The aim of the present study was the observation of the frequency of antithyroid autoantibodies in the population in low endemic goitre area after mass iodine prophylaxis after the Chernobyl catastrophe and the estimation of TSH and thyroid hormones secretion in this population. On the basis of the investigations carried out we could conclude that the frequency of antithyroid autoantibodies in the population with confirmed endemic goitre is comparable to the frequency of antithyroid autoantibodies in the healthy population. ATA occurrence in children after iodine prophylaxis could confirm the hypothesis that thyroglobulin immunity is higher after iodine intake. The lower T3 concentration observed in the group with antithyroid autoantibodies suggests that autoantibodies may be involved in the thyroid hormones synthesis or peripheral conversion of thyroid hormones.
The survey carried out in 1990 covering the population of Sejny community, sponsored by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, program MZXVII, demonstrated the occurrence of goiter in 33.6% of studied persons. Such an incidence can rightly be recognized as an endemy. Predominance of cases with small or moderate enlargement of the thyroid (OB and I), low percentage of nodules (18%), and 2.8 times more frequent occurrence of goiter in women allows o characterize the endemy as mild. The percentage of goiter in this population does not differ from that found in this area before the Chernobyl disaster. However a small increase in the incidence of thyroid enlargement in a group of boys of age between 17 and 19 years, and an increase in percentage of nodular goiter in whole population was noted. The questionnaire studies confirmed in addition a high effectiveness of mass iodine prophylaxis introduced after the atomic disaster, especially in the population of developmental age. However, because of the latency period concerning the possible effects, the results obtained will be verified in the course of long-term prospective studies.
The aim of our study was the estimation of the effects, possible side-effects and immunological reactions after the mass iodine prophylaxis following the Chernobyl nuclear disaster. 1457 subjects, aged 6-55 yrs, filled in our questionnaires and in 1191 of them the titres of antithyroid antibodies (TA) including ATMA--Anti-Human Thyroid Membrane Antibodies and TGAb--Anti-Thyreoglobulin Antibodies were estimated. Our study revealed that the prophylaxis, recommended in Poland only for children and teenagers was widely used (more than 90%) and relatively safe. No serious side effects, especially in pregnant women consuming KI were reported. The frequency and mean titres of TA were similar in adults who took and did not take stable iodine. The incidence of TA could be connected with many different factors including iodine deficiency, endemy of goitre as well as iodine prophylaxis. The reason of this phenomenon may be explained in long-term population studies.
The results of the investigations of radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl catastrophe and subsequent iodine prophylaxis on the thyroid gland function and morphology in Northeast Poland. The aim of the study was to determine whether kalium iodine in one dose during radioactive contamination in Poland limited the radioactive dose in the thyroid gland and if significant disadvantageous side-effects in the intrathyroid and extrathyroid occurred. Additionally during the studies we tried to determine if radioactive iodine contamination which occurred in the region of the Medical Academy in Bialystok caused an increase in thyroid disease. It is interesting to note the different results obtained after radioactive contamination with the results from the investigations in this same territory in 1983-1985. In 1983-1985, before the Chernobyl catastrophe, 6,921 persons in Northeast Poland were investigated. In 1986-1988, immediately after the disaster 4,010 persons were investigated. The main study according to grant No MZ-XVII was carried out in three provinces: Bialystok, Suwalki and Olsztyn. In this investigation 10,011 persons born before April 26, 1986 and after January 1, 1936 participated, 5,789 townspeople and 4,222 villagers, 3,987 children up to 16 years of age it the time of the disaster 1,973 boys and 2,009 girls; 6,024 adults 2,509 men and 3,516 women were drawn from a register. Committed doses to the thyroid in the investigated region were one of the highest in Poland and depended on age group and were depended on time of prophylaxis non proportional. Iodine prophylaxis was provided mainly with one dose of Lugol solution about 90%, 95% children and 30% adults took iodine. The majority of the population (53.3%-74%) were given iodine in April. From May 1st to 5th 23.0-43.4% received iodine, but after May 5th very few persons. Iodine was well tolerated, but Lugol Solution was better tolerated than other kinds of iodine. Only 241 (4.4%) cases had side effects, mainly vomiting (143), symptoms such as stomach ache, diarrhea, dyspnoe, skinrash etc. in lesser numbers. 12% (29 persons) were seen by a physician. In the investigated population were 200 pregnant women aged 19-40 years of which the majority (177) delivered full term healthy babies. Only 1 interrupted pregnancy and 7 had spontaneous abortion. Changes in the thyroid were noticed by 187 persons (2.3%-11.7%) most of which were enlargement of the thyroid, but only a few were confirmed by a physician. In the studied population from 1989 to 1990 over 30% of the population had struma.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)