This study investigates possible acute effects on heart rate variability (HRV) when people are exposed to hand transmitted vibration and noise individually and simultaneously.
Ten male and 10 female subjects were recruited by advertisement. Subjects completed a questionnaire concerning their work environment, general health, medication, hearing, and physical activity level. The test started with the subject resting for 15 min while sitting down. After resting, they were exposed to one of four exposure conditions: (1) only vibration; (2) only noise; (3) both noise and vibration; or (4) a control condition of exposure to the static load only. All four exposures lasted 15 min and the resting time between the exposures was 30 min. A continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) signal was recorded and the following HRV parameters were calculated: total spectral power (P(TOT)); the spectral power of the very low frequency component (P(VLF)); the low frequency component (P(LF)); the high frequency component (P(HF)); and the ratio LF/HF.
Exposure to only vibration resulted in a lower P(TOT) compared to static load, whereas exposure to only noise resulted in a higher P(TOT). The mean values of P(TOT), P(VLF), P(LF), and P(HF) were lowest during exposure to vibration and simultaneous exposure to vibration and noise.
Exposure to vibration and/or noise acutely affects HRV compared to standing without these exposures. Being exposed to vibration only and being exposed to noise only seem to generate opposite effects. Compared to no exposure, P(TOT) was reduced during vibration exposure and increased during noise exposure.
In a previous study, we showed that operators of radiofrequency (RF) plastic sealers, RF operators (n = 35) had a lower heart rate during nighttime compared to a control group (n = 37). We have analyzed the heart rate variability (HRV) on the same group of people to better understand the possible underlying rhythm disturbances. We found a significantly increased total HRV and very low frequency (VLF) power during nighttime among the RF operators compared to a control group. Together with our previous finding of a significantly lower heart rate during nighttime among the RF operators compared to the controls, this finding indicates a relative increase in parasympathetic cardiac modulation in RF operators. This could in turn be due to an adaptation of the thermoregulatory system and the cardiac autonomic modulation to a long-term low-level thermal exposure in the RF operators.
Patients with transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR) polyneuropathy, a hereditary fatal disease, often report defects in both thermal perception and autonomic nervous system function as their first clinical symptoms. While elevated thermal perception thresholds (TPT) for cold and warmth only recently have been shown as an early marker of small nerve fiber dysfunction in these patients, heart rate variability (HRV) has frequently been used to quantify autonomic neuropathy. The main purpose with this report was to elucidate a possible relationship between estimates of HRV and TPT in a selected group of early and late-onset Swedish Val30Met ATTR patients. The results show significantly more pronounced elevation of TPT in early compared to late-onset patients. Significant correlations between HRV and TPT were found among late-onset cases, indicating a possible relationship between loss of thin nerve fibers in somatic and autonomic nerves, while generally no such relationships were found among early-onset cases. This observation emphasizes the importance of testing both HRV and TPT to ensure optimal early detection of neuropathic changes in an as wide as possible range of small nerve fibers in suspected ATTR patients. This is of particular importance as the phenotype of the ATTR disease varies between groups with different age of onset.
Operators of RF plastic sealers (RF operators) are an occupational category highly exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. The aim of the present study was to make an appropriate exposure assessment of RF welding and examine the health status of the operators. In total, 35 RF operators and 37 controls were included. The leakage fields (electric and magnetic field strength) were measured, as well as induced and contact current. Information about welding time and productivity was used to calculate time integrated exposure. A neurophysiological examination and 24 h ECG were also carried out. The participants also had to answer a questionnaire about subjective symptoms. The measurements showed that RF operators were exposed to rather intense electric and magnetic fields. The mean values of the calculated 6 min, spatially averaged E and H field strengths, in line with ICNIRP reference levels, are 107 V/m and 0.24 A/m, respectively. The maximum measured field strengths were 2 kV/m and 1.5 A/m, respectively. The induced current in ankles and wrists varied, depending on the work situation, with a mean value of 101 mA and a maximum measured value of 1 A. In total, 11 out of 46 measured RF plastic sealers exceeded the ICNIRP reference levels. RF operators, especially the ready made clothing workers had a slightly disturbed two-point discrimination ability compared to a control group. A nonsignificant difference between RF operators and controls was found in the prevalence of subjective symptoms, but the time integrated exposure parameters seem to be of importance to the prevalence of some subjective symptoms: fatigue, headaches, and warmth sensations in the hands. Further, RF operators had a significantly lower heart rate (24 h registration) and more episodes of bradycardia compared to controls.
The objective of this study is to determine whether use of lidocaine-prilocaine 5% cream (EMLA) and oral glucose decreases pain associated with diphteria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) immunization in 3-month-old infants. DESIGN: randomized, double-blind, controlled trial in outpatient paediatric practice in northern Sweden. EMLA or placebo was applied to the infant's lateral region of the right thigh and covered with an occlusive dressing 1h before the immunization. In addition, 1 ml of glucose (300 mg/ml) or placebo (water) was instilled on the baby's tongue within 2 min before the DPT-injection. Forty-five infants received EMLA and glucose and 45 infants placebo cream and water. ECG was recorded and stored in a computer and the procedure was videotaped. The parents and the nurse assessed the infants' pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS) after the immunization. Heart rate and heart rate variability pre- and post-injection were calculated. From the videotapes, the modified behavioural pain scale (MBPS) was used to assess pain scores during baseline and after immunization. The latency of the first cry and total crying time were measured. The parents and the nurse scored the infants' pain on the VAS significantly lower in the treatment group than in the placebo group. The infants' responses to the immunization measured as the difference in MBPS scores pre- and post-injection were significantly lower in the EMLA-glucose group compared with the placebo group. More infants cried after the immunization in the placebo group compared with the EMLA-glucose group and the latency of the first cry after the injection was shorter in the placebo group. A biphasic transient heart rate response with a marked deceleration followed by a subsequent acceleration was seen more frequently in the placebo group compared to the EMLA-glucose group. EMLA and glucose alleviate immunization pain in 3-month-old infants.
We explored if fluid restriction in very low birth weight infants with a haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus affected energy and protein intakes and growth.
Retrospectively, we identified 90 very low birth weight infants that were admitted to Umea University Hospital, Sweden, between 2009 and 2012: 42 with and 48 without haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus. Anthropometric, fluid, energy and protein intake data during the first 28 days of life were expressed as z-scores.
In the 42 infants diagnosed with haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus, fluid intake was restricted after diagnosis, resulting in a decrease in energy and protein intake. No decrease was observed in the other 48 infants in the cohort. Multivariate analysis showed that the z-score of weight change depended on both ductus arteriosus status and energy intake, thus, infants with haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus did not grow as expected with the energy provided to them.
Energy and protein intake was diminished in prematurely born infants with haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus when fluid were restricted after diagnosis. The initial reduction in intakes may have contributed to the lower postnatal growth observed in these infants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Earlier studies have indicated that patients claiming to be sensitive to electromagnetic fields, so-called electrical hypersensitivity (EHS), have a dysbalance of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation. This paper focuses on a possible dysbalance in the ANS among EHS patients by the use of long-term monitoring of electrocardiogram (ECG) in both a patient and a matched control group. At the same time, the environmental power frequency magnetic field was recorded for both groups in order to see if there was any difference in exposure between the groups. ECG, heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) as well as the magnetic field exposure were monitored for 24 h. Fourteen patients with perceived EHS symptoms were selected from the University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden. Symptoms indicating autonomic nervous dysregulation were not part of the inclusion criteria of the patient group. Age and sex matched healthy subjects were used as controls. No differences were found between the groups regarding magnetic field exposure or the mean HR for 24 h. The HRV analyses showed that the high-frequency (HF) component did not have the expected increase with sleep onset and during nighttime in the EHS group. When separating the sleeping and awake time even less differences between the two conditions in the EHS patients, both for the low-frequency and HF components in the HRV spectrum, were seen. EHS patients had a disturbed pattern of circadian rhythms of HRV and showed a relatively 'flat' representation of hourly-recorded spectral power of the HF component of HRV.
BACKGROUND: Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is today the only available treatment to halt the progress of familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP). Because heart arrhythmia and conduction disturbances are well-known manifestations of FAP, the aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and development of heart conduction and rhythm disturbances in Swedish FAP patients who underwent liver transplantation. METHODS: Ambulatory 24-hour electrocardiography (ECG) recordings (Holter-ECGs) were available from 30 patients, who had been investigated before and reexamined after OLT. RESULTS.: The number of patients with abnormalities on their ECG recordings increased after OLT. Four patients developed serious arrhythmia after transplantation that necessitated the insertion of a pacemaker 40 months or longer after OLT. CONCLUSIONS: The development of cardiac conduction disturbances and arrhythmias appear not to be halted by liver transplantation, indicating that the physician should be aware of the potential risk for FAP patients receiving transplants to develop fatal arrhythmia. The follow-up after liver transplantation should include Holter-ECG recordings.
We investigated the occurrence of ventricular late potentials (LPs) in patients with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) and the possible association with ventricular arrhythmia on Holter electrocardiography and echocardiographic data. Fifty-five patients and 94 healthy controls were studied. LP were found in 46% of the FAP patients older than 60 years and in 15% of the controls (P = .02), whereas no difference was found in individuals younger than 60 years. The occurrence of LP was associated with nonsustained ventricular arrhythmia in the older FAP patients (P = .04). Older patients with LP had increased ventricular septum thickness (P = .02) and left posterior wall thickness (P = .01), as compared with those without LP. In conclusion, ventricular LPs are common in the FAP patients older than 60 years and associated with nonsustained ventricular arrhythmia and increased thickness of the left ventricular wall. Long-term follow-up studies are required to find the prognostic significance of these new findings.