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Additive effects of childhood abuse and cannabis abuse on clinical expressions of bipolar disorders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261461
Source
Psychol Med. 2014 Jun;44(8):1653-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2014
Author
M. Aas
B. Etain
F. Bellivier
C. Henry
T. Lagerberg
A. Ringen
I. Agartz
S. Gard
J-P Kahn
M. Leboyer
O A Andreassen
I. Melle
Source
Psychol Med. 2014 Jun;44(8):1653-62
Date
Jun-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age of Onset
Alcoholism - epidemiology
Bipolar Disorder - epidemiology - physiopathology
Child
Child Abuse - statistics & numerical data
Female
France - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Marijuana Abuse - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Suicide, Attempted - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Previous studies of bipolar disorders indicate that childhood abuse and substance abuse are associated with the disorder. Whether both influence the clinical picture, or if one is mediating the association of the other, has not previously been investigated.
A total of 587 patients with bipolar disorders were recruited from Norway and France. A history of childhood abuse was obtained using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Diagnosis and clinical variables, including substance abuse, were based on structured clinical interviews (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders or French version of the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies).
Cannabis abuse was significantly associated with childhood abuse, specifically emotional and sexual abuse (? 2 = 8.63, p = 0.003 and ? 2 = 7.55, p = 0.006, respectively). Cannabis abuse was significantly associated with earlier onset of the illness (z = -4.17, p
PubMed ID
24028906 View in PubMed
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No progressive brain changes during a 1-year follow-up of patients with first-episode psychosis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276617
Source
Psychol Med. 2016 Feb;46(3):589-98
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2016
Author
U K Haukvik
C B Hartberg
S. Nerland
K N Jørgensen
E H Lange
C. Simonsen
R. Nesvåg
A M Dale
O A Andreassen
I. Melle
I. Agartz
Source
Psychol Med. 2016 Feb;46(3):589-98
Date
Feb-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Antipsychotic Agents - therapeutic use
Bipolar Disorder - drug therapy - pathology
Case-Control Studies
Cerebral Cortex - pathology
Disease Progression
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Linear Models
Longitudinal Studies
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Psychotic Disorders - drug therapy - pathology
Schizophrenia - drug therapy - pathology
Young Adult
Abstract
First-episode psychosis (FEP) patients show structural brain abnormalities. Whether the changes are progressive or not remain under debate, and the results from longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are mixed. We investigated if FEP patients showed a different pattern of regional brain structural change over a 1-year period compared with healthy controls, and if putative changes correlated with clinical characteristics and outcome.
MRIs of 79 FEP patients [SCID-I-verified diagnoses: schizophrenia, psychotic bipolar disorder, or other psychoses, mean age 27.6 (s.d. = 7.7) years, 66% male] and 82 healthy controls [age 29.3 (s.d. = 7.2) years, 66% male] were acquired from the same 1.5 T scanner at baseline and 1-year follow-up as part of the Thematically Organized Psychosis (TOP) study, Oslo, Norway. Scans were automatically processed with the longitudinal stream in FreeSurfer that creates an unbiased within-subject template image. General linear models were used to analyse longitudinal change in a wide range of subcortical volumes and detailed thickness and surface area estimates across the entire cortex, and associations with clinical characteristics.
FEP patients and controls did not differ significantly in annual percentage change in cortical thickness or area in any cortical region, or in any of the subcortical structures after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Within the FEP group, duration of untreated psychosis, age at illness onset, antipsychotic medication use and remission at follow-up were not related to longitudinal brain change.
We found no significant longitudinal brain changes over a 1-year period in FEP patients. Our results do not support early progressive brain changes in psychotic disorders.
PubMed ID
26526001 View in PubMed
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