Snowmobile accidents and moose-car crashes are typical accidents in Northern Sweden. In this region there is about 1 snowmobile/10 inhabitants. The present paper combines previously published studies. The studies on snowmobile accidents are based on a material comprising all 61 fatally injured snowmobile drivers from the four northern counties of Sweden during the period 1973-1987. The helmet usage was analyzed in two clinical study populations including 200 injured from the county of Västerbotten from two periods 1979-1980 and 1985-86. Of the fatally injured (median age 32 years) 86% were driving under the influence of alcohol with a mean blood alcohol concentration of 0.17 g/ml. Serious head injuries were uncommon among persons driving without a helmet in the clinical material. Only in about 6% of the cases an open face helmet would probably have had an injury reducing effect. Drunken driving is an important etiological factor for fatal snowmobile accidents. Preventive measures must include information that the Traffic Temperance Law also applies to snowmobile riding. A helmet law for snowmobile riders does not seem to be motivated from the injury reduction point of view. According to official Swedish police statistics more than 400 car occupants are injured annually in crashes with a moose. The crash mechanism is special. Because of its long legs the body of the moose hits directly against the windshield, windshield pillars and front roof. During a period of three years 154 injured passenger car occupants were treated in the hospitals in Umeå and Skellefteå. Of both the front and rear seat occupants 80% suffered laceration injuries from glass or glass splinters.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
All patients with badminton-related acute Achilles tendon ruptures registered during 1990 to 1994 at the University Hospital of Umeå were retrospectively followed up using a questionnaire. Thirty-one patients (mean age, 36.0 years), 27 men and 4 women, were included. Thirty patients (97%) described themselves as recreational players or beginners. The majority of the injuries (29 of 31, 94%) happened at the middle or end of the planned game. Previous local symptoms had been noticed by five patients (16%). Long-term results showed that patients treated with surgery had a significantly shorter sick leave absence than patients treated without surgery (50 versus 75 days). There was no obvious selection favoring any treatment modality. None of the surgically treated patients had reruptures, but two reruptures occurred in the nonsurgically treated group. There seemed to be fewer remaining symptoms and a higher sports activity level after the injury in the surgically treated group. Our results indicate that local muscle fatigue may interfere with strength and coordination. Preventive measures such as specific treatment of minor injuries and adequate training of strength, endurance, and coordination are important. Our findings also indicate that surgical treatment and careful postoperative rehabilitation is of great importance among badminton players of any age or sports level with Achilles tendon rupture.
During 1990-1994, 1.2% of all sports injuries that required emergency care at the University Hospital of Umeå were caused by badminton. In 90.7% of the cases the patients described themselves as recreational players or beginners. There were 51.3% minor injuries (AIS 1) and 48.7% moderate injuries (AIS 2). The lower extremities were affected in 92.3% of the cases. Achilles tendon ruptures (34.6%) and ankle sprains and fractures (29.5%) were the most frequent. By the time of the follow-up (10-69 months), 52.6% of the players still had symptoms from the injuries and 39.5% had not been able to return to playing badminton. Our data indicate the importance of adequate treatment and rehabilitation after acute badminton injuries.
In 1997 the Swedish Parliament decided, in accordance with the so-called Vision Zero, that one official goal for the national traffic safety effort is that the number of traffic fatalities in the year 2007 must not exceed 270. In order to monitor efforts toward this hard-won goal, it is of course of utmost importance that official statistics on traffic deaths are reliable. In a meticulous analysis of all 580 officially registered traffic deaths in Sweden in 1999, we found that 490 were true accidental deaths, while 18 were suicides, 12 were deaths due to indeterminate causes, 59 were natural deaths and 1 case was not possible to evaluate due to missing data. Thus, only 84% of the officially registered "accidental traffic deaths" were bona fide accidents. In order to enhance the reliability of the official statistics, we suggest that regulations concerning police investigation and medicolegal autopsy of all unnatural deaths be adhered to all deaths reported to the Swedish National Road Administration should be checked in the database of autopsied cases in the National Board of Forensic Medicine in order to exclude natural deaths the time delay (1.5 years) to complete the official Cause-of-Death Register be shortened criteria for the classification of manner of death in "borderline" cases be suggested for international acceptance.
To describe causes of death and other characteristics of "avoidable" deaths in patients admitted to hospital after trauma, and estimate and analyse changes in the avoidable death rate during the years studied.
Retrospective analysis of medico legal autopsy material.
One northern and one western area in Sweden 1988-1996.
335 cases who died in hospital after trauma.
Avoidable death, defined as an Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 35 or less and Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) head of 4 or less and cause of death.
We found 70 avoidable deaths (21%). Among these, 15 (21%) died of head injuries, 17 (24%) of thoracic, abdominal, or pelvic injuries, and 38 (54%) of medical complications. The number of deaths after trauma decreased considerably from 1988-90 to 1994-96, but the proportion who died in hospital remained almost constant. The proportion of avoidable deaths decreased from 22% to 17%, mainly because the proportion of deaths from medical complications was halved.
The standard of Swedish in-hospital trauma care has improved, particularly with a reduction in post-traumatic complications. However, there is still room for improvement in the treatment of complications among elderly people.
The number of collisions between motor vehicles and moose is increasing in many countries. Collisions with large, high animals such as moose cause typical rear- and downward deformation of the windshield pillars and front roof, most pronounced for small passenger cars; the injury risk increases with the deformation of the car. A strengthening of the windshield pillars and front roof and the use of antilacerative windshields would reduce the injury risk to car occupants.