6):595-724863629
PubMed ID
24706485 View in PubMed
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Female sex is associated with a better long-term survival in patients hospitalized with congestive heart failure.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature52052
Source
Eur Heart J. 2004 Jan;25(2):129-35
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2004
Author
Finn Gustafsson
Christian Torp-Pedersen
Hans Burchardt
Pernille Buch
Marie Seibaek
Erik Kjøller
Ida Gustafsson
Lars Køber
Author Affiliation
Department of Cardiology Y, Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. finng@dadlnet.dk
Source
Eur Heart J. 2004 Jan;25(2):129-35
Date
Jan-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Heart Failure, Congestive - mortality
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Prognosis
Sex Factors
Survival Analysis
Abstract
AIMS: Results of previous studies on the influence of gender on prognosis in heart failure have been conflicting and most studies have been conducted in selected populations. The aim of this study was determine whether mortality risk in women and men hospitalized with congestive heart failure is different. METHODS AND RESULTS: Survival analysis of 5491 consecutive patients admitted with congestive heart failure to 34 Danish hospitals between 1993-1996. Follow-up time was 5-8 years. Forty percent of the patients were female. Females were older, had less evidence of ischaemic heart disease and their left ventricular systolic function was preserved to a greater extent than in males. Men were more often treated with ACE inhibitors. During the follow-up period 1569 women (72%) and 2386 (72%) of the men died. When the age difference between men and women was adjusted for, male gender was associated with an increased risk of death (RR 1.25 (1.17-1.34)) and the increased risk was confirmed in a multivariate model containing several covariates. CONCLUSIONS: In patients hospitalized with congestive heart failure male gender is an independent predictor of mortality. Female heart failure patients may be under-treated with ACE inhibitors.
Notes
Comment In: Eur Heart J. 2004 Jan;25(2):101-314720524
PubMed ID
14720529 View in PubMed
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Impact of obesity on long-term prognosis following acute myocardial infarction.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176426
Source
Int J Cardiol. 2005 Jan;98(1):123-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2005
Author
Charlotte Kragelund
Christian Hassager
Per Hildebrandt
Christian Torp-Pedersen
Lars Køber
Author Affiliation
Department of Cardiology and Endocrinology, Frederiksberg University Hospital, Nordre Fasanvej 57-59, DK-2000 Frederiksberg, Denmark. kragelund@dadlnet.dk
Source
Int J Cardiol. 2005 Jan;98(1):123-31
Date
Jan-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adiposity
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors - therapeutic use
Body mass index
Denmark - epidemiology
Double-Blind Method
Female
Humans
Indoles - therapeutic use
Intra-Abdominal Fat
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - diagnosis - drug therapy - epidemiology - physiopathology
Obesity - diagnosis - epidemiology - physiopathology
Prevalence
Prognosis
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Survival Analysis
Ventricular Dysfunction, Left - drug therapy - epidemiology - physiopathology
Waist-Hip Ratio
Abstract
To evaluate the impact of obesity on mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
This study comprises 6676 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction screened for entry into the Danish Trandolapril Cardiac Evaluation (TRACE) study. At baseline, body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were measured. Survival status was determined after 8-10 years.
BMI was used to divide patients into 4 groups: underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese. The normal weight group was used as reference for the other groups. WHR was divided in quartiles and the lowest quartile was used as reference for the three other quartiles. The prevalence of overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI>30 kg/m(2)) were 48% and 13% in males and 31% and 13% in females. Obese patients were younger, less often smokers and more frequently suffered from diabetes and hypertension. In both men and women, there was no association between obesity assessed as BMI and mortality [men: adjusted RR=0.99 (0.85-1.14, p=0.3); women: adjusted RR=0.90 (0.74-1.10, p=0.2)]. Men with WHR in the upper quartile had an increased mortality [adjusted RR=1.21 (1.07-1.37, p
PubMed ID
15676176 View in PubMed
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Increased mortality associated with low use of clopidogrel in patients with heart failure and acute myocardial infarction not undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a nationwide study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature97570
Source
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010 Mar 30;55(13):1300-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-30-2010
Author
Lisbeth Bonde
Rikke Sorensen
Emil Loldrup Fosbøl
Steen Zabell Abildstrøm
Peter Riis Hansen
Lars Kober
Tina Ken Schramm
Ditte-Marie Bretler
Peter Weeke
Jonas Olesen
Christian Torp-Pedersen
Gunnar Hilmar Gislason
Author Affiliation
Department of Cardiology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Hellerup, Denmark. lisbeth.bonde@dadlnet.dk
Source
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010 Mar 30;55(13):1300-7
Date
Mar-30-2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Denmark
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Angioplasty, Transluminal, Percutaneous Coronary
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Heart Failure - drug therapy - epidemiology - mortality
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - drug therapy - epidemiology
Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors - therapeutic use
Proportional Hazards Models
Survival Analysis
Ticlopidine - analogs & derivatives - therapeutic use
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: We studied the association of clopidogrel with mortality in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients with heart failure (HF) not receiving percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: Use of clopidogrel after AMI is low in patients with HF, despite the fact that clopidogrel is associated with absolute mortality reduction in AMI patients. METHODS: All patients hospitalized with first-time AMI (2000 through 2005) and not undergoing PCI within 30 days from discharge were identified in national registers. Patients with HF treated with clopidogrel were matched by propensity score with patients not treated with clopidogrel. Similarly, 2 groups without HF were identified. Risks of all-cause death were obtained by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: We identified 56,944 patients with first-time AMI. In the matched cohort with HF (n = 5,050) and a mean follow-up of 1.50 years (SD = 1.2), 709 (28.1%) and 812 (32.2%) deaths occurred in patients receiving and not receiving clopidogrel treatment, respectively (p = 0.002). The corresponding numbers for patients without HF (n = 6,092), with a mean follow-up of 2.05 years (SD = 1.3), were 285 (9.4%) and 294 (9.7%), respectively (p = 0.83). Patients with HF receiving clopidogrel demonstrated reduced mortality (hazard ratio: 0.86; 95% confidence interval: 0.78 to 0.95) compared with patients with HF not receiving clopidogrel. No difference was observed among patients without HF (hazard ratio: 0.98; 95% confidence interval: 0.83 to 1.16). CONCLUSIONS: Clopidogrel was associated with reduced mortality in patients with HF who do not undergo PCI after their first-time AMI, whereas this association was not apparent in patients without HF. Further studies of the benefit of clopidogrel in patients with HF and AMI are warranted.
Notes
RefSource: J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010 Mar 30;55(13):1308-9
PubMed ID
20338489 View in PubMed
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Influence of diabetes and diabetes-gender interaction on the risk of death in patients hospitalized with congestive heart failure.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature47283
Source
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004 Mar 3;43(5):771-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-3-2004
Author
Ida Gustafsson
Bente Brendorp
Marie Seibaek
Hans Burchardt
Per Hildebrandt
Lars Køber
Christian Torp-Pedersen
Author Affiliation
Department of Cardiology and Endocrinology, Frederiksberg University Hospital, Denmark. gustafsson@dadlnet.dk
Source
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004 Mar 3;43(5):771-7
Date
Mar-3-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Comparative Study
Denmark - epidemiology
Diabetes Complications
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Heart Failure, Congestive - complications - mortality
Hospitalization
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Prognosis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Survival Analysis
Time Factors
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of diabetes on long-term mortality in a large cohort of patients hospitalized with heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND: Diabetes is common in HF patients, but information on the prognostic effect of diabetes is sparse. METHODS: The study is an analysis of survival data comprising 5,491 patients consecutively hospitalized with new or worsening HF and screened for entry into the Danish Investigations of Arrhythmia and Mortality on Dofetilide (DIAMOND). Screening, which included obtaining an echocardiogram in 95% of the patients, took place at Danish hospitals between 1993 and 1995. The follow-up time was five to eight years. RESULTS: A history of diabetes was found in 900 patients (16%), 41% of whom were female. Among the diabetic patients, 755 (84%) died during follow-up, compared with 3,200 (70%) among the non-diabetic patients, resulting in a risk ratio (RR) of death in diabetic patients of 1.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4 to 1.6, p
PubMed ID
14998615 View in PubMed
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14 records – page 1 of 2.