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The 1988 and 2002 phocine distemper virus epidemics in European harbour seals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6586
Source
Dis Aquat Organ. 2006 Jan 30;68(2):115-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-30-2006
Author
Tero Härkönen
Rune Dietz
Peter Reijnders
Jonas Teilmann
Karin Harding
Ailsa Hall
Sophie Brasseur
Ursula Siebert
Simon J Goodman
Paul D Jepson
Thomas Dau Rasmussen
Paul Thompson
Author Affiliation
Swedish Museum of Natural History, Box 50007, 10405 Stockholm, Sweden. tero.harkonen@swipnet.se
Source
Dis Aquat Organ. 2006 Jan 30;68(2):115-30
Date
Jan-30-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Animals
Carnivora
Comparative Study
Disease Outbreaks - veterinary
Disease Reservoirs - veterinary
Disease Vectors
Distemper - epidemiology - mortality - pathology
Distemper Virus, Phocine
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Europe - epidemiology
Female
Male
Morbillivirus - classification - pathogenicity
Phoca - virology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
We present new and revised data for the phocine distemper virus (PDV) epidemics that resulted in the deaths of more than 23 000 harbour seals Phoca vitulina in 1988 and 30,000 in 2002. On both occasions the epidemics started at the Danish island of Anholt in central Kattegat, and subsequently spread to adjacent colonies in a stepwise fashion. However, this pattern was not maintained throughout the epidemics and new centres of infection appeared far from infected populations on some occasions: in 1988 early positive cases were observed in the Irish Sea, and in 2002 the epidemic appeared in the Dutch Wadden Sea, 6 wk after the initiation of the outbreak at Anholt Island. Since the harbour seal is a rather sedentary species, such 'jumps' in the spread among colonies suggest that another vector species could have been involved. We discussed the role of sympatric species as disease vectors, and suggested that grey seal populations could act as reservoirs for PDV if infection rates in sympatric species are lower than in harbour seals. Alternatively, grey seals could act as subclinical infected carriers of the virus between Arctic and North Sea seal populations. Mixed colonies of grey and harbour seal colonies are found at all locations where the jumps occurred. It seems likely that grey seals, which show long-distance movements, contributed to the spread among regions. The harbour seal populations along the Norwegian coast and in the Baltic escaped both epidemics, which could be due either to genetic differences among harbour seal populations or to immunity. Catastrophic events such as repeated epidemics should be accounted for in future models and management strategies of wildlife populations.
PubMed ID
16532603 View in PubMed
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Assessing auditory evoked potentials of wild harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294363
Source
J Acoust Soc Am. 2016 07; 140(1):442
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
07-2016
Author
Andreas Ruser
Michael Dähne
Abbo van Neer
Klaus Lucke
Janne Sundermeyer
Ursula Siebert
Dorian S Houser
James J Finneran
Eligius Everaarts
Jolanda Meerbeek
Rune Dietz
Signe Sveegaard
Jonas Teilmann
Author Affiliation
Institute for Terrestrial and Aquatic Wildlife Research, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Büsum, SH, Germany.
Source
J Acoust Soc Am. 2016 07; 140(1):442
Date
07-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Acoustic Stimulation
Animals
Auditory Threshold - physiology
Denmark
Evoked Potentials, Auditory - physiology
Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem - physiology
Noise - adverse effects
Phocoena - physiology
Abstract
Testing the hearing abilities of marine mammals under water is a challenging task. Sample sizes are usually low, thus limiting the ability to generalize findings of susceptibility towards noise influences. A method to measure harbor porpoise hearing thresholds in situ in outdoor conditions using auditory steady state responses of the brainstem was developed and tested. The method was used on 15 live-stranded animals from the North Sea during rehabilitation, shortly before release into the wild, and on 12 wild animals incidentally caught in pound nets in Denmark (inner Danish waters). Results indicated that although the variability between individuals is wide, the shape of the hearing curve is generally similar to previously published results from behavioral trials. Using 10-kHz frequency intervals between 10 and 160 kHz, best hearing was found between 120 and 130?kHz. Additional testing using one-third octave frequency intervals (from 16 to 160?kHz) allowed for a much faster hearing assessment, but eliminated the fine scale threshold characteristics. For further investigations, the method will be used to better understand the factors influencing sensitivity differences across individuals and to establish population-level parameters describing hearing abilities of harbor porpoises.
PubMed ID
27475168 View in PubMed
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Avian Influenza A(H10N7) virus-associated mass deaths among harbor seals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268261
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Apr;21(4):720-2
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2015
Author
Rogier Bodewes
Theo M Bestebroer
Erhard van der Vries
Josanne H Verhagen
Sander Herfst
Marion P Koopmans
Ron A M Fouchier
Vanessa M Pfankuche
Peter Wohlsein
Ursula Siebert
Wolfgang Baumgärtner
Albert D M E Osterhaus
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Apr;21(4):720-2
Date
Apr-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Denmark - epidemiology
Influenza A Virus, H10N7 Subtype - classification - genetics
Orthomyxoviridae Infections - epidemiology - mortality - virology
Phoca - virology
Notes
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PubMed ID
25811303 View in PubMed
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Dolphin Morbillivirus in a Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus) in Denmark, 2016.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290872
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2017 10; 53(4):921-924
Publication Type
Case Reports
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
10-2017
Author
Wendy K Jo
Miguel L Grilo
Peter Wohlsein
Emilie U Andersen-Ranberg
Mette S Hansen
Carl C Kinze
Charlotte K Hjulsager
Morten T Olsen
Kristina Lehnert
Ellen Prenger-Berninghoff
Ursula Siebert
Albert Osterhaus
Wolfgang Baumgärtner
Lasse F Jensen
Erhard van der Vries
Author Affiliation
1 Research Center for Emerging Infections and Zoonoses, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Buenteweg 17, 30559 Hannover, Germany.
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2017 10; 53(4):921-924
Date
10-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Case Reports
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Brain - pathology - virology
Denmark
Encephalitis, Viral - pathology - veterinary - virology
Fatal Outcome
Fin Whale
Male
Morbillivirus - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Morbillivirus Infections - pathology - veterinary - virology
Phylogeny
Abstract
We studied the etiology of encephalitis in a fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) that stranded in 2016 on the coast of Denmark. Dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) was detected in the brain and other organs. Phylogenetics showed close relation to DMV isolated from a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) from Spain in 2012.
PubMed ID
28513327 View in PubMed
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Investigations of the potential influence of environmental contaminants on the thymus and spleen of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6631
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2005 Jun 1;39(11):3933-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1-2005
Author
Andreas Beineke
Ursula Siebert
Michael McLachlan
Regina Bruhn
Kristina Thron
Klaus Failing
Gundi Müller
Wolfgang Baumgärtner
Author Affiliation
Institut für Pathologie, Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover, 30559 Hannover, Germany. andreas.beineke@tiho-hannover.de
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2005 Jun 1;39(11):3933-8
Date
Jun-1-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
DDT - analysis - metabolism
Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane - analysis - metabolism
Geography
Germany
Lymphocyte Depletion
North Sea
Polybrominated Biphenyls - analysis - metabolism
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - metabolism
Porpoises - metabolism
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Spleen - drug effects - metabolism
Thymus Gland - drug effects - metabolism
Toxaphene - analysis - metabolism
Water Pollutants, Chemical - metabolism - toxicity
Abstract
Harbor porpoises from the German North and Baltic Seas exhibit a higher incidence of bacterial infections compared to whales from less polluted arctic waters. The potential adverse effect of environmental contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals on the immune system and the health status of marine mammals is still discussed controversially. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible influence of PCB, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE), toxaphene, (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl)trichlorethane (DDT), and (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl)dichlorethene (DDE) on the immune system of harbor porpoises. Lymphoid organs are influenced by a variety of factors, and therefore special emphasis was given to separating the confounding effect of age, health status, nutritional state, geographical location, and sex from the effect of contaminant levels upon thymus and spleen. Contaminant analysis and detailed pathological examinations were conducted on 61 by-caught and stranded whales from the North and Baltic Seas and Icelandic and Norwegian waters. Stranded harbor porpoises were more severely diseased than by-caught animals. Thymic atrophy and splenic depletion were significantly correlated to increased PCB and PBDE levels. However, lymphoid depletion was also associated with emaciation and an impaired health status. The present report supports the hypothesis of a contaminant-induced immunosuppression, possibly contributing to disease susceptibility in harbor porpoises. However, further studies are needed to determine if lymphoid depletion is primarily contaminant-induced or secondary to disease and emaciation in this cetacean species.
PubMed ID
15984767 View in PubMed
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Phylogenomic insights to the origin and spread of phocine distemper virus in European harbour seals in 1988 and 2002.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301912
Source
Dis Aquat Organ. 2019 Feb 21; 133(1):47-56
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Feb-21-2019
Author
Iben Stokholm
Tero Härkönen
Karin C Harding
Ursula Siebert
Kristina Lehnert
Rune Dietz
Jonas Teilmann
Anders Galatius
Linnea Worsøe Havmøller
Emma L Carroll
Ailsa Hall
Morten Tange Olsen
Author Affiliation
Section for Evolutionary Genomics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, 1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark.
Source
Dis Aquat Organ. 2019 Feb 21; 133(1):47-56
Date
Feb-21-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Denmark
Distemper
Distemper Virus, Phocine
Dogs
North Sea
Phoca
Phylogeny
Seals, Earless
Abstract
The 1988 and 2002 phocine distemper virus (PDV) outbreaks in European harbour seals Phoca vitulina are among the largest mass mortality events recorded in marine mammals. Despite its large impact on harbour seal population numbers, and 3 decades of studies, many questions regarding the spread and temporal origin of PDV remain unanswered. Here, we sequenced and analysed 7123 bp of the PDV genome, including the coding and non-coding regions of the entire P, M, F and H genes in tissues from 44 harbour seals to shed new light on the origin and spread of PDV in 1988 and 2002. The phylogenetic analyses trace the origin of the PDV strain causing the 1988 outbreak to between May 1987 and April 1988, while the origin of the strain causing the 2002 outbreak can be traced back to between June 2001 and May 2002. The analyses further point to several independent introductions of PDV in 1988, possibly linked to a southward mass immigration of harp seals in the winter and spring of 1987-1988. The vector for the 2002 outbreak is unknown, but the epidemiological analyses suggest the subsequent spread of PDV from the epicentre in the Kattegat, Denmark, to haul-out sites in the North Sea through several independent introductions.
PubMed ID
31089002 View in PubMed
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Possible causes of a harbour porpoise mass stranding in Danish waters in 2005.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115835
Source
PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e55553
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Andrew J Wright
Marie Maar
Christian Mohn
Jacob Nabe-Nielsen
Ursula Siebert
Lasse Fast Jensen
Hans J Baagøe
Jonas Teilmann
Author Affiliation
Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark. marinebrit@gmail.com
Source
PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e55553
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Autopsy
Denmark
Fisheries
Geography
Human Activities
Humans
Linear Models
Oceans and Seas
Phocoena - physiology
Principal Component Analysis
Seasons
Seawater
Temperature
Abstract
An unprecedented 85 harbour porpoises stranded freshly dead along approximately 100 km of Danish coastline from 7-15 April, 2005. This total is considerably above the mean weekly stranding rate for the whole of Denmark, both for any time of year, 1.23 animals/week (ranging from 0 to 20 during 2003-2008, excluding April 2005), and specifically in April, 0.65 animals/week (0 to 4, same period). Bycatch was established as the cause of death for most of the individuals through typical indications of fisheries interactions, including net markings in the skin and around the flippers, and loss of tail flukes. Local fishermen confirmed unusually large porpoise bycatch in nets set for lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) and the strandings were attributed to an early lumpfish season. However, lumpfish catches for 2005 were not unusual in terms of season onset, peak or total catch, when compared to 2003-2008. Consequently, human activity was combined with environmental factors and the variation in Danish fisheries landings (determined through a principal component analysis) in a two-part statistical model to assess the correlation of these factors with both the presence of fresh strandings and the numbers of strandings on the Danish west coast. The final statistical model (which was forward selected using Akaike information criterion; AIC) indicated that naval presence is correlated with higher rates of porpoise strandings, particularly in combination with certain fisheries, although it is not correlated with the actual presence of strandings. Military vessels from various countries were confirmed in the area from the 7th April, en route to the largest naval exercise in Danish waters to date (Loyal Mariner 2005, 11-28 April). Although sonar usage cannot be confirmed, it is likely that ships were testing various equipment prior to the main exercise. Thus naval activity cannot be ruled out as a possible contributing factor.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23460787 View in PubMed
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Prevalence of antibodies against Brucella spp. in West Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and East Greenland muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301454
Source
Polar Biology. Volume 41, Issue 9, pp 1671–1680.
Publication Type
Article
Date
September 2018
  1 document  
Author
Christian Sonne
Emilie Andersen-Ranberg
Elisabeth L. Rajala
Jørgen S. Agerholm
Eva Bonefeld-Jørgensen
Jean-Pierre Desforges
Igor Eulaers
Kim Gustavson
Bjørn M. Jenssen
Anders Koch
Aqqalu Rosing-Asvid
Niels Martin Schmidt
Carsten Grøndahl
Jesper B. Mosbacher
Ursula Siebert
Morten Tryland
Gert Mulvad
Erik W. Born
Kristin Laidre
Øystein Wiig
Rune Dietz
Ulf Magnusson
Source
Polar Biology. Volume 41, Issue 9, pp 1671–1680.
Date
September 2018
Language
English
Geographic Location
Greenland
Publication Type
Article
File Size
1526506
Keywords
Baffin Bay
Arctic
Humans
One Health
Zoonosis
Polar bears
Muskoxen
Abstract
Zoonotic infections transmitted from terrestrial and marine mammals to humans in European Arctic are of unknown significance, despite considerable potential for transmission due to local hunt and a rapidly changing environment. As an example, infection with Brucella bacteria may have significant impact on human health due to consumption of raw meat or otherwise contact with tissues and fluids of infected game species such as muskoxen and polar bears. Here, we present serological results for Baffin Bay polar bears (Ursus maritimus) (n?=?96) and North East Greenland muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) (n?=?32) for antibodies against Brucella spp. The analysis was a two-step trial initially using the Rose Bengal Test (RBT), followed by confirmative competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of RBT-positive samples. No muskoxen had antibodies against Brucella spp., while antibodies were detected in six polar bears (6.25%) rendering a seroprevalence in line with previous findings in other Arctic regions. Seropositivity was not related to sex, age or biometrics i.e. size and body condition. Whether Brucella spp. antibodies found in polar bears were due to either prey spill over or true recurrent Brucella spp. infections is unknown. Our results therefore highlight the importance of further research into the zoonotic aspects of Brucella spp. infections, and the impact on wildlife and human health in the Arctic region.
Documents

Sonne2018_Article_PrevalenceOfAntibodiesAgainstB.pdf

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Quantitative Measures of Anthropogenic Noise on Harbor Porpoises: Testing the Reliability of Acoustic Tag Recordings.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273865
Source
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;875:1237-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
Danuta M Wisniewska
Jonas Teilmann
Line Hermannsen
Mark Johnson
Lee A Miller
Ursula Siebert
Peter Teglberg Madsen
Source
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;875:1237-42
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acoustics
Animals
Denmark
Human Activities
Humans
Noise
Phocoena - physiology
Reproducibility of Results
Abstract
In recent years, several sound and movement recording tags have been developed to sample the acoustic field experienced by cetaceans and their reactions to it. However, little is known about how tag placement and an animal's orientation in the sound field affect the reliability of on-animal recordings as proxies for actual exposure. Here, we quantify sound exposure levels recorded with a DTAG-3 tag on a captive harbor porpoise exposed to vessel noise in a controlled acoustic environment. Results show that flow noise is limiting onboard noise recordings, whereas no evidence of body shading has been found for frequencies of 2-20 kHz.
PubMed ID
26611092 View in PubMed
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Seroprevalence for Brucella spp. in Baltic ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and East Greenland harp (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and hooded (Cystophora cristata) seals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294995
Source
Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2018 Apr; 198:14-18
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Apr-2018
Author
Christian Sonne
Emilie Andersen-Ranberg
Elisabeth L Rajala
Jørgen S Agerholm
Eva Bonefeld-Jørgensen
Jean-Pierre Desforges
Igor Eulaers
Bjørn M Jenssen
Anders Koch
Aqqalu Rosing-Asvid
Ursula Siebert
Morten Tryland
Gert Mulvad
Tero Härkönen
Mario Acquarone
Erling S Nordøy
Rune Dietz
Ulf Magnusson
Author Affiliation
Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Technology, Aarhus University, P.O. Box 358, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark. Electronic address: cs@bios.au.dk.
Source
Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2018 Apr; 198:14-18
Date
Apr-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Antibodies, Bacterial - blood
Brucella
Brucellosis - epidemiology - microbiology - veterinary
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay - veterinary
Female
Male
Phoca - microbiology
Pilot Projects
Seals, Earless - microbiology
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Abstract
Zoonotic infections transmitted from marine mammals to humans in the Baltic and European Arctic are of unknown significance, despite given considerable potential for transmission due to local hunt. Here we present results of an initial screening for Brucella spp. in Arctic and Baltic seal species. Baltic ringed seals (Pusa hispida, n?=?12) sampled in October 2015 and Greenland Sea harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus, n?=?6) and hooded seals (Cystophora cristata, n?=?3) sampled in March 2015 were serologically analysed for antibodies against Brucella spp. The serological analyses were performed using the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) followed by a confirmatory testing of RBT-positive samples by a competitive-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA). Two of the Baltic ringed seals (a juvenile male and a juvenile female) were seropositive thus indicating previous exposure to a Brucella spp. The findings indicate that ringed seals in the Baltic ecosystem may be exposed to and possibly infected by Brucella spp. No seropositive individuals were detected among the Greenland harp and hooded seals. Although our initial screening shows a zoonotic hazard to Baltic locals, a more in-depth epidemiological investigation is needed in order to determine the human risk associated with this.
PubMed ID
29571513 View in PubMed
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10 records – page 1 of 1.