OBJECTIVE: To find out whether acupressure wristband can alleviate nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. DESIGN: Double-blind, placebo-controlled study. SUBJECTS: 97 women with mean gestational length completed 8-12 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Symptoms were recorded according to intensity, duration and nature of complaints. RESULTS: 71% of women in the intervention group reported both less intensive morning sickness and reduced duration of symptoms. The same tendency was seen in the placebo group, with 59% reporting less intensity and 63% shorter duration of symptoms. However, a significance level of 5% was reached only in the case of duration of symptoms, which was reduced by 2.74 hours in the intervention group compared to 0.85 hours in the placebo group (p = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: Acupressure wristband might be an alternative therapy for morning sickness in early pregnancy, especially before pharmaceutical treatment is considered.
The association between month of birth and radiographically diagnosed bilateral arthrosis of the hip and/or knee was studied in 1405 cases at the University Hospital, University of Tromsø. In the total group no association was found in either sex for all arthrosis combined. In women with arthrosis of both hip and knee joints, however, the ratio between observed and expected showed a seasonal trend with a peak in the spring (1.48 for April births) and a low in the autumn and winter (0.39 for November births) (Test for seasonality: X2 = 9.48, d.f. = 2, p
Interest in placebo is increasing, and recent research suggests that the therapeutic consequence of placebo is generated through mental processes in which attitudes are important. The aim of this study is therefore to explore attitudes and beliefs concerning placebo effect in acupuncture therapy, among doctors, patients and acupuncturists. From February 1994 until June 1995, four anonymous questionnaires were distributed among 1135 randomly selected doctors, 294 medical students, 432 acupuncturists and a random sample of 653 in the general population in Norway. Fifty-seven percent indicated the treatment effect seen in acupuncture as mainly a genuine acupuncture effect, 30% indicated that half of the effect in acupuncture comes from placebo, while 13% indicated that the treatment effect in acupuncture is mainly based on placebo. Doctors and students express a more skeptical view than the others, and having tried acupuncture for one's own disease is significantly associated with a less skeptical view within all study groups. Attitudes to the use of acupuncture for cancer patients are associated with attitudes to placebo for doctors and medical students, but not for the general population or acupuncturists.
3,739 patients in North-Norway were asked about the preferred time of day for an appointment with the doctor. One in five indicated a time outside current opening hours. The oldest patients, and those living in rural areas, were the groups who preferred current opening hours. More than half the patients aged 21-64 indicated that the time they preferred was during their own free time. The study shows that an adjustment in the opening hours of doctors' practices is necessary if the patients' wishes are to be accommodated.
We assessed the association between the rate of forearm bone loss and non-vertebral fracture. Bone loss at the distal forearm predicted fractures, independently of baseline BMD, but not independently of follow-up BMD in women. The BMD level where an individual ends up is the significant predictor of fracture risk.
Bone loss may predict fracture risk independently of baseline BMD. The influence of follow-up BMD on this prediction is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the association between bone loss and fracture risk in both sexes in a prospective population-based study.
We included 1,208 postmenopausal women (50 to 74 years), and 1,336 men (55 to 74 years) from the Tromsø Study, who had repeated distal and ultra-distal forearm BMD measurements. Non-vertebral fractures were registered from 2001 to 2005.
A total of 100 women and 46 men sustained fractures during the follow-up time. Independent of baseline BMD, the RR associated with distal site bone loss of 1 SD %/year was 1.23 (1.01-1.50) for low-trauma fractures (excluding hand, foot, skull & high-trauma) and 1.32 (1.07-1.62) for osteoporotic fractures (hip, wrist and shoulder). However, bone loss did not predict fracture after adjusting for follow-up BMD. The BMD level where an individual ends up became the significant predictor of fracture risk and not the rate of bone loss. Follow-up BMD at ultra-distal site was associated with low-trauma fractures in both sexes. While ultra-distal site BMD changes were not associated with fracture risk in both sexes.
Bone loss at the distal forearm predicted non-vertebral fractures, independently of baseline BMD, but not independently of follow-up BMD, in women. The BMD level where an individual ends up is the significant predictor of fracture risk and not the rate of bone loss.
Determination of change in bone mineral density (BMD) requires high-precision densitometry techniques. The purpose of the study is to investigate to what degree different densitometer phantoms reflect observed changes in human BMD and to investigate to what degree fluctuations in densitometers' measurement level influence bone loss estimates. Densitometer influence was assessed using the aluminum forearm phantom (AFP) provided by the manufacturer, the European forearm phantom (EFP) of semi-anthropomorphic calcium-hydroxyapatite, and repeated population measurements on different densitometer combinations. The mean follow-up time was 6.4 years (SD 0.6). Measured population bone loss varied from 4.6%/year to 3.2%/year, depending on densitometer combinations. These variations could not be explained by differences in sex, age, height, weight and baseline BMD. They were predicted by EFP measurements, but not AFP measurements. The EFP measurements indicate that X-ray tube replacement changed the densitometers' measurement level in one of three instances, whereas "wear and tear" did not. We used the EFP data for adjustment of the densitometers' measurement levels. After adjustment, the overall crude bone loss was reduced from 4.14% to 3.92%. Mean annual loss was reduced from 0.64% or 0.61%. We conclude that densitometer performance might influence the accuracy of bone loss estimates. Changes in performance are not detected by aluminum phantoms. Quality control of BMD measurements in longitudinal studies should be performed with anthropomorphic calcium-hydroxyapatite phantoms in order to detect possible differences between the participating densitometers' measurement levels.
Standardized incidence ratio for cancer in Norwegian Seventh-Day Adventists compared with the general population was not significantly different from unity (men 91, women 97). Persons converting late in life had a higher incidence than those converting at an earlier age. Respiratory cancers (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] 59, 95% CI = 36 to 91) and cancers with an unspecified site (SIR 53, 95% CI = 25 to 97) were rarer and cancer of the uterine corpus (SIR 164, 95% CI = 109 to 237) was more common in Seventh-Day Adventists before the age of 75 years. Inclusion of all registered Seventh-Day Adventists regardless of religious activity and the relatively low cancer incidence rates in the Norwegian population could contribute to the nonsignificant result with regard to total cancer. Main etiologic factors in cancer development in Norway should be sought in areas where Seventh-Day Adventists do not differ from the general population.
Coronary risk factors in Seventh-day Adventists were compared with those in non-Seventh-day Adventist matched controls in the Norwegian Cardiovascular Disease Studies, 1973-1987. Only 10% of the Seventh-day Adventists were smokers (p less than 0.001) and serum cholesterol was 0.86 mmol/liter (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59-1.13) lower in men and 0.48 mmol/liter (95% CI 0.25-0.71) lower in women. Blood pressure was significantly lower only in women. Ex-members of the Seventh-day Adventist Church and members who did not comply with the recommended life-style had a risk factor level significantly higher than Seventh-day Adventists who complied with the life-style.
1466 Norwegian working doctors under 71 y of age were surveyed in February 1994 on their attitudes to acupuncture and experience as acupuncture patients. 1135 doctors responded (response rate: 77%). More than 8% had undergone acupuncture treatment and 38% of these reported benefit from the treatment. Over 53% would realistically consider acupuncture if they got problems or diseases where acupuncture treatment could be an alternative. More than 38% recommend acupuncture treatment to their migraine patients. More than four out of five doctors would not try to interfere with a patient's wish to try acupuncture treatment for cancer. 81% said that acupuncture is, or should be integrated in the national health care system. More general practitioners held this view than other doctors (p
A 1992 one-Sunday fund-raising TV-show was broadcasted by the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation. The six-hour TV-show included information on mental health intermingled with entertainment and money-counting results. The mass media had covered the forthcoming TV-show extensively. The campaign has been evaluated through a stratified random sample of the population who were questioned before (n = 1,191) and after (n = 644) the campaign. Almost 94% were aware of the campaign and more than 60% watched the campaign day TV-show. Nearly 70% had read about psychiatric disorders and 45% had discussed the campaign topic with others. The proportion who were aware that suicide takes more lives than traffic accidents, and the proportion with an open attitude to mental illness had increased significantly after the campaign (p