To examine the risk of death associated with antiarrhythmic drug (AAD) therapy in a nationwide unselected cohort of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF).
All patients admitted with AF in Denmark from 1995 to 2004 and their subsequent use of AADs were identified by individual-level linkage of nationwide registries. Multivariable Cox proportional-hazard models with time-dependent covariates were used to analyse the risk of death associated with AAD therapy. A total of 141,500 patients were included in the study; of these 3356 (2.4%) patients received treatment with flecainide, 3745 (2.6%) propafenone, 23,346 (16.5%) sotalol, and 10,376 (7.3%) amiodarone. Annualized mortality rates were 2.54, 4.25, 5.29, and 7.42 per year per 100 person years for flecainide, propafenone, sotalol, and amiodarone, respectively. Multivariable Cox proportional-hazard models did not show increased risk of death associated with any of the AADs. Hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for flecainide 0.38 (0.32-0.44), propafenone 0.65 (0.58-0.71), sotalol 0.65 (0.63-0.67), and amiodarone 0.94 (0.89-1.00).
In an unselected cohort of patients with AF, antiarrhythmic treatment with flecainide, propafenone, sotalol, or amiodarone was not associated with increased risk of death. From a safety perspective, this indicates appropriate selection of patients for AAD therapy.
Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is a major health problem associated with poor outcomes. Early recognition and intervention are critical for patient survival. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is one factor among many associated with improved survival.
To examine temporal changes in bystander resuscitation attempts and survival during a 10-year period in which several national initiatives were taken to increase rates of bystander resuscitation and improve advanced care.
Patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest for which resuscitation was attempted were identified between 2001 and 2010 in the nationwide Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry. Of 29,111 patients with cardiac arrest, we excluded those with presumed noncardiac cause of arrest (n?=?7390) and those with cardiac arrests witnessed by emergency medical services personnel (n?=?2253), leaving a study population of 19,468 patients.
Temporal trends in bystander CPR, bystander defibrillation, 30-day survival, and 1-year survival.
The median age of patients was 72 years; 67.4% were men. Bystander CPR increased significantly during the study period, from 21.1% (95% CI, 18.8%-23.4%) in 2001 to 44.9% (95% CI, 42.6%-47.1%) in 2010 (P?
The prognostic importance of atrial fibrillation (AF) in heart failure (HF) populations is controversial and may depend on patient selection. In the present study, we investigated the prognostic impact of AF in a large population with HF of various aetiologies.
We included 2881 patients admitted to hospital with symptoms of worsening HF over a 4-year period (2001-2004), all patients were participants in the Echocardiography and Heart Outcome Study (ECHOS). Patients were followed for up to 7 years for all-cause mortality stratified according to heart rhythm (sinus rhythm, paroxysmal, or chronic AF) and according to the presence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). During follow-up, 1934 patients (67%) died. In HF patients with a history of IHD, chronic AF was associated with an increased risk of death [hazard ratio (HR) 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18-1.77; P
The effect of bystander interventions on long-term functional outcomes among survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest has not been extensively studied.
We linked nationwide data on out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in Denmark to functional outcome data and reported the 1-year risks of anoxic brain damage or nursing home admission and of death from any cause among patients who survived to day 30 after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We analyzed risks according to whether bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or defibrillation was performed and evaluated temporal changes in bystander interventions and outcomes.
Among the 2855 patients who were 30-day survivors of an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest during the period from 2001 through 2012, a total of 10.5% had brain damage or were admitted to a nursing home and 9.7% died during the 1-year follow-up period. During the study period, among the 2084 patients who had cardiac arrests that were not witnessed by emergency medical services (EMS) personnel, the rate of bystander CPR increased from 66.7% to 80.6% (P
Studies have raised concern on the cardiovascular safety of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We studied safety of NSAID therapy in a nationwide cohort of healthy individuals.
With the use of individual-level linkage of nationwide administrative registers, we identified a cohort of individuals without hospitalizations 5 years before first prescription claim of NSAIDs and without claimed drug prescriptions for selected concomitant medication 2 years previously. The risk of cardiovascular death, a composite of coronary death or nonfatal myocardial infarction, and fatal or nonfatal stroke associated with the use of NSAIDs was estimated by case-crossover and Cox proportional hazard analyses. The entire Danish population age 10 years or more consisted of 4,614,807 individuals on January 1, 1997, of which 2,663,706 (57.8%) claimed at least 1 prescription for NSAIDs during 1997 to 2005. Of these; 1,028,437 individuals were included in the study after applying selection criteria regarding comorbidity and concomitant pharmacotherapy. Use of the nonselective NSAID diclofenac and the selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor rofecoxib was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death (odds ratio, 1.91; 95% confidence interval, 1.62 to 2.42; and odds ratio, 1.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 2.59, respectively), with a dose-dependent increase in risk. There was a trend for increased risk of fatal or nonfatal stroke associated with ibuprofen treatment (odds ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.63), but naproxen was not associated with increased cardiovascular risk (odds ratio for cardiovascular death, 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.50 to 1.42).
Individual NSAIDs have different degrees of cardiovascular safety, which must be considered when choosing appropriate treatment. In particular, rofecoxib and diclofenac were associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity and should be used with caution in most individuals, whereas our results suggest that naproxen has a safer cardiovascular risk-profile.
To compare survival on different beta-blockers in heart failure.
We identified all Danish patients =35?years of age who were hospitalized with a first admission for heart failure and who initiated treatment with a beta-blocker within 60?days of discharge. The study period was 1995-2011. The main outcome was all-cause mortality and all-cause hospitalization. Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare survival. The study included 58?634 patients of whom 30.121 (51.4%) died and 46.990 (80.1%) were hospitalized during follow-up. The mean follow-up time was 4.1?years. In an unadjusted model carvedilol was associated with a lower mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 0.737, 0.714-0.761] compared with metoprolol (reference) while bisoprolol was not associated with an increased mortality (HR 1.020, 0.973-1.069). In a model adjusted for possible confounders and stratified according to beta-blocker dosages, patients that received high-dose carvedilol (=50?mg daily) had a lower all-cause mortality risk (HR 0.873, 0.789-0.966) than patients receiving high-dose (=200?mg daily) metoprolol (reference). High-dose bisoprolol (=10?mg daily) was associated with a greater risk of death (HR 1.125, 1.004-1.261). High-dose carvedilol was associated with significantly lower all-cause hospitalization risk (HR 0.842, 0.774-0.915) than high-dose metoprolol (reference), while high-dose bisoprolol had insignificantly lower risk than high-dose metoprolol (HR 0.948, 0.850-1.057).
Heart failure patients receiving high-dose carvedilol (=50?mg daily) showed significantly lower all-cause mortality risk and hospitalization risk, compared with other beta-blockers.
AIMS: Results of previous studies on the influence of gender on prognosis in heart failure have been conflicting and most studies have been conducted in selected populations. The aim of this study was determine whether mortality risk in women and men hospitalized with congestive heart failure is different. METHODS AND RESULTS: Survival analysis of 5491 consecutive patients admitted with congestive heart failure to 34 Danish hospitals between 1993-1996. Follow-up time was 5-8 years. Forty percent of the patients were female. Females were older, had less evidence of ischaemic heart disease and their left ventricular systolic function was preserved to a greater extent than in males. Men were more often treated with ACE inhibitors. During the follow-up period 1569 women (72%) and 2386 (72%) of the men died. When the age difference between men and women was adjusted for, male gender was associated with an increased risk of death (RR 1.25 (1.17-1.34)) and the increased risk was confirmed in a multivariate model containing several covariates. CONCLUSIONS: In patients hospitalized with congestive heart failure male gender is an independent predictor of mortality. Female heart failure patients may be under-treated with ACE inhibitors.
Comment In: Eur Heart J. 2004 Jan;25(2):101-314720524
To evaluate the impact of obesity on mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
This study comprises 6676 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction screened for entry into the Danish Trandolapril Cardiac Evaluation (TRACE) study. At baseline, body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were measured. Survival status was determined after 8-10 years.
BMI was used to divide patients into 4 groups: underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese. The normal weight group was used as reference for the other groups. WHR was divided in quartiles and the lowest quartile was used as reference for the three other quartiles. The prevalence of overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI>30 kg/m(2)) were 48% and 13% in males and 31% and 13% in females. Obese patients were younger, less often smokers and more frequently suffered from diabetes and hypertension. In both men and women, there was no association between obesity assessed as BMI and mortality [men: adjusted RR=0.99 (0.85-1.14, p=0.3); women: adjusted RR=0.90 (0.74-1.10, p=0.2)]. Men with WHR in the upper quartile had an increased mortality [adjusted RR=1.21 (1.07-1.37, p
OBJECTIVES: We studied the association of clopidogrel with mortality in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients with heart failure (HF) not receiving percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: Use of clopidogrel after AMI is low in patients with HF, despite the fact that clopidogrel is associated with absolute mortality reduction in AMI patients. METHODS: All patients hospitalized with first-time AMI (2000 through 2005) and not undergoing PCI within 30 days from discharge were identified in national registers. Patients with HF treated with clopidogrel were matched by propensity score with patients not treated with clopidogrel. Similarly, 2 groups without HF were identified. Risks of all-cause death were obtained by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: We identified 56,944 patients with first-time AMI. In the matched cohort with HF (n = 5,050) and a mean follow-up of 1.50 years (SD = 1.2), 709 (28.1%) and 812 (32.2%) deaths occurred in patients receiving and not receiving clopidogrel treatment, respectively (p = 0.002). The corresponding numbers for patients without HF (n = 6,092), with a mean follow-up of 2.05 years (SD = 1.3), were 285 (9.4%) and 294 (9.7%), respectively (p = 0.83). Patients with HF receiving clopidogrel demonstrated reduced mortality (hazard ratio: 0.86; 95% confidence interval: 0.78 to 0.95) compared with patients with HF not receiving clopidogrel. No difference was observed among patients without HF (hazard ratio: 0.98; 95% confidence interval: 0.83 to 1.16). CONCLUSIONS: Clopidogrel was associated with reduced mortality in patients with HF who do not undergo PCI after their first-time AMI, whereas this association was not apparent in patients without HF. Further studies of the benefit of clopidogrel in patients with HF and AMI are warranted.
RefSource: J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010 Mar 30;55(13):1308-9
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of diabetes on long-term mortality in a large cohort of patients hospitalized with heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND: Diabetes is common in HF patients, but information on the prognostic effect of diabetes is sparse. METHODS: The study is an analysis of survival data comprising 5,491 patients consecutively hospitalized with new or worsening HF and screened for entry into the Danish Investigations of Arrhythmia and Mortality on Dofetilide (DIAMOND). Screening, which included obtaining an echocardiogram in 95% of the patients, took place at Danish hospitals between 1993 and 1995. The follow-up time was five to eight years. RESULTS: A history of diabetes was found in 900 patients (16%), 41% of whom were female. Among the diabetic patients, 755 (84%) died during follow-up, compared with 3,200 (70%) among the non-diabetic patients, resulting in a risk ratio (RR) of death in diabetic patients of 1.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4 to 1.6, p