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A 25 years experience of group-housed sows-reproduction in animal welfare-friendly systems.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261597
Source
Acta Vet Scand. 2014;56:37
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Stig Einarsson
Ylva Sjunnesson
Fredrik Hultén
Lena Eliasson-Selling
Anne-Marie Dalin
Nils Lundeheim
Ulf Magnusson
Source
Acta Vet Scand. 2014;56:37
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Husbandry - standards
Animal Welfare - legislation & jurisprudence - standards
Animals
Female
Housing, Animal - standards
Sus scrofa - physiology
Sweden
Time Factors
Abstract
Since January 1 2013, group housing of sows has been compulsory within the European Union (EU) in all pig holdings with more than ten sows. Sows and gilts need to be kept in groups from 4 weeks after service to 1 week before the expected time of farrowing (Article 3(4) of Directive 2008/120/EC on the protection of pigs). The legislation regarding group housing was adopted already in 2001 and a long transitional period was allowed to give member states and producers enough time for adaptation. Even so, group housing of sows still seems to be uncommon in the EU, and is also uncommon in commercial pig farming systems in the rest of the world. In this review we share our experience of the Swedish 25 years of animal welfare legislation stipulating that sows must be loose-housed which de facto means group housed. The two most important concerns related to reproductive function among group-housed sows are the occurrence of lactational oestrus when sows are group-housed during lactation, and the stress that is associated with group housing during mating and gestation. Field and clinical observations in non-lactating, group-housed sows in Sweden suggest that by making basic facts known about the pig reproductive physiology related to mating, we might achieve application of efficient batch-wise breeding without pharmacological interventions. Group housing of lactating sows has some production disadvantages and somewhat lower productivity would likely have to be expected. Recordings of behavioural indicators in different housing systems suggest a lower welfare level in stalled animals compared with group-housed ones. However, there are no consistent effects on the reproductive performance associated with different housing systems. Experimental studies suggest that the most sensitive period, regarding disturbance of reproductive functions by external stressors, is the time around oestrus. We conclude that by keeping sows according to the pig welfare-friendly Directive 2008/120/EC, it is possible to combine group-housing of sows with good reproductive performance and productivity. However, substantially increased research and development is needed to optimize these systems.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24910081 View in PubMed
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Age and seasonal variation in testis and baculum morphology in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in relation to high concentrations of persistent organic pollutants.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299071
Source
Environ Res. 2019 Mar 20; 173:246-254
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-20-2019
Author
Ellinor Spörndly-Nees
Lena Holm
Floris M van Beest
Azadeh Fakhrzadeh
Elisabeth Ekstedt
Robert Letcher
Ulf Magnusson
Jean-Pierre Desforges
Rune Dietz
Christian Sonne
Author Affiliation
Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7011, 75007, Sweden. Electronic address: Ellinor.Sporndly-Nees@slu.se.
Source
Environ Res. 2019 Mar 20; 173:246-254
Date
Mar-20-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are found in high concentrations in the Artic. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are one of the most exposed mammals in the Arctic and are thereby vulnerable to reproductive disruption. The aim of this study was to investigate male polar bear reproduction based on a detailed evaluation of testis histology and to assess possible effects of environmental chemicals on male polar bear reproduction. Reproductive groups that were identified based on histology were as follows: actively reproductive (REP), non-reproductive either with degenerated testes (DEG), undeveloped seminiferous tubules (UND), or morphology in-transition (INT). Categorization into these groups was supported by significant differences in testis and baculum measurements among REP, DEG, and UND, as well as differences in the area and diameter of seminiferous tubules among REP, DEG, and UND. These results show that it is possible to identify the reproductive stage in polar bears even if capture date and or age is lacking. Based on testis morphology we suggest that adult male polar bears from East Greenland have active spermatogenesis in February to June, and inactive degenerated testes in August to January. January to February was the main period of reproductive transition, characterised by a shift between inactive and active spermatogenesis. Baculum and testis size measurements decreased significantly with increasing concentrations of the chlordane metabolite oxychlordane, suggesting a potential impact on male reproductive success. Half of the investigated polar bears in REP group displayed signs of disorganization of the spermatogenesis which might be a sign of disrupted reproduction. However, no correlations with levels of the investigated POPs were detected. Reproductive organ measurements in polar bears differed significantly between REP and DEG groups, which cannot be explained by age, and therefore should be considered when investigating the effect of POPs on male reproduction.
PubMed ID
30928855 View in PubMed
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Aggression and cortisol levels in three different group housing routines for lactating sows.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269836
Source
Acta Vet Scand. 2015;57:9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Ola Thomsson
Ann-Sofi Bergqvist
Ylva Sjunnesson
Lena Eliasson-Selling
Nils Lundeheim
Ulf Magnusson
Source
Acta Vet Scand. 2015;57:9
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aggression
Animal Husbandry - methods
Animals
Female
Housing, Animal
Hydrocortisone - metabolism
Lactation
Organic Agriculture
Saliva - chemistry
Sus scrofa
Sweden
Abstract
Lactating sows in Swedish organic piglet production are commonly group-housed with piglets in a multi-suckling pen within 14 days after farrowing. Nursing behaviour may be disturbed when lactating sows are moved to a new environment and mixed with other sows, as they spend more time fighting with other sows and exploring the new surroundings. This can disrupt the inhibitory effect of suckling on ovarian activity and increase the risk of lactational oestrus, making efficient reproductive management difficult. Therefore this study evaluated aggression and levels of the stress hormone cortisol in lactating sows group-housed together with their piglets at one (W1), two (W2) or three (W3) weeks post farrowing.
There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the three management routines (W1, W2, W3) regarding number of attacks initiated or received in the mixed group. After mixing, W2 sows had a lower number of shoulder scratches (P
Notes
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PubMed ID
25884361 View in PubMed
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Aleutian mink disease virus in free-ranging mink from sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261272
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(3):e0122194
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Sara Persson
Trine H Jensen
Anne-Lie Blomström
Mia Tjernström Appelberg
Ulf Magnusson
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(3):e0122194
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Aleutian mink disease (AMD) is a chronic viral disease in farmed mink and the virus (AMDV) has been found in many free-ranging mink (Neovison vison) populations in Europe and North America. In this study, AMDV DNA and AMDV antibodies were analysed in 144 free-ranging mink hunted in Sweden. Associations between being AMDV infected (defined as positive for both viral DNA and antibodies) and the weight of the spleen, liver, kidneys, adrenal glands and body condition were calculated and the sequences of ten AMDV isolates were analysed in order to characterize the genetic relationships. In total, 46.1% of the mink were positive for AMDV antibodies and 57.6% were positive for AMDV DNA. Twenty-two percent of the mink tested on both tests (n = 133) had dissimilar results. The risk of having AMDV antibodies or being positive for AMDV DNA clearly increased with age and the majority of the mink that were two years or older were infected. Few macroscopic changes were found upon necropsy. However, the relative weight of the spleen was sexually dimorphic and was found to be slightly, but significantly (p = 0.006), heavier in AMDV infected male mink than uninfected. No association between AMDV infection and body condition, weight of the kidneys, liver or adrenal glands were found. Several different strains of AMDV were found across the country. Two of the AMDV sequences from the very north of Sweden did not group with any of the previously described groups of strains. In summary, AMDV seems to be prevalent in wild mink in Sweden and may subtly influence the weight of the spleen.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25822750 View in PubMed
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Environmental pollutants and alterations in the reproductive system in wild male mink (Neovison vison) from Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268829
Source
Chemosphere. 2015 Feb;120:237-45
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2015
Author
Sara Persson
Ulf Magnusson
Source
Chemosphere. 2015 Feb;120:237-45
Date
Feb-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Environmental Pollutants - toxicity
Genitalia, Male - drug effects
Hydrocarbons, Halogenated - toxicity
Introduced species
Male
Mink - metabolism
Pesticides - toxicity
Sweden
Abstract
The wild American mink, a semi-aquatic top predator, is exposed to high levels of environmental pollutants that may affect its reproductive system. In this study, the reproductive organs from 101 wild male mink collected in Sweden were examined during necropsy. Potential associations between various variables of the reproductive system and fat concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and other organochlorine pesticides and liver concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were investigated using multiple regression models. The anogenital distance was negatively associated (p
PubMed ID
25103085 View in PubMed
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Heavy metal concentrations in female wild mink (Neovison vison) in Sweden: Sources of variation and associations with internal organ weights.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286896
Source
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2017 Aug;36(8):2030-2035
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2017
Author
Karl Ljungvall
Ulf Magnusson
Marcus Korvela
Mattias Norrby
Jonas Bergquist
Sara Persson
Source
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2017 Aug;36(8):2030-2035
Date
Aug-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Cadmium - analysis
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Female
Kidney - chemistry
Lead - analysis
Liver - chemistry
Mercury - analysis
Metals, Heavy - analysis
Mink - metabolism
Organ Size
Seasons
Sweden
Abstract
The American mink is an invasive species in Sweden, and it is legally hunted all year. Therefore, the mink is well suited as a sentinel species for environmental monitoring. In the present study female mink (n?=?91) from 6 different areas in Sweden were analyzed for the concentrations of silver, cadmium, mercury and lead in liver tissue using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The wet concentrations in liver tissue were 42.6?±?52.7?ng/g for silver, 99.5?±?100?ng/g for cadmium, 652?±?537?ng/g for mercury, and 196?±?401?ng/g for lead (expressed as mean?±?standard deviation). There were associations between the sample area and the concentrations of silver, lead, and mercury. The concentrations of lead and cadmium varied with season of capture and lead, cadmium, and mercury were positively associated with increasing age. Relative liver weight was positively associated with concentrations of mercury and negatively associated with lead and cadmium. Relative kidney weight was negatively associated with lead concentrations. In summary, it is of importance to take age and season of capture into account when assessing levels of heavy metals in wild mink. Also, liver and kidneys seem to be potential targets for heavy metal toxicity in wild female mink in Sweden. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2030-2035. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.
PubMed ID
28000953 View in PubMed
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Prevalence of antibodies against Brucella spp. in West Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and East Greenland muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301454
Source
Polar Biology. Volume 41, Issue 9, pp 1671–1680.
Publication Type
Article
Date
September 2018
  1 document  
Author
Christian Sonne
Emilie Andersen-Ranberg
Elisabeth L. Rajala
Jørgen S. Agerholm
Eva Bonefeld-Jørgensen
Jean-Pierre Desforges
Igor Eulaers
Kim Gustavson
Bjørn M. Jenssen
Anders Koch
Aqqalu Rosing-Asvid
Niels Martin Schmidt
Carsten Grøndahl
Jesper B. Mosbacher
Ursula Siebert
Morten Tryland
Gert Mulvad
Erik W. Born
Kristin Laidre
Øystein Wiig
Rune Dietz
Ulf Magnusson
Source
Polar Biology. Volume 41, Issue 9, pp 1671–1680.
Date
September 2018
Language
English
Geographic Location
Greenland
Publication Type
Article
File Size
1526506
Keywords
Baffin Bay
Arctic
Humans
One Health
Zoonosis
Polar bears
Muskoxen
Abstract
Zoonotic infections transmitted from terrestrial and marine mammals to humans in European Arctic are of unknown significance, despite considerable potential for transmission due to local hunt and a rapidly changing environment. As an example, infection with Brucella bacteria may have significant impact on human health due to consumption of raw meat or otherwise contact with tissues and fluids of infected game species such as muskoxen and polar bears. Here, we present serological results for Baffin Bay polar bears (Ursus maritimus) (n?=?96) and North East Greenland muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) (n?=?32) for antibodies against Brucella spp. The analysis was a two-step trial initially using the Rose Bengal Test (RBT), followed by confirmative competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of RBT-positive samples. No muskoxen had antibodies against Brucella spp., while antibodies were detected in six polar bears (6.25%) rendering a seroprevalence in line with previous findings in other Arctic regions. Seropositivity was not related to sex, age or biometrics i.e. size and body condition. Whether Brucella spp. antibodies found in polar bears were due to either prey spill over or true recurrent Brucella spp. infections is unknown. Our results therefore highlight the importance of further research into the zoonotic aspects of Brucella spp. infections, and the impact on wildlife and human health in the Arctic region.
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Sonne2018_Article_PrevalenceOfAntibodiesAgainstB.pdf

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A SEROLOGIC SURVEY OF PATHOGENS IN WILD BOAR ( SUS SCROFA) IN SWEDEN.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295282
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2018 04; 54(2):229-237
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
04-2018
Author
Anna Malmsten
Ulf Magnusson
Francisco Ruiz-Fons
David González-Barrio
Anne-Marie Dalin
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2018 04; 54(2):229-237
Date
04-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Bacterial Infections - epidemiology - microbiology - veterinary
Female
Parasitic Diseases, Animal - epidemiology - parasitology
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Sus scrofa
Sweden - epidemiology
Swine
Swine Diseases - epidemiology - microbiology - parasitology
Virus Diseases - epidemiology - veterinary - virology
Abstract
The wild boar ( Sus scrofa) population has increased markedly during the last three decades in Sweden and in other parts of Europe. This population growth may lead to increased contact between the wild boar and the domestic pig ( Sus scrofa scrofa), increasing the risk of transmission of pathogens. The objective of our study was to estimate the seroprevalence of selective pathogens, known to be shared between wild boars and domestic pigs in Europe, in three wild boar populations in Sweden. In total, 286 hunter-harvested female wild boars were included in this study. The sera were analyzed for antibodies against nine pathogens using different commercial or in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Antibodies were detected against porcine parvovirus (78.0%), porcine circovirus type 2 (99.0%), swine influenza virus (3.8%), Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (17.5%), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (24.8%), and Toxoplasma gondii (28.6%). No antibodies were detected against porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus, Brucella suis, or Mycobacterium bovis. Our results highlight the potential importance of the wild boar as a reservoir for pathogens potentially transmissible to domestic pigs and which also may affect human health.
PubMed ID
29377751 View in PubMed
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Seroprevalence for Brucella spp. in Baltic ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and East Greenland harp (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and hooded (Cystophora cristata) seals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294995
Source
Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2018 Apr; 198:14-18
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Apr-2018
Author
Christian Sonne
Emilie Andersen-Ranberg
Elisabeth L Rajala
Jørgen S Agerholm
Eva Bonefeld-Jørgensen
Jean-Pierre Desforges
Igor Eulaers
Bjørn M Jenssen
Anders Koch
Aqqalu Rosing-Asvid
Ursula Siebert
Morten Tryland
Gert Mulvad
Tero Härkönen
Mario Acquarone
Erling S Nordøy
Rune Dietz
Ulf Magnusson
Author Affiliation
Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Technology, Aarhus University, P.O. Box 358, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark. Electronic address: cs@bios.au.dk.
Source
Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2018 Apr; 198:14-18
Date
Apr-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Antibodies, Bacterial - blood
Brucella
Brucellosis - epidemiology - microbiology - veterinary
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay - veterinary
Female
Male
Phoca - microbiology
Pilot Projects
Seals, Earless - microbiology
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Abstract
Zoonotic infections transmitted from marine mammals to humans in the Baltic and European Arctic are of unknown significance, despite given considerable potential for transmission due to local hunt. Here we present results of an initial screening for Brucella spp. in Arctic and Baltic seal species. Baltic ringed seals (Pusa hispida, n?=?12) sampled in October 2015 and Greenland Sea harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus, n?=?6) and hooded seals (Cystophora cristata, n?=?3) sampled in March 2015 were serologically analysed for antibodies against Brucella spp. The serological analyses were performed using the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) followed by a confirmatory testing of RBT-positive samples by a competitive-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA). Two of the Baltic ringed seals (a juvenile male and a juvenile female) were seropositive thus indicating previous exposure to a Brucella spp. The findings indicate that ringed seals in the Baltic ecosystem may be exposed to and possibly infected by Brucella spp. No seropositive individuals were detected among the Greenland harp and hooded seals. Although our initial screening shows a zoonotic hazard to Baltic locals, a more in-depth epidemiological investigation is needed in order to determine the human risk associated with this.
PubMed ID
29571513 View in PubMed
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9 records – page 1 of 1.