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Association of violence against partner and former victim experiences: a sample of clients voluntarily attending therapy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature142529
Source
J Interpers Violence. 2011 Apr;26(6):1095-110
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2011
Author
Ingunn Rangul Askeland
Are Evang
Trond Heir
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Centre for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies, Kirkeveien 166, Oslo, Norway. i.r.askeland@nkvts.unirand.no.
Source
J Interpers Violence. 2011 Apr;26(6):1095-110
Date
Apr-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Crime Victims - psychology
Domestic Violence - psychology
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Male
Norway
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Abstract
The authors addressed the associations between childhood and adolescence victimization and partner violence in adulthood. Data were collected on 480 men voluntarily attending therapy with a semistructured interview that assessed (a) violent behavior, categorized as physical violence, physical controlling behavior, property violence, psychologically controlling behavior, psychological degradation, indirect aggression, or sexual violence and (b) victim experiences during childhood or adolescence, categorized as physical abuse, psychological abuse, sexual abuse, or exposure to violence between family members. Prior victim experiences of family violence were reported by 60% of participants. Regression analyses showed that past victim experiences, especially physical abuse, was associated with adult violence (p
PubMed ID
20587478 View in PubMed
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Cardiorespiratory fitness and risk of site-specific cancers: a long-term prospective cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287013
Source
Cancer Med. 2017 Apr;6(4):865-873
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2017
Author
Trude E Robsahm
Ragnhild S Falk
Trond Heir
Leiv Sandvik
Linda Vos
Jan Erikssen
Steinar Tretli
Source
Cancer Med. 2017 Apr;6(4):865-873
Date
Apr-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cardiorespiratory Fitness - physiology
Colonic Neoplasms - epidemiology
Exercise Test
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - epidemiology
Norway - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms - epidemiology
Abstract
Based on self-reported physical activity, there is epidemiologic evidence for a beneficial relation between physical activity and colon cancer in men, but findings for other cancers are inconclusive. Measured cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) can provide knowledge about the cancer-preventive value of physical activity. We aimed to assess relationships between CRF and risk of site-specific cancers. A cohort of 1997 healthy Norwegian men, aged 40-59?years at inclusion in 1972-1975, was followed for cancer throughout 2012 using data from the Cancer Registry of Norway. CRF was measured by a maximal exercise bicycle test at inclusion. Relationships between CRF and site-specific cancers were estimated using Cox regression, adjusted for age, body mass index, and smoking. During follow-up, 898 cancer cases were diagnosed in 758 men. When comparing men in CRF tertile 1 with men in tertiles 2 and 3, respectively, we found decreased risk of proximal colon cancer in tertile 2 (HR: 0.30, 95% CI: 0.13-0.73) and decreased risk of cancers of lung (0.39 95% CI: 0.22-0.66), pancreas (0.32 95% CI: 0.10-1.00), and bladder (HR: 0.40 95% CI: 0.21-0.74) in tertile 3. Furthermore, a significant trend for lower risk by increasing CRF tertile was found for cancers of proximal colon, lung, and bladder (P-value for trend
Notes
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PubMed ID
28317282 View in PubMed
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Changes in religious beliefs and the relation of religiosity to posttraumatic stress and life satisfaction after a natural disaster.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature141795
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2011 Oct;46(10):1027-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2011
Author
Ajmal Hussain
Lars Weisaeth
Trond Heir
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Centre for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies, Oslo, Norway. ajmal.hussain@nkvts.unirand.no
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2011 Oct;46(10):1027-32
Date
Oct-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Disasters
Female
Humans
Male
Norway
Personal Satisfaction
Religion
Spirituality
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic
Tsunamis
Abstract
To study changes in religious beliefs and predictors of such changes in a community sample exposed to a natural disaster, and to investigate whether religiosity was linked to post-disaster mental distress or life satisfaction.
An adult population of 1,180 Norwegian tourists who experienced the 2004 tsunami was surveyed by a postal questionnaire 2 years after the disaster. Data included religiosity, disaster exposure, general psychopathology, posttraumatic stress and life satisfaction.
Among the respondents, 8% reported strengthening and 5% reported weakening of their religious beliefs. Strengthening was associated with pre-tsunami mental health problems (OR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.12-2.95) and posttraumatic stress (OR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.22-2.16). Weakening was associated with younger age (OR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.96-1.00) and posttraumatic stress (OR: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.23-2.41). Two years after the tsunami, 11% of the sample considered themselves to be positively religious. There were no significant differences in posttraumatic stress, general psychopathology or life satisfaction between religious and non-religious groups.
Religion did not play an important role in the lives of Norwegian tsunami survivors in general. Respondents who had the greatest disaster exposure were more likely to report changes in religious beliefs in both directions. Religious beliefs did not prevent post-disaster long-term mental distress, and religiosity was not related to higher levels of life satisfaction.
Notes
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PubMed ID
20676883 View in PubMed
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Cholesterol and prostate cancer risk: a long-term prospective cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286166
Source
BMC Cancer. 2016 Aug 17;16:643
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-17-2016
Author
Trond Heir
Ragnhild Sørum Falk
Trude Eid Robsahm
Leiv Sandvik
Jan Erikssen
Steinar Tretli
Source
BMC Cancer. 2016 Aug 17;16:643
Date
Aug-17-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cholesterol - blood
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Prostatic Neoplasms - epidemiology - metabolism - pathology
Risk factors
Abstract
Few studies have taken risk of competing events into account when examining the relationship between cholesterol and prostate cancer incidence, and few studies have a follow-up over several decades. We aimed to use these approaches to examine the relationship between cholesterol and prostate cancer.
A cohort of 1997 healthy Norwegian men aged 40-59 years in 1972-75 was followed throughout 2012. Cancer data were extracted from the Cancer Registry of Norway. The association between cholesterol and prostate cancer incidence was assessed using competing risk regression analysis, with adjustment for potential confounders. Date and cause of death was obtained from the Cause of Death Registry of Norway.
The study cohort had a cancer risk similar to the general Norwegian population. Prostate cancer was registered in 213 men (11 %), including 62 (3 %) with advanced stage at diagnosis. For overall and advanced stage prostate cancer, the incidence was twice as high in the lowest quartile of cholesterol compared to the highest quartile. These associations remained significant after adjustment for age, smoking, physical fitness, BMI, and systolic blood pressure. Furthermore, high physical fitness and low BMI were associated with increased prostate cancer incidence. Sensitivity analyses excluding events during the first 20 years of observation revealed similar results.
Low cholesterol, as well as high physical fitness and low BMI, may be associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. These findings conflict with current prostate cancer prevention recommendations.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27535659 View in PubMed
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Early dropout in men voluntarily undergoing treatment for intimate partner violence in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105517
Source
Violence Vict. 2013;28(5):822-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Ingunn Rangul Askeland
Trond Heir
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Centre for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies, Oslo, Norway. i.r.askeland@nkvts.unirand.no
Source
Violence Vict. 2013;28(5):822-31
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Attitude to Health
Ethnic Groups - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health Behavior
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Patient Acceptance of Health Care - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Patient Dropouts - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Professional-Patient Relations
Sexual Partners - psychology
Spouse Abuse - psychology - therapy
Abstract
This study investigated psychotherapy dropout rates and predictors of dropping out of therapy early. We enrolled 1,166 men voluntarily admitted to psychotherapy for violent behavior against a female partner. In total, 315 (23.8%) subjects dropped out of therapy within the first 3 sessions. Dropouts were significantly younger, more likely to have a non-Norwegian ethnic background, less likely to have received previous mental health care, and were more likely to have been treated by a student therapist. Among those treated by a student therapist, unemployment was strongly associated with early dropout. Unadjusted and adjusted results were similar. Clients and therapists may benefit by matching unemployed men with experienced therapists. Finally, the high dropout rates among ethnically non-Norwegian clients points to a need for special treatment approaches for this subgroup.
PubMed ID
24364125 View in PubMed
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Early traumatized inpatients high in psychoform and somatoform dissociation: characteristics and treatment response.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263596
Source
J Trauma Dissociation. 2014;15(5):572-87
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Ellen K K Jepsen
Willie Langeland
Trond Heir
Source
J Trauma Dissociation. 2014;15(5):572-87
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Agoraphobia - psychology
Child
Child Abuse, Sexual - psychology
Depressive Disorder, Major - psychology
Dissociative Disorders - psychology
Eating Disorders - psychology
Female
Humans
Inpatients - psychology
Male
Norway
Phobic Disorders - psychology
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Psychometrics
Risk factors
Self-Injurious Behavior - psychology
Somatoform Disorders - psychology
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - psychology
Suicidal ideation
Abstract
This study examined the clinical relevance of differences in psychoform and somatoform dissociative symptoms in 55 early traumatized inpatients. The high psychoform and somatoform dissociative group (n = 18), somatoform dissociative group (n = 22), and nondissociative group (n = 15) did not differ on abuse severity, depressive symptoms, interpersonal problems, Axis I or II comorbidity, or deterioration rates. Compared to the other 2 groups, the highly dissociative group was characterized by younger age, living alone, higher levels of posttraumatic and general distress, more frequent reports of suicidality, self-mutilation, eating problems, and less favorable treatment response. The results highlight the clinical relevance of using dissociation measures for identifying subgroups of patients with severe psychopathology who may be more treatment resistant.
PubMed ID
24983399 View in PubMed
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Effort-Reward Imbalance and Post-Traumatic Stress After a Workplace Terror Attack.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature279170
Source
Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2016 Apr;10(2):219-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2016
Author
Camilla Hem
Morten Birkeland Nielsen
Marianne Bang Hansen
Trond Heir
Source
Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2016 Apr;10(2):219-24
Date
Apr-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Cross-Sectional Studies
Employment - psychology - standards
Female
Humans
Job Satisfaction
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Reward
Social Support
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - complications - epidemiology - etiology
Stress, Psychological - complications - etiology
Surveys and Questionnaires
Terrorism - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Workplace - psychology
Abstract
Following adverse work conditions, health consequences can be explained by an imbalance between the effort made and the reward received. We investigated the association between extra effort, perceived reward, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The Effort-Reward Imbalance Model was used to examine whether extra effort at work in the aftermath of a workplace-related terrorist attack affected the risk of PTSD and the effects of reward for extra effort from a leader or colleagues.
Cross-sectional data were collected 10 months after a terrorist attack in Norway in 2011. Out of 3520 Ministry employees invited, 1927 agreed to participate. Employees reported any extra effort performed as a result of the bomb explosion and any reward received from a leader or colleagues. PTSD was assessed with the PTSD Checklist.
Employees who reported extra effort displayed increased risk for PTSD (odds ratio [OR]=1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15-2.55, P=0.008). Perceived reward for extra effort from a leader was associated with lower risk for PTSD (OR=0.39, 95% CI: 0.23-0.64, P
PubMed ID
26743954 View in PubMed
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Family structure and posttraumatic stress reactions: a longitudinal study using multilevel analyses.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128744
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2011;11:195
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Egil Nygaard
Tore Wentzel-Larsen
Ajmal Hussain
Trond Heir
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Centre for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies, Kirkeveien 166, Building 48, 0407 Oslo, Norway. egil.nygaard@nkvts.unirand.no
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2011;11:195
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Disasters
Family - psychology
Female
Humans
Life Change Events
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Marriage - psychology
Multilevel Analysis
Norway
Parents
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - diagnosis - epidemiology
Tsunamis
Abstract
There is limited research on the relevance of family structures to the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress following disasters. We longitudinally studied the effects of marital and parental statuses on posttraumatic stress reactions after the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami and whether persons in the same households had more shared stress reactions than others.
The study included a tourist population of 641 Norwegian adult citizens, many of them from families with children. We measured posttraumatic stress symptoms with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised at 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. Analyses included multilevel methods with mixed effects models.
Results showed that neither marital nor parental status was significantly related to posttraumatic stress. At both assessments, adults living in the same household reported levels of posttraumatic stress that were more similar to one another than adults who were not living together. Between households, disaster experiences were closely related to the variance in posttraumatic stress symptom levels at both assessments. Within households, however, disaster experiences were less related to the variance in symptom level at 2 years than at 6 months.
These results indicate that adult household members may influence one another's posttraumatic stress reactions as well as their interpretations of the disaster experiences over time. Our findings suggest that multilevel methods may provide important information about family processes after disasters.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22171549 View in PubMed
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Flight Anxiety Reported from 1986 to 2015.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302013
Source
Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2019 Apr 01; 90(4):384-388
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Date
Apr-01-2019
Author
Tine K Grimholt
Tore Bonsaksen
Inger Schou-Bredal
Trond Heir
Anners Lerdal
Laila Skogstad
Øivind Ekeberg
Source
Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2019 Apr 01; 90(4):384-388
Date
Apr-01-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Aerospace Medicine - statistics & numerical data - trends
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anxiety - epidemiology - psychology
Aviation - statistics & numerical data
Fear - psychology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Phobic Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Prevalence
Self Report - statistics & numerical data
Sex Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Fear of flying is one of the most common phobias. It hinders people in performing their work and hampers family relations. Even though flight traffic has increased, there are new fears. Valid studies are needed to answer whether there have been changes in the prevalence of flight anxiety, are there sex differences in relation to fear of flying, use of alcohol, and tranquilizers, which situations cause the most flight anxiety, and whether the above factors have changed compared to a similar study from 1986.METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed to a representative random sample of the Norwegian population (N = 5500), where 36% answered. To assess flight anxiety across the time period, we used similar instruments to those we used in 1986.RESULTS: The prevalence of an assumed flight phobia decreased from 8% in 1986 to 3% in 2015. The percentage of those reported to never fly had decreased from 5% in 1986 to 0.5% in 2015. There were 11.0% who always used alcohol in 1986 and 7.5% in 2015 and 3% and 2%, respectively, always used tranquillizers. More women reported being afraid of both flying and other situations compared to men. Turbulence, unknown sounds, and fear of terror attacks caused the most anxiety.DISCUSSION: Flight anxiety still affects a considerable proportion of the Norwegian population and more women than men report that they are afraid of flying. However, in spite of methodology, people are significantly less afraid of flying than in 1986.Grimholt TK, Bonsaksen T, Schou-Bredal I, Heir T, Lerdal A, Skogstad L, Ekeberg Ø. Flight anxiety reported from 1986 to 2015. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2019; 90(4):384-388.
PubMed ID
30922426 View in PubMed
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General self-efficacy and posttraumatic stress after a natural disaster: a longitudinal study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature275720
Source
BMC Psychol. 2016;4:15
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
Egil Nygaard
Ajmal Hussain
Johan Siqveland
Trond Heir
Source
BMC Psychol. 2016;4:15
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Asia, Southeastern
Disasters
Female
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Self Efficacy
Self Report
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - psychology
Surveys and Questionnaires
Tsunamis
Abstract
Self-efficacy may be an important factor in individuals' recovery from posttraumatic stress reactions after a natural disaster. However, few longitudinal studies have investigated whether self-efficacy predicts the course of posttraumatic recovery beyond lower initial levels of distress. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether general self-efficacy is related to recovery from posttraumatic stress reactions from a longitudinal perspective.
A total of 617 Norwegians exposed to the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami completed self-report questionnaires measuring their level of disaster exposure and general self-efficacy at 6 months and posttraumatic stress reactions 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. Predictors of changes in posttraumatic stress reactions were analyzed with multivariate mixed effects models.
Self-efficacy at 6 months post-disaster was unrelated to trauma exposure and inversely related to posttraumatic stress reactions at 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. However, self-efficacy was not related to recovery from posttraumatic stress reactions between 6 months and 2 years post-disaster.
In conclusion, general self-efficacy is related to lower levels of posttraumatic stress reactions in the first months after a disaster but does not appear to be related to improved recovery rates over the longer term.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27048603 View in PubMed
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