Slightly, but significantly, reduced bone mineral density (BMD) has been detected as a late effect after stem cell transplantation (SCT) performed in childhood. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk factors of reduced BMD after SCT in childhood. We evaluated areal BMD of 16 young adults (six males, 10 females), aged 21 yr (range 15-34) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the lumbar spine, at the femoral neck, in the total hip, and in the total body. Bone turnover rate was evaluated by markers of bone formation and resorption. Six of the 16 patients had reduced BMD with a Z-score of
The study aimed to explore changes in the prevalence of psychological distress and co-occurring psychological symptoms among 19-34 years old Finnish university students between the years 2000 and 2012.
The prevalence of perceived frequent psychological symptoms was compared in four nationwide cross-sectional student health surveys with random samples (N=11,502) in the following years: 2000 (N=3,174), 2004 (N=3,153), 2008 (N=2,750), and 2012 (N=2,425).
In the time phase from 2000 to 2012, the overall psychological distress (12-item General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-12) increased from 22% to 28%, while there was also an increase in the frequently experienced psychological symptoms (depressiveness from 13% to 15%, anxiety from 8% to 13%, concentration problems from 12% to 18%, and psychological tension from 13% to 18% with a peak prevalence observed in 2008). The co-occurrence of different psychological symptoms increased as well. Psychological distress was more common in females and in older students.
The findings suggest an increasing trend of frequent psychological distress among Finnish university students over the years from 2000 to 2012, with the peak prevalence occurring in 2008, which may reflect the growing multifaceted environmental demands.
A declining first-phase insulin response (FPIR) is characteristic of the disease process leading to clinical type 1 diabetes. It is not known whether reduced FPIR depends on class II human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotype, islet autoimmunity, or both.
To dissect the role of class II HLA DR-DQ genotypes and biochemical islet autoantibodies in the compromised FPIR.
A total of 438 children with defined HLA DR-DQ genotype in the prospective Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study were analyzed for FPIR in a total of 1149 intravenous glucose tolerance tests and were categorized by their HLA DR-DQ genotype and the number of biochemical islet autoantibodies at the time of the first FPIR. Age-adjusted hierarchical linear mixed models were used to analyze repeated measurements of FPIR.
The associations between class II HLA DR-DQ genotype, islet autoantibody status, and FPIR.
A strong association between the degree of risk conferred by HLA DR-DQ genotype and positivity for islet autoantibodies existed (P
Increased mortality in acromegaly has been confined to those with posttreatment basal GH of 2.5 microg/liter or greater, but the impact of IGF-I and pituitary radiotherapy on mortality has remained controversial.
The purpose of this nationwide survey was to examine the all-cause mortality of patients with acromegaly and evaluate the impact of treatment outcome and mode of treatment on survival.
All-cause mortality of all patients with acromegaly diagnosed during January 1980 and December 1999 in the five university hospitals of Finland was followed up by the end of 2002 (12.5 +/- 5.6 yr) and compared with that of the general population by using age- and gender-adjusted standardized mortality ratios (SMRs). Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate factors related to mortality within the survey population.
Mortality was the main outcome measure.
Of the 334 patients, 56 (16.8%) had died during follow-up. SMR of the patients was 1.16 [confidence interval (CI) 0.85-1.54, not significant (NS)]. However, patients with basal serum GH concentration 2.5 microg/liter or greater (SMR 1.63, CI 1.10-2.35, P
This study examines the amount of sleep and daytime sleepiness, and how these change in a follow-up cohort study of school-aged children.
A total of 1351 schoolchildren (aged 10) and their parents were invited to participate in the study and were studied again at ages 12 and 15 years. A survey put forth by the Health Behaviour of Schoolchildren research network was used.
The amount of sleep during weekdays dropped significantly from age 10 to 15. At weekends, the amount of sleep increased significantly. During weekdays, the proportion of children reporting having slept enough dropped from 71% at age 10 to 19% at age 15. Frequent daytime sleepiness occurred in 13% of children at age 10 and increased to 24% at the age of 15.
It is essential to promote adequate amount of sleep and prevent daytime sleepiness in children growing from age 10 to 15 years. Nurses and other health care professionals should systematically assess and promote healthy sleeping habits while caring for children between these ages.
Polymorphisms in the gene coding for low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) contribute to variation in bone mass in the general population. Whether this is due to influence on bone mass acquisition or on bone loss thereafter has not been established.
We studied the association of LRP5 polymorphisms with peak bone mass in young men. The study included 235 Finnish men, aged 18.3 to 20.6 years. Lifestyle factors and fracture history were recorded. Bone mineral content (BMC), density (BMD) and scan area were measured for the lumbar spine and proximal femur by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Blood and urine were collected for determination of bone turnover markers, serum 25-OHD and PTH. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood for genetic analysis of LRP5. Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms in LRP5 were analyzed and correlated with bone parameters.
Only the A1330V polymorphism of LRP5 significantly associated with bone parameters. In comparison with subjects with the AlaAla genotype (n=215), those with AlaVal genotype (n=20) had lower femoral neck BMC (P=0.029) and BMD (P=0.012), trochanter BMC (P=0.0067) and BMD (P=0.015), and total hip BMC (P=0.0044) and BMD (P=0.0089). Fracture history was similar for the genotypes.
The polymorphic valine variant at position 1330 of LRP5 was significantly associated with reduced BMC and BMD values in healthy young Finnish men. The results provide evidence for the crucial role of LRP5 in peak bone mass acquisition.
Mobile technology use, including Short Messaging Service (SMS) text messaging, has increased in health care services. Preferences regarding the type or timing of text messages sent by healthcare providers to people with antipsychotic medication have not yet been fully investigated. This study examines the relationship between patients' demographic characteristics and the tailored messages they select. The study ("Mobile.Net",
27704027) includes a structured analysis of a random sub-sample of participants who received messages for 12months. The data were collected in 24 sites and 45 psychiatric hospitals in Finland and analyzed with descriptive statistics and Poisson regression models. The study sample involved 562 people on antipsychotic medication, and a total of 2112 text messages (2 to 25 monthly) were analysed. Regarding message content, there was no significant variation in the proportions relating to 'medication', 'treatment appointments' or 'free time'. Monday was the most popular day to receive messages and morning was preferred to later in the day. Age was most closely associated with 'number of messages' and 'time of messages'. Older women and younger men preferred higher numbers of messages (p=0.0031). Participants preferred positive, encouraging and slightly humorous messages. The findings suggest that messages may be acceptable for difficult to access groups in follow-up. This type of intervention may be useful for various types of patients especially for younger males. To further support the evidence about factors related to message utilization and use, it is important to evaluate the effectiveness of text messages in psychiatric care.
New interventions supporting health literacy and a tobacco-free lifestyle in adolescence are needed to narrow the widening gap in existing health inequalities. Health games offer potential and could be utilized for example in school healthcare, but more research is needed to increase the understanding of the effects of game elements in health interventions. The aim of this feasibility study is to determine the short-term effectiveness of the tobacco-related mobile health game Fume and a non-gamified website in comparison with a no-intervention control group, regarding tobacco-related health literacy among 10-13-year-old early adolescents. In addition, we compare the demand for and acceptability of Fume to that of the website.
In total, 151 early adolescents participated in this single-blinded, three-armed cluster randomized trial. The participants from three municipalities in southwest Finland were randomly allocated between a group with access to the health game Fume (n?=?61), a group with access to the website (n?=?47), and a group with no intervention (n?=?43). The intervention groups first participated in a 20-min training session with Fume/the website, and then had two weeks to use Fume/the website based on their own interest. Short-term effectiveness was measured by primary (anti-smoking self-efficacy) and secondary (smoking outcome expectations, attitudes towards tobacco use, tobacco-use motives, motivation to decline tobacco use in the future, and knowledge about tobacco) outcomes derived from the theory-based determinants of tobacco-related health literacy and evaluated with self-assessment questionnaires at baseline and post-intervention (after a two-week follow-up). For evaluating the demand, the actual use of Fume/the website was tracked during the two-week period. Regarding acceptability, the raised interest towards Fume/the website and opinions about the interventions were evaluated post-intervention. Differences were tested with the McNemar, Fisher exact, and non-parametric tests.
Statistically significant favorable changes during the study period were found for positive (P?=?0.002) and negative (P?=?0.02) smoking outcome expectations and attitudes towards cigarette smoking (P?=?0.01) within the group using Fume. No statistically significant changes were detected within the website or control groups. Statistically significant differences were not found for the change in outcome variables among the three groups. The number of visits (P?
Early childhood screen time seems to persist into later childhood. This study examined the factors affecting the screen time change during the first two years of toddler's lives in Finland. We hypothesized that parents' sedentary behaviour and physical activity habits correlate significantly with children's screen time change.
The data consists of 1797 mothers, 1658 fathers and their 1827 children from the STEPS Study (Steps to the healthy development) in Southwest Finland. Screen time change during the two-year follow-up was calculated for those (n=634) who had both 13 and 36months screen time measures (13months, n=940; 36months, n=845). Demographic correlates and parental behavioural correlates were measured with questionnaires, and anthropometric measurements in study visits.
The mean change in the children's screen time was a 55min increase from 13 to 36months. A linear mixed model analysis showed that the father's longer duration of sitting time was statistically significantly associated with a smaller increase in screen time of the child. Parents' physical activity was not associated with children's screen time change. The mother's advanced education, a younger age, and a lower screen time, the child attending day care and the child's lower body mass index were associated with children's smaller increase in screen time.
The mother's advanced education as well as the father's sitting time, including sitting at the office, implied that children of higher educated parents have a smaller increase in screen time. Future studies should focus on studying why parental education has a greater influence on children's screen time change than parents' behaviour.
Concentrations of 50 and 75 nmol/l are proposed as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) target for older people from the view of bone health. We evaluated vitamin D status of elderly Finnish women in light of these definitions, its relationship to bone mineral density (BMD) and turnover, and improvement by summer sunshine.
A total of 1604 ambulatory women aged 62-79 years were studied; 66% used vitamin D supplements. Serum 25(OH)D(3) was measured with HPLC before and after summer, and heel BMD in spring. In subgroups, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and type I procollagen aminoterminal propeptide (PINP) were analyzed.