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Accuracy of the ICD-10 discharge diagnosis for syncope.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature119178
Source
Europace. 2013 Apr;15(4):595-600
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2013
Author
Martin Huth Ruwald
Morten Lock Hansen
Morten Lamberts
Søren Lund Kristensen
Mads Wissenberg
Anne-Marie Schjerning Olsen
Stefan Bisgaard Christensen
Michael Vinther
Lars Køber
Christian Torp-Pedersen
Jim Hansen
Gunnar Hilmar Gislason
Author Affiliation
Department of Cardiology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte, Denmark. mruwald@hotmail.com
Source
Europace. 2013 Apr;15(4):595-600
Date
Apr-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Chi-Square Distribution
Denmark - epidemiology
Emergency Service, Hospital - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
International Classification of Diseases - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Patient Discharge - statistics & numerical data
Predictive value of tests
Reproducibility of Results
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Syncope - diagnosis - epidemiology
Abstract
Administrative discharge codes are widely used in epidemiology, but the specificity and sensitivity of this coding is unknown and must be validated. We assessed the validity of the discharge diagnosis of syncope in administrative registers and reviewed the etiology of syncope after workup.
Two samples were investigated. One sample consisted of 5262 randomly selected medical patients. The other sample consisted of 750 patients admitted or seen in the emergency department (ED) for syncope (ICD-10: R55.9) in three hospitals in Denmark. All charts were reviewed for baseline characteristics and to confirm the presence/absence of syncope and to compare with the administrative coding. In a sample of 600 admitted patients 570 (95%) and of 150 patients from ED 140 (93%) had syncope representing the positive predictive values. Median age of the population was 69 years (IQR: ± 14). In the second sample of 5262 randomly selected medical patients, 75 (1.4%) had syncope, of which 47 were coded as R55.9 yielding a sensitivity of 62.7%, a negative predictive value of 99.5%, and a specificity of 99.9%.
ED and hospital discharge diagnostic coding for syncope has a positive predictive value of 95% and a sensitivity of 63%.
PubMed ID
23129545 View in PubMed
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Age-specific performance of the revised cardiac risk index for predicting cardiovascular risk in elective noncardiac surgery.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature266490
Source
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2015 Jan;8(1):103-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2015
Author
Charlotte Andersson
Mads Wissenberg
Mads Emil Jørgensen
Mark A Hlatky
Charlotte Mérie
Per Føge Jensen
Gunnar H Gislason
Lars Køber
Christian Torp-Pedersen
Source
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2015 Jan;8(1):103-8
Date
Jan-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Brain Ischemia - etiology
Cardiovascular Diseases - diagnosis - etiology - mortality
Comorbidity
Decision Support Techniques
Denmark
Elective Surgical Procedures
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Myocardial Infarction - etiology
Odds Ratio
Registries
Retrospective Studies
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Stroke - etiology
Surgical Procedures, Operative - adverse effects - mortality
Time Factors
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
The revised cardiac risk index (RCRI) holds a central role in preoperative cardiac risk stratification in noncardiac surgery. Its performance in unselected populations, including different age groups, has, however, not been systematically investigated. We assessed the relationship of RCRI with major adverse cardiovascular events in an unselected cohort of patients undergoing elective, noncardiac surgery overall and in different age groups.
We followed up all individuals = 25 years who underwent major elective noncardiac surgery in Denmark (January 1, 2005, to November 30, 2011) for the 30-day risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, or cardiovascular death). There were 742 of 357,396 (0.2%), 755 of 74.889 (1.0%), 521 of 11,921 (4%), and 257 of 3146 (8%) major adverse cardiovascular events occurring in RCRI classes I, II, III, and IV. Multivariable odds ratio estimates were as follows: ischemic heart disease 3.30 (95% confidence interval, 2.96-3.69), high-risk surgery 2.70 (2.46-2.96), congestive heart failure 2.65 (2.29-3.06), cerebrovascular disease 10.02 (9.08-11.05), insulin therapy 1.62 (1.37-1.93), and kidney disease 1.45 (1.33-1.59). Modeling RCRI classes as a continuous variable, C statistic was highest among age group 56 to 65 years (0.772) and lowest for those aged >85 years (0.683). Sensitivity of RCRI class >I (ie, having = 1 risk factor) for capturing major adverse cardiovascular events was 59%, 71%, 64%, 66%, and 67% in patients aged = 55, 56 to 65, 66 to 75, 76 to 85, and >85 years, respectively; the negative predictive values were >98% across all age groups.
In a nationwide unselected cohort, the performance of the RCRI was similar to that of the original cohort. Having = 1 risk factor was of moderate sensitivity, but high negative predictive value for all ages.
PubMed ID
25587095 View in PubMed
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Age-Specific Trends in Incidence, Mortality, and Comorbidities of Heart Failure in Denmark, 1995 to 2012.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282234
Source
Circulation. 2017 Mar 28;135(13):1214-1223
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-28-2017
Author
Mia N Christiansen
Lars Køber
Peter Weeke
Ramachandran S Vasan
Jørgen L Jeppesen
J Gustav Smith
Gunnar H Gislason
Christian Torp-Pedersen
Charlotte Andersson
Source
Circulation. 2017 Mar 28;135(13):1214-1223
Date
Mar-28-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Comorbidity
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Heart Failure - epidemiology
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality
Risk factors
Young Adult
Abstract
The cumulative burden and importance of cardiovascular risk factors have changed over the past decades. Specifically, obesity rates have increased among younger people, whereas cardiovascular health has improved in the elderly. Little is known regarding how these changes have impacted the incidence and the mortality rates of heart failure. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the age-specific trends in the incidence and 1-year mortality rates following a first-time diagnosis of heart failure in Denmark between 1995 and 2012.
We included all Danish individuals >18 years of age with a first-time in-hospital diagnosis of heart failure. Data were collected from 3 nationwide Danish registries. Annual incidence rates of heart failure and 1-year standardized mortality rates were calculated under the assumption of a Poisson distribution.
We identified 210?430 individuals with a first-time diagnosis of heart failure between 1995 and 2012; the annual incidence rates per 10?000 person-years declined among older individuals (rates in 1995 versus 2012: 164 versus 115 in individuals >74 years, 63 versus 35 in individuals 65-74 years, and 20 versus 17 in individuals 55-64 years; P50 years of age, and 1.52 (95% confidence interval, 1.33-1.73; P50 years), but increased among younger (=50 years) individuals. These observations may portend a rising burden of heart failure in the community.
PubMed ID
28174193 View in PubMed
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Ambulatory cardiac arrhythmias in relation to mild hypokalaemia and prognosis in community dwelling middle-aged and elderly subjects.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature281049
Source
Europace. 2016 Apr;18(4):585-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2016
Author
Nick Mattsson
Golnaz Sadjadieh
Preman Kumarathurai
Olav Wendelboe Nielsen
Lars Køber
Ahmad Sajadieh
Source
Europace. 2016 Apr;18(4):585-91
Date
Apr-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Atrial Premature Complexes - etiology - mortality - physiopathology
Biomarkers - blood
Denmark
Disease-Free Survival
Diuretics - therapeutic use
Electrocardiography, Ambulatory
Female
Humans
Hypokalemia - blood - complications - diagnosis - drug therapy - mortality
Independent living
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Linear Models
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Potassium - blood
Predictive value of tests
Proportional Hazards Models
Risk factors
Severity of Illness Index
Tachycardia, Supraventricular - etiology - mortality - physiopathology
Time Factors
Ventricular Premature Complexes - diagnosis - etiology - mortality - physiopathology
Abstract
Severe hypokalaemia can aggravate arrhythmia tendency and prognosis, but less is known about risk of mild hypokalaemia, which is a frequent finding. We examined the associations between mild hypokalaemia and ambulatory cardiac arrhythmias and their prognosis.
Subjects from the cohort of the 'Copenhagen Holter Study' (n = 671), with no history of manifest cardiovascular (CV) disease or stroke, were studied. All had laboratory tests and 48-h ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) recording. The median follow-up was 6.3 years. p-Potassium was inversely associated with frequency of premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) especially in combination with diuretic treatment (r = -0.22, P = 0.015). Hypokalaemia was not associated with supraventricular arrhythmias. Subjects at lowest quintile of p-potassium (mean 3.42, range 2.7-3.6 mmol/L) were defined as hypokalaemic. Cardiovascular mortality was higher in the hypokalaemic group (hazard ratio and 95% confidence intervals: 2.62 (1.11-6.18) after relevant adjustments). Hypokalaemia in combination with excessive PVC worsened the prognosis synergistically; event rates: 83 per 1000 patient-year in subjects with both abnormalities, 10 and 15 per 1000 patient-year in those with one abnormality, and 3 per 1000 patient-year in subjects with no abnormality. One variable combining hypokalaemia with excessive supraventricular arrhythmias gave similar results in univariate analysis, but not after multivariate adjustments.
In middle-aged and elderly subjects with no manifest heart disease, mild hypokalaemia is associated with increased rate of ventricular but not supraventricular arrhythmias. Hypokalaemia interacts synergistically with increased ventricular ectopy to increase the risk of adverse events.
PubMed ID
26293625 View in PubMed
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Antiarrhythmic therapy and risk of death in patients with atrial fibrillation: a nationwide study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150959
Source
Europace. 2009 Jul;11(7):886-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2009
Author
Søren Skøtt Andersen
Morten Lock Hansen
Gunnar H Gislason
Tina Ken Schramm
Fredrik Folke
Emil Fosbøl
Steen Z Abildstrøm
Mette Madsen
Lars Køber
Christian Torp-Pedersen
Author Affiliation
Department of Cardiology, Gentofte University Hospital, Niels Andersens Vej 65, Hellerup, Copenhagen DK-2900, Denmark. ssa@heart.dk
Source
Europace. 2009 Jul;11(7):886-91
Date
Jul-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents - therapeutic use
Atrial Fibrillation - drug therapy - mortality
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Proportional Hazards Models
Registries
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Survival Analysis
Survival Rate
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
To examine the risk of death associated with antiarrhythmic drug (AAD) therapy in a nationwide unselected cohort of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF).
All patients admitted with AF in Denmark from 1995 to 2004 and their subsequent use of AADs were identified by individual-level linkage of nationwide registries. Multivariable Cox proportional-hazard models with time-dependent covariates were used to analyse the risk of death associated with AAD therapy. A total of 141,500 patients were included in the study; of these 3356 (2.4%) patients received treatment with flecainide, 3745 (2.6%) propafenone, 23,346 (16.5%) sotalol, and 10,376 (7.3%) amiodarone. Annualized mortality rates were 2.54, 4.25, 5.29, and 7.42 per year per 100 person years for flecainide, propafenone, sotalol, and amiodarone, respectively. Multivariable Cox proportional-hazard models did not show increased risk of death associated with any of the AADs. Hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for flecainide 0.38 (0.32-0.44), propafenone 0.65 (0.58-0.71), sotalol 0.65 (0.63-0.67), and amiodarone 0.94 (0.89-1.00).
In an unselected cohort of patients with AF, antiarrhythmic treatment with flecainide, propafenone, sotalol, or amiodarone was not associated with increased risk of death. From a safety perspective, this indicates appropriate selection of patients for AAD therapy.
Notes
Comment In: Europace. 2009 Jul;11(7):840-119546183
Comment In: Europace. 2009 Jul;11(7):837-919546182
PubMed ID
19443433 View in PubMed
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Association of ß-blocker therapy with risks of adverse cardiovascular events and deaths in patients with ischemic heart disease undergoing noncardiac surgery: a Danish nationwide cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature106091
Source
JAMA Intern Med. 2014 Mar;174(3):336-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2014
Author
Charlotte Andersson
Charlotte Mérie
Mads Jørgensen
Gunnar H Gislason
Christian Torp-Pedersen
Charlotte Overgaard
Lars Køber
Per Føge Jensen
Mark A Hlatky
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University, School of Medicine, Stanford, California2Department of Cardiology, Gentofte University Hospital, Hellerup, Denmark.
Source
JAMA Intern Med. 2014 Mar;174(3):336-44
Date
Mar-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adrenergic beta-Antagonists - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cardiovascular Diseases - chemically induced - mortality
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - chemically induced - mortality
Myocardial Ischemia - drug therapy - surgery
Postoperative Complications - chemically induced
Propensity Score
Registries
Risk factors
Stroke - chemically induced - mortality
Abstract
Clinical guidelines have been criticized for encouraging the use of ß-blockers in noncardiac surgery despite weak evidence. Relevant clinical trials have been small and have not convincingly demonstrated an effect of ß-blockers on hard end points (ie, perioperative myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, cardiovascular death, and all-cause death).
To assess the association of ß-blocker treatment with major cardiovascular adverse events (MACE) and all-cause mortality in patients with ischemic heart disease undergoing noncardiac surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND EXPOSURE: Individuals with ischemic heart disease with or without heart failure (HF) and with and without a history of myocardial infarction undergoing noncardiac surgery between October 24, 2004, and December 31, 2009, were identified from nationwide Danish registries. Adjusted Cox regression models were used to calculate the 30-day risks of MACE (ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, or cardiovascular death) and all-cause mortality associated with ß-blocker therapy.
Thirty-day risk of MACE and all-cause mortality.
Of 28,263 patients with ischemic heart disease undergoing surgery, 7990 (28.3%) had HF and 20,273 (71.7%) did not. ß-Blockers were used in 4262 (53.3%) with and 7419 (36.6%) without HF. Overall, use of ß-blockers was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.90 (95% CI, 0.79-1.02) for MACE and 0.95 (0.85-1.06) for all-cause mortality. Among patients with HF, use of ß-blockers was associated with a significantly lower risk of MACE (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.70-0.87) and all-cause mortality (0.80; 0.70-0.92), whereas among patients without HF, there was no significant association of ß-blocker use with MACE (1.11; 0.92-1.33) or mortality (1.15; 0.98-1.35) (P
Notes
Comment In: JAMA Intern Med. 2014 Mar;174(3):345-624247215
PubMed ID
24247428 View in PubMed
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Association of Selected Antipsychotic Agents With Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events and Noncardiovascular Mortality in Elderly Persons.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273549
Source
J Am Heart Assoc. 2015 Sep;4(9):e001666
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2015
Author
Marie Sahlberg
Ellen Holm
Gunnar H Gislason
Lars Køber
Christian Torp-Pedersen
Charlotte Andersson
Source
J Am Heart Assoc. 2015 Sep;4(9):e001666
Date
Sep-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Antipsychotic Agents - adverse effects
Cardiovascular Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology - mortality
Cause of Death
Comorbidity
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Multivariate Analysis
Odds Ratio
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Time Factors
Abstract
Data from observational studies have raised concerns about the safety of treatment with antipsychotic agents (APs) in elderly patients with dementia, but this area has been insufficiently investigated. We performed a head-to-head comparison of the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events and noncardiovascular mortality associated with individual APs (ziprasidone, olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, levomepromazine, chlorprothixen, flupentixol, and haloperidol) in Danish treatment-naïve patients aged =70 years.
We followed all treatment-naïve Danish citizens aged =70 years that initiated treatment with APs for the first time between 1997 and 2011 (n=91 774, mean age 82±7 years, 35 474 [39%] were men). Incidence rate ratios associated with use of different APs were assessed by multivariable time-dependent Poisson regression models. For the first 30 days of treatment, compared with risperidone, incidence rate ratios of major adverse cardiovascular events were higher with use of levomepromazine (3.80, 95% CI 3.43 to 4.21) and haloperidol (1.85, 95% CI 1.67 to 2.05) and lower for treatment with flupentixol (0.54, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.66), ziprasidone (0.31, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.97), chlorprothixen (0.76, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.95), and quetiapine (0.68, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.80). Relationships were generally similar for long-term treatment. The majority of agents were associated with higher risks among patients with cardiovascular disease compared with patients without cardiovascular disease (P for interaction
Notes
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PubMed ID
26330335 View in PubMed
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Associations between body mass index and development of metabolic disorders in fertile women--a nationwide cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258281
Source
J Am Heart Assoc. 2014;3(2):e000672
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Michelle Dalgas Schmiegelow
Charlotte Andersson
Lars Køber
Søren Skøtt Andersen
Mette Lykke Norgaard
Thomas Bo Jensen
Gunnar Gislason
Siv Mari Berger
Christian Torp-Pedersen
Author Affiliation
Department of Cardiology, Gentofte University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
J Am Heart Assoc. 2014;3(2):e000672
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Body mass index
Denmark - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus - diagnosis - epidemiology
Dyslipidemias - diagnosis - epidemiology
Female
Fertility
Health Surveys
Humans
Hypertension - diagnosis - epidemiology
Incidence
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Multivariate Analysis
Obesity - diagnosis - epidemiology - physiopathology
Odds Ratio
Parity
Pregnancy
Prognosis
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
Metabolic disorders are relatively uncommon in young women, but may increase with obesity. The associations between body mass index (BMI) and risks of diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in apparently healthy, young women have been insufficiently investigated, and are the aims of this study.
Women giving birth during the years 2004-2009, with no history of cardiovascular disease, renal insufficiency, pregnancy-associated metabolic disorders, diabetes, hypertension, or dyslipidemia were identified in nationwide registers. Women were categorized as underweight (BMI
Notes
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PubMed ID
24721798 View in PubMed
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Atrial fibrillation and risk of stroke: a nationwide cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284153
Source
Europace. 2016 Nov;18(11):1689-1697
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2016
Author
Christine Benn Christiansen
Thomas A Gerds
Jonas Bjerring Olesen
Søren Lund Kristensen
Morten Lamberts
Gregory Y H Lip
Gunnar H Gislason
Lars Køber
Christian Torp-Pedersen
Source
Europace. 2016 Nov;18(11):1689-1697
Date
Nov-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Atrial Fibrillation - complications
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Female
Humans
Ischemic Attack, Transient - epidemiology - etiology
Male
Middle Aged
Registries
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Stroke - epidemiology - etiology
Thromboembolism - epidemiology - etiology
Abstract
Although the relation between stroke risk factors and stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) has been extensively examined, only few studies have explored the association of AF and the risk of ischaemic stroke/systemic thromboembolism/transient ischaemic attack (stroke/TE/TIA) in the presence of concomitant stroke risk factors.
From nationwide registries, all persons who turned 50, 60, 70, or 80 from 1997 to 2011 were identified. Persons receiving warfarin were excluded. The absolute risk of stroke/TE/TIA was reported for a 5-year period, as was the absolute risk ratios for AF vs. no AF according to prior stroke and the number of additional risk factors. The study cohort comprised of 3 076 355 persons without AF and 48 189 with AF. For men aged 50 years, with no risk factors, the 5-year risk of stroke was 1.1% (95% confidence interval 1.1-1.1); with AF alone 2.5% (1.8-3.2); with one risk factor and no prior stroke or AF 2.5% (2.3-2.7); and with one factor, no prior stroke and AF 2.9% (1.4-4.3). In men aged 50 years with prior stroke as the only risk factor, 5-year risk was 10.2% (9.1-11.3). In men aged 70 years, the corresponding risks were 4.8% (4.7-4.9), 6.8% (5.7-7.9), 6.6% (6.3-6.8), 8.7 (7.4-9.9), and 19.1% (18.1-20.1), respectively. In women aged 50 years, the risk was of 0.7% (0.7-0.7), 2.1% (0.9-3.2), 1.6% (1.4-1.8), 4.1% (0.6-7.6), and 7.2% (6.3-8.2), respectively, and in women aged 70 years 3.4% (3.3-3.5), 8.2% (7.0-9.5), 4.6% (4.4-4.8), 9.1% (7.5-10.6), and 15.4% (14.5-16.4), respectively.
Stroke/TE/TIA risk was particularly increased when prior stroke/TE/TIA was present. Atrial fibrillation is associated with an increase in risk of stroke/TE/TIA in the absence of other risk factors but only a moderate increase in risk when other risk factors are present.
PubMed ID
26838693 View in PubMed
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Atrial fibrillation in heart failure is associated with an increased risk of death only in patients with ischaemic heart disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144121
Source
Eur J Heart Fail. 2010 Jul;12(7):692-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2010
Author
Jakob Raunsø
Ole Dyg Pedersen
Helena Dominguez
Morten Lock Hansen
Jacob Eifer Møller
Jesper Kjaergaard
Christian Hassager
Christian Torp-Pedersen
Lars Køber
Author Affiliation
Department of Cardiology, Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Post 67, Niels Andersens Vej 65, 2900 Hellerup, Denmark. jrj@heart.dk
Source
Eur J Heart Fail. 2010 Jul;12(7):692-7
Date
Jul-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Atrial Fibrillation - epidemiology - mortality
Chronic Disease
Denmark - epidemiology
Disease Progression
Female
Heart Failure - epidemiology - mortality
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Myocardial Ischemia - epidemiology
Prognosis
Risk factors
Survival Analysis
Abstract
The prognostic importance of atrial fibrillation (AF) in heart failure (HF) populations is controversial and may depend on patient selection. In the present study, we investigated the prognostic impact of AF in a large population with HF of various aetiologies.
We included 2881 patients admitted to hospital with symptoms of worsening HF over a 4-year period (2001-2004), all patients were participants in the Echocardiography and Heart Outcome Study (ECHOS). Patients were followed for up to 7 years for all-cause mortality stratified according to heart rhythm (sinus rhythm, paroxysmal, or chronic AF) and according to the presence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). During follow-up, 1934 patients (67%) died. In HF patients with a history of IHD, chronic AF was associated with an increased risk of death [hazard ratio (HR) 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18-1.77; P
PubMed ID
20403817 View in PubMed
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