In medical practices that do not have rosters, only the number of patients who come to the practice can be enumerated: the number who might have visited if they had had a reason to do so remains unknown. The Quadratic Odds Estimator is a technique for estimating the total number of patients cared for by a primary care medical practice, including the non-visitors. A revised version of the model is shown to have an error of less than 1% in predicting the number of patients at risk of visiting a primary care medical practice. Aggregate and sex-specific estimates of total practice size are shown to be comparable to within 2%. The model estimates the prevalence of hypertension among the patients of two family practice resdencies as 18 and 11%. The rationale for employing unconventional regression weights and dual regressions is explained.
Delivery of obstetrical care in rural Alaska can be very challenging, due to remoteness, lack of medical resources and transportation difficulties. This descriptive study looks at what the current delivery systems for obstetrical care in Alaska are. Alaska's obstetrical delivery systems can be divided into three basic systems. 1) Full comprehensive obstetrical care limited only by lack of neonatal ICU capability. 2) Cesarean delivery capable, but with limited resources. 3) Low risk vaginal deliveries with no cesarean delivery capability except by transports approaching 6 hours. This study raises questions about which system is most effective for which communities. Further studies need to be undertaken to better understand how to provide effective obstetrical care in rural and bush Alaska at an acceptable risk, and at reasonable cost.
Inhalation of aerosols of ovalbumin in sensitized guinea pigs produced a marked, bronchoalveolar eosinophilia 24 hr after challenge. The lung eosinophilia was not prevented by the cyclooxygenase inhibitors, indomethacin or PAF antagonists (WEB-2086 and L-652731) but was inhibited by methylprednisolone, the 5-LO inhibitor, U-66858 and a series of structural analogs of LTB4, U-75302, U-77692, U-75485 and U-78489. The effectiveness of LTB4 antagonists but not PAF antagonists in vivo was consistent with in vitro studies in which LTB4 was shown to be far more chemotactic than PAF for guinea pig eosinophils. LTB4 elicited maximal directional migration of guinea pig eosinophils at concentrations from 10(-7) M to 10(-9) M while PAF showed no effect over the same concentration range. The structural analogs of LTB4 were shown to inhibit LTB4 induced chemotaxis of guinea pig eosinophils and produced a dose-related inhibition of binding of LTB4 to guinea pig eosinophil membranes. To add further proof to the hypothesis that LTB4 contributed to the antigen-induced lung eosinophilia we attempted to measure LTB4 release into BAL fluid immediately after and at various time points up to 24 hr after antigen inhalation. However, using a sensitive radioimmunoassay (detection limit 10 pg/ml) very low levels of LTB4 (24.9-67.9 pg/ml) or its metabolite, 20-OH LTB4 (24.9-98.2 pg/ml) were detected in BAL fluid and these levels did not increase significantly following antigen provocation. Inhalation of LTB4 aerosols in unsensitized Brown-Norway rats or inhalation of aerosols of ovalbumin in sensitized Brown-Norway rats also produced a marked "late-phase" eosinophil-rich influx of inflammatory cells into the lungs. The lung eosinophilia in the rat was prevented by two structurally unrelated leukotriene B4 (LTB4) antagonists, U-75302 and Ly255283. These data implicate LTB4 as a mediator of allergen-induced bronchopulmonary eosinophilia. Leukotriene B4 antagonists may provide leads for the development of compounds which inhibit the chronic airway inflammation associated with asthma in man.
The influenza A/H1N1/09 pandemic spread quickly during the Southern Hemisphere winter in 2009 and reached epidemic proportions within weeks of the official WHO alert. Vulnerable population groups included indigenous Australians and remote northern population centres visited by international travellers. At the height of the Australian epidemic a large number of troops converged on a training area in northern Australia for an international exercise, raising concerns about their potential exposure to the emerging influenza threat before, during and immediately after their arrival in the area. Influenza A/H1N1/09 became the dominant seasonal variant and returned to Australia during the Southern winter the following year.
A duplex nucleic acid amplification assay was developed within weeks of the first WHO influenza pandemic alert, demonstrated in northwestern Australia shortly afterwards and deployed as part of the pathology support for a field hospital during a military exercise during the initial epidemic surge in June 2009.
The nucleic acid amplification assay was twice as sensitive as a point of care influenza immunoassay, as specific but a little less sensitive than the reference laboratory nucleic acid amplification assay. Repetition of the field assay with blinded clinical samples obtained during the 2010 winter influenza season demonstrated a 91.7% congruence with the reference laboratory method.
Rapid in-house development of a deployable epidemic influenza assay allowed a flexible laboratory response, effective targeting of limited disease control resources in an austere military environment, and provided the public health laboratory service with a set of verification tools for resource-limited settings. The assay method was suitable for rapid deployment in time for the 2010 Northern winter.
Area-based measures of socio-economic status are increasingly used in population health research. Based on previous research and theory, the Canadian Marginalization Index (CAN-Marg) was created to reflect four dimensions of marginalization: residential instability, material deprivation, dependency and ethnic concentration. The objective of this paper was threefold: to describe CAN-Marg; to illustrate its stability across geographic area and time; and to describe its association with health and behavioural problems.
CAN-Marg was created at the dissemination area (DA) and census tract level for census years 2001 and 2006, using factor analysis. Descriptions of 18 health and behavioural problems were selected using individual-level data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 3.1 and 2007/08. CAN-Marg quintiles created at the DA level (2006) were assigned to individual CCHS records. Multilevel logistic regression modeling was conducted to examine associations between marginalization and CCHS health and behavioural problems.
The index demonstrated marked stability across time and geographic area. Each of the four dimensions showed strong and significant associations with the selected health and behavioural problems, and these associations differed depending on which of the dimensions of marginalization was examined.
CAN-Marg is a census-based, empirically derived and theoretically informed tool designed to reflect a broader conceptualization of Canadian marginalization.
Men and women in national surveys from four countries, the United States, Canada, Great Britain, and Norway, give mutually inconsistent reports of numbers of opposite-gender sexual partners. In all cases the number of female partners reported by men exceeds the number of male partners reported by women. Gender difference in reporting bias seems to be the most plausible explanation for the discrepancies.
The Arctic is entering a new ecological state, with alarming consequences for humanity. Animal-borne sensors offer a window into these changes. Although substantial animal tracking data from the Arctic and subarctic exist, most are difficult to discover and access. Here, we present the new Arctic Animal Movement Archive (AAMA), a growing collection of more than 200 standardized terrestrial and marine animal tracking studies from 1991 to the present. The AAMA supports public data discovery, preserves fundamental baseline data for the future, and facilitates efficient, collaborative data analysis. With AAMA-based case studies, we document climatic influences on the migration phenology of eagles, geographic differences in the adaptive response of caribou reproductive phenology to climate change, and species-specific changes in terrestrial mammal movement rates in response to increasing temperature.