Heat shock protein 65 (Hsp65) is an important immunodominant antigen against tuberculosis (TB), and interleukin-2 (IL-2) plays an important role in the regulation of antimycobacteria immune responses. In order to further increase the immunogenicity of Hsp65 against infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), we expressed MTB Hsp65 and human IL-2 fusion protein, Hsp65-hIL-2, in Escherichia coli. The expression of Hsp65-hIL-2 was confirmed by Western blotting using anti-Hsp65 MoAb and anti-hIL-2 MoAb, respectively. Hsp65-IL-2 and Hsp65 were then purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Mice were immunized with purified Hsp65-hIL-2 or Hsp65 emulsified in the adjuvant combination dimethyl dioctadecylammonium bromide and monophosphoryl lipid A. Eight weeks after immunization, there was significant proliferation of spleen lymphocytes in response to both Hsp65 and Hsp65-hIL-2 proteins. Interestingly, Hsp65-hIL-2 fusion protein elicited significantly higher levels of IFN-gamma and IL-2 in the lymphocytes culture supernatant than that of the BCG (Denmark strain) immunized group and Hsp65 group (P
Aleutian disease (AD) is a common immunosuppressive disease in mink farms world-wide. Since the 1980s, counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) has been the main detection method for infection with the Aleutian Mink Disease Virus (AMDV). In this study, six peptides derived from the AMDV structural protein VP2 were designed, synthesized, and used as ELISA antigens to detect anti-AMDV antibodies in the sera of infected minks. Serum samples were collected from 764 minks in farms from five different provinces, and analyzed by both CIEP (a gold standard) and peptide ELISA. A peptide designated P1 (415 aa-433 aa) exhibited good antigenicity. A novel ELISA was developed using ovalbumin-linked peptide P1 to detect anti-AMDV antibodies in mink sera. The sensitivity and specificity of the peptide ELISA was 98.0% and 97.5%, respectively. Moreover, the ELISA also detected 342 early-stage infected samples (negative by CIEP and positive by PCR), of which 43.6% (149/342) were true positives. These results showed that the peptide ELISA had better sensitivity compared with CIEP, and therefore could be preferable over CIEP for detecting anti-AMDV antibodies in serological screening.
The Swedish Family-Cancer Database was used to quantify the incidence of second tumours in melanoma patients with a parental history of cancer. Patients with parents affected by melanoma showed a 32.3-fold risk of second primary melanomas, which was greater than a multiplicative interaction.
Polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 were examined in melanoma patients and tumor-free individuals. Relationships between the polymorphisms and tumor characteristics and pigment phenotypes of the patients were analyzed. There was no significant difference in GSTM1 null and GSTT1 null genotypes nor GSTP1 GG genotype between melanoma patients and controls. In melanoma patients, these polymorphisms were not correlated with early or later onset of melanomas or gender of the patients. Frequency of GSTM1 null genotype was higher in patients with melanoma >2.5 mm than in those with tumors