The aetiology of abortions and calf mortality in 65 Danish cattle herds consisting of both dairy and beef breeds during a 1-year period is described. All observed aborted foetuses, still-born calves, and calves dying before 6 months of age were necropsied, and relevant microbiological examinations were performed. A total of 240 calves and 66 abortions were submitted corresponding to a calf mortality rate of 7%. The abortion frequency could not be calculated. 43% of the calves died at day 0, while 22% were aborted, 15% died during the first week of life, 9% died from 1 to 4 weeks of age, and 11% died at the age of 1 to 6 months. The most common cause was neonatal pulmonic atelectasis (stillbirth) followed by foetal infections, pneumonia, and septicaemia.
A survey is given of the occurrence of mycotic infections associated with abortion in Danish cattle. During a period of six years a total of 748 samples of placenta material were examined. Mycotic abortion was demonstrated in 101 cases (14%). The case rate was significantly higher (21%) during the winter months from December through February than during the rest of the year (10%). Abortions occurred as from the 135th day of pregnancy, with maximum in the eighth month, where 45% of all cases were observed. A. fumigatus was demonstrated in 77 cases, Mucor spp. in 11 cases, Absidia spp. in 5 cases, and a mixed infection with A. fumigatus and Mucor spp. in 3 cases. In 5 cases the fungi were demonstrated by microscopic and histological examination, but not by culture. The annual occurrence of mycotic abortion varied from 10% to 24% of cases of abortion examined. The latter figure was recorded in a year following a particularly heavy rainfall in the month of June.
BACKGROUND: Information on cancer prevalence is of major importance for health planning and resource allocation. However, systematic information on cancer prevalence is largely unavailable. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight population-based cancer registries from 17 European countries, participating in EUROPREVAL, provided data on almost 3 million cancer patients diagnosed from 1970 to 1992. Standardised data collection and validation procedures were used and the whole data set was analysed using proven methodology. The prevalence of stomach, colon, rectum, lung, breast, cervix uteri, corpus uteri and prostate cancer, as well as of melanoma of skin, Hodgkin's disease, leukaemia and all malignant neoplasms combined, were estimated for the end of 1992. RESULTS: There were large differences between countries in the prevalence of all cancers combined; estimates ranged from 1170 per 100000 in the Polish cancer registration areas to 3050 per 100000 in southern Sweden. For most cancers, the Swedish, Swiss, German and Italian areas had high prevalence, and the Polish, Estonian, Slovakian and Slovenian areas had low prevalence. Of the total prevalent cases, 61% were women and 57% were 65 years of age or older. Cases diagnosed within 2 years of the reference date formed 22% of all prevalent cases. Breast cancer accounted for 34% of all prevalent cancers in females and colorectal cancer for 15% in males. Prevalence tended to be high where cancer incidence was high, but the prevalence was highest in countries where survival was also high. Prevalence was low where general mortality was high (correlation between general mortality and the prevalence of all cancers = -0.64) and high where gross domestic product was high (correlation = +0.79). Thus, the richer areas of Europe had higher prevalence, suggesting that prevalence will increase with economic development. CONCLUSIONS: EUROPREVAL is the largest project on prevalence conducted to date. It has provided complete and accurate estimates of cancer prevalence in Europe, constituting essential information for cancer management. The expected increases in prevalence with economic development will require more resources; allocation to primary prevention should therefore be prioritised.
Comment In: Ann Oncol. 2002 Jun;13(6):815-612123326
A report is given of a study on the occurrence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in calves in Denmark. Samples from 1379 1-30-day-old calves were examined and ETEC were isolated from 228 samples (16.5%). While in 1-2-day-old calves nearly one half (47.5%) harboured ETEC, the frequency dropped to 3.4% in 8-day-old calves, and of 165 9-30-day-old calves just one was found to harbour ETEC. A field trial with K99-containing bacterins was performed in 14 herds with ETEC problems. A total of 109 cows were vaccinated with a 4-strain bacterin and 73 with a K99-bacterin, while 114 cows served as controls. Sixteen calves from the 4-strain bacterin group, 6 calves from the K99-bacterin group, and 25 calves from the control group, became diarrheic within their first week of life.
The aim of this study was to compare the quantities of alcohol and types of alcoholic beverages consumed, and the timing of consumption, in centres participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). These centres, in 10 European countries, are characterised by widely differing drinking habits and frequencies of alcohol-related diseases.
We collected a single standardised 24-hour dietary recall per subject from a random sample of the EPIC cohort (36 900 persons initially and 35 955 after exclusion of subjects under 35 and over 74 years of age). This provided detailed information on the distribution of alcohol consumption during the day in relation to main meals, and was used to determine weekly consumption patterns. The crude and adjusted (by age, day of week and season) means of total ethanol consumption and consumption according to type of beverage were stratified by centre and sex.
Sex was a strong determinant of drinking patterns in all 10 countries. The highest total alcohol consumption was observed in the Spanish centres (San Sebastian, 41.4 g day-1) for men and in Danish centres (Copenhagen, 20.9 g day-1) for women. The lowest total alcohol intake was in the Swedish centres (Umeå, 10.2 g day-1) in men and in Greek women (3.4 g day-1). Among men, the main contributor to total alcohol intake was wine in Mediterranean countries and beer in the Dutch, German, Swedish and Danish centres. In most centres, the main source of alcohol for women was wine except for Murcia (Spain), where it was beer. Alcohol consumption, particularly by women, increased markedly during the weekend in nearly all centres. The German, Dutch, UK (general population) and Danish centres were characterised by the highest percentages of alcohol consumption outside mealtimes.
The large variation in drinking patterns among the EPIC centres provides an opportunity to better understand the relationship between alcohol and alcohol-related diseases.
Colibacillosis with polyarthritis, due to E. coli O-group 55, has been found to be responsible for a high summer mortality among caribou valves in West Greenland. The mortality is presumably consequential on overstocking and therefore likely to subside as the caribou population in the preferred habitats is reduced to a lower density--the optimum level of which is as yet unknown.