Slightly, but significantly, reduced bone mineral density (BMD) has been detected as a late effect after stem cell transplantation (SCT) performed in childhood. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk factors of reduced BMD after SCT in childhood. We evaluated areal BMD of 16 young adults (six males, 10 females), aged 21 yr (range 15-34) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the lumbar spine, at the femoral neck, in the total hip, and in the total body. Bone turnover rate was evaluated by markers of bone formation and resorption. Six of the 16 patients had reduced BMD with a Z-score of
New interventions supporting health literacy and a tobacco-free lifestyle in adolescence are needed to narrow the widening gap in existing health inequalities. Health games offer potential and could be utilized for example in school healthcare, but more research is needed to increase the understanding of the effects of game elements in health interventions. The aim of this feasibility study is to determine the short-term effectiveness of the tobacco-related mobile health game Fume and a non-gamified website in comparison with a no-intervention control group, regarding tobacco-related health literacy among 10-13-year-old early adolescents. In addition, we compare the demand for and acceptability of Fume to that of the website.
In total, 151 early adolescents participated in this single-blinded, three-armed cluster randomized trial. The participants from three municipalities in southwest Finland were randomly allocated between a group with access to the health game Fume (n?=?61), a group with access to the website (n?=?47), and a group with no intervention (n?=?43). The intervention groups first participated in a 20-min training session with Fume/the website, and then had two weeks to use Fume/the website based on their own interest. Short-term effectiveness was measured by primary (anti-smoking self-efficacy) and secondary (smoking outcome expectations, attitudes towards tobacco use, tobacco-use motives, motivation to decline tobacco use in the future, and knowledge about tobacco) outcomes derived from the theory-based determinants of tobacco-related health literacy and evaluated with self-assessment questionnaires at baseline and post-intervention (after a two-week follow-up). For evaluating the demand, the actual use of Fume/the website was tracked during the two-week period. Regarding acceptability, the raised interest towards Fume/the website and opinions about the interventions were evaluated post-intervention. Differences were tested with the McNemar, Fisher exact, and non-parametric tests.
Statistically significant favorable changes during the study period were found for positive (P?=?0.002) and negative (P?=?0.02) smoking outcome expectations and attitudes towards cigarette smoking (P?=?0.01) within the group using Fume. No statistically significant changes were detected within the website or control groups. Statistically significant differences were not found for the change in outcome variables among the three groups. The number of visits (P?
Increased mortality in acromegaly has been confined to those with posttreatment basal GH of 2.5 microg/liter or greater, but the impact of IGF-I and pituitary radiotherapy on mortality has remained controversial.
The purpose of this nationwide survey was to examine the all-cause mortality of patients with acromegaly and evaluate the impact of treatment outcome and mode of treatment on survival.
All-cause mortality of all patients with acromegaly diagnosed during January 1980 and December 1999 in the five university hospitals of Finland was followed up by the end of 2002 (12.5 +/- 5.6 yr) and compared with that of the general population by using age- and gender-adjusted standardized mortality ratios (SMRs). Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate factors related to mortality within the survey population.
Mortality was the main outcome measure.
Of the 334 patients, 56 (16.8%) had died during follow-up. SMR of the patients was 1.16 [confidence interval (CI) 0.85-1.54, not significant (NS)]. However, patients with basal serum GH concentration 2.5 microg/liter or greater (SMR 1.63, CI 1.10-2.35, P
Polymorphisms in the gene coding for low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) contribute to variation in bone mass in the general population. Whether this is due to influence on bone mass acquisition or on bone loss thereafter has not been established.
We studied the association of LRP5 polymorphisms with peak bone mass in young men. The study included 235 Finnish men, aged 18.3 to 20.6 years. Lifestyle factors and fracture history were recorded. Bone mineral content (BMC), density (BMD) and scan area were measured for the lumbar spine and proximal femur by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Blood and urine were collected for determination of bone turnover markers, serum 25-OHD and PTH. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood for genetic analysis of LRP5. Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms in LRP5 were analyzed and correlated with bone parameters.
Only the A1330V polymorphism of LRP5 significantly associated with bone parameters. In comparison with subjects with the AlaAla genotype (n=215), those with AlaVal genotype (n=20) had lower femoral neck BMC (P=0.029) and BMD (P=0.012), trochanter BMC (P=0.0067) and BMD (P=0.015), and total hip BMC (P=0.0044) and BMD (P=0.0089). Fracture history was similar for the genotypes.
The polymorphic valine variant at position 1330 of LRP5 was significantly associated with reduced BMC and BMD values in healthy young Finnish men. The results provide evidence for the crucial role of LRP5 in peak bone mass acquisition.
This study examines the amount of sleep and daytime sleepiness, and how these change in a follow-up cohort study of school-aged children.
A total of 1351 schoolchildren (aged 10) and their parents were invited to participate in the study and were studied again at ages 12 and 15 years. A survey put forth by the Health Behaviour of Schoolchildren research network was used.
The amount of sleep during weekdays dropped significantly from age 10 to 15. At weekends, the amount of sleep increased significantly. During weekdays, the proportion of children reporting having slept enough dropped from 71% at age 10 to 19% at age 15. Frequent daytime sleepiness occurred in 13% of children at age 10 and increased to 24% at the age of 15.
It is essential to promote adequate amount of sleep and prevent daytime sleepiness in children growing from age 10 to 15 years. Nurses and other health care professionals should systematically assess and promote healthy sleeping habits while caring for children between these ages.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the mobile cooperation intervention in improving the competence and self-efficacy of students and the quality of the clinical learning environment.
For students, the clinical practicum is challenging as such and moreover the student - teacher cooperation, which supports the clinical learning of the students, has become complicated. Mobile applications have potential but their role in facilitating this cooperation remains unknown.
A parallel-group randomized controlled trial.
Data were collected between January-March 2015 in Finland. The nursing students were randomly allocated to an intervention group (N = 52) or control group (N = 50). The intervention group used a mobile application to cooperate with the teacher during the clinical practicum. The control group engaged in standard cooperation. The primary outcome was competence. The secondary outcomes comprised self-efficacy and the quality of the clinical learning environment. Nurse Competence Scale, Self-efficacy in Clinical Performance instrument and the Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher scale were used for student self-assessments. For the main analysis, hierarchical linear mixed models were used with the intention-to-treat principle.
Competence and self-efficacy showed no significant between-group differences in mean improvements, but significant improvements in both groups were detected over the 5 weeks. Satisfaction with the clinical learning environment showed no significant between-group differences, however, the role of the nurse teacher subscale, especially regarding cooperation, showed significant group differences.
The mobile cooperation intervention was not significantly effective in improving individual outcomes, but did seem to improve significantly some aspects of the contextual outcomes.
The study aimed to explore changes in the prevalence of psychological distress and co-occurring psychological symptoms among 19-34 years old Finnish university students between the years 2000 and 2012.
The prevalence of perceived frequent psychological symptoms was compared in four nationwide cross-sectional student health surveys with random samples (N=11,502) in the following years: 2000 (N=3,174), 2004 (N=3,153), 2008 (N=2,750), and 2012 (N=2,425).
In the time phase from 2000 to 2012, the overall psychological distress (12-item General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-12) increased from 22% to 28%, while there was also an increase in the frequently experienced psychological symptoms (depressiveness from 13% to 15%, anxiety from 8% to 13%, concentration problems from 12% to 18%, and psychological tension from 13% to 18% with a peak prevalence observed in 2008). The co-occurrence of different psychological symptoms increased as well. Psychological distress was more common in females and in older students.
The findings suggest an increasing trend of frequent psychological distress among Finnish university students over the years from 2000 to 2012, with the peak prevalence occurring in 2008, which may reflect the growing multifaceted environmental demands.
Mobile technology use, including Short Messaging Service (SMS) text messaging, has increased in health care services. Preferences regarding the type or timing of text messages sent by healthcare providers to people with antipsychotic medication have not yet been fully investigated. This study examines the relationship between patients' demographic characteristics and the tailored messages they select. The study ("Mobile.Net",
27704027) includes a structured analysis of a random sub-sample of participants who received messages for 12months. The data were collected in 24 sites and 45 psychiatric hospitals in Finland and analyzed with descriptive statistics and Poisson regression models. The study sample involved 562 people on antipsychotic medication, and a total of 2112 text messages (2 to 25 monthly) were analysed. Regarding message content, there was no significant variation in the proportions relating to 'medication', 'treatment appointments' or 'free time'. Monday was the most popular day to receive messages and morning was preferred to later in the day. Age was most closely associated with 'number of messages' and 'time of messages'. Older women and younger men preferred higher numbers of messages (p=0.0031). Participants preferred positive, encouraging and slightly humorous messages. The findings suggest that messages may be acceptable for difficult to access groups in follow-up. This type of intervention may be useful for various types of patients especially for younger males. To further support the evidence about factors related to message utilization and use, it is important to evaluate the effectiveness of text messages in psychiatric care.
Mice with osteoblast-specific deletion of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) exhibit impaired recruitment and increased apoptosis of osteogenic cells resulting in decreased bone formation and premature osteoporosis. The PTHrP levels within the bone microenvironment are therefore critical in influencing bone mass acquisition. Whether this is applicable in humans has not been established. Here, we studied the association of a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism in PTHrP with peak bone mass.
Enrolled in the study were 234 young Finnish males, with median age of 19.6 years (range 18.3-20.6 years). Lifestyle factors, serum bone markers, osteodensitometric measurements (lumbar spine and hip) and calcaneal quantitative ultrasound readings were obtained. The PTHrP VNTR length was determined by the PCR amplification of genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood and correlated to bone parameters by the multiple regression models.
The presence of at least one 252 bp allele was associated with increased lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD; P
Severe vitamin D deficiency causes rickets, but scarce data are available about the extent to which vitamin D status determines the development of the peak bone mass in young adults. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency [serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) less than the lower limit of the reference range of 20-105 nmol/liter] and the relationship between vitamin D status and peak bone mass among young Finnish men. A cross-sectional study of determinants of peak bone mass with data on lifestyle factors collected retrospectively was performed in 220 young men, aged 18.3-20.6 yr. One hundred and seventy men were recruits of the Finnish Army, and 50 were men of similar age who had postponed their military service for reasons not related to health. Bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and scan area were measured in lumbar spine and upper femur by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Serum 25-OHD concentrations were followed prospectively for 1 yr. In July 2000, only 0.9% of the men had vitamin D deficiency, but 6 months later, in the winter, the respective percentage was 38.9%. After adjusting for age, height, weight, exercise, smoking, calcium, and alcohol intake, there existed a positive correlation between serum 25-OHD and bone mineral content at lumbar spine (P = 0.057), femoral neck (P = 0.041), trochanter (P = 0.010), and total hip (P = 0.025). The correlation coefficients for the bone mineral densities at the four measurement sites were 0.035, 0.061, 0.056, and 0.068, respectively. No correlation was found to scan area. We conclude that vitamin D deficiency is very common in Finnish young men in the winter, and it may have detrimental effects on the acquisition of maximal peak bone mass. As in Finland vitamin D supplementation to infants is now stopped at the age of 3 yr, it can be asked whether at our latitude it should be continued from that age onward, not for the prevention of rickets, but as prophylaxis for osteoporosis.