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Commentary: The Invention of Aboriginal Diabetes: The Role of the Thrifty Gene Hypothesis in Canadian Health Care Provision.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294374
Source
Ethn Dis. 2018; 28(Suppl 1):247-252
Publication Type
Editorial
Date
2018
Author
Travis Hay
Author Affiliation
Department of Political Science and Indigenous Learning; Lakehead University; Thunder Bay, Ontario, CN.
Source
Ethn Dis. 2018; 28(Suppl 1):247-252
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Editorial
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to analyze the extent to which the 'thrifty gene hypothesis' remains embedded within regimes of Canadian health care. The thrifty gene hypothesis, formulated by the American geneticist and travelling scientist James V. Neel in 1962, proposed that Indigenous peoples were genetically predisposed to Type 2 diabetes due to the foodways of their ancestors. The hypothesis was functionally racist and based on what biological anthropologists now call 'the myth of forager food insecurity.' Importantly, Neel reconsidered his own hypothesis in 1982 before he ultimately rejected it in 1999; nonetheless, in the mid-1990s, a team of Canadian scientists led by the endocrinologist Robert Hegele of Western University conducted a genetic study on the OjiCree community of Sandy Lake First Nation in northern Ontario. Thereafter, Hegele told the academic world and news media that he had discovered a thrifty gene in Sandy Lake. Like Neel, Hegele later came to reject his own study in 2011. Nonetheless, the 'thrifty gene hypothesis' and Hegele's Sandy Lake study continue to be cited, referenced, and reproduced in the current Clinical Guidelines of the Canadian Diabetes Association, as well as across state-related health literature more broadly. The purpose of this study, then, will be to apply the PHCRP to the thrifty gene hypothesis in a Canadian context.
Notes
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PubMed ID
30116094 View in PubMed
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Retail food environments, shopping experiences, First Nations and the provincial Norths.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286482
Source
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can. 2017 Oct;37(10):333-341
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2017
Author
Kristin Burnett
Kelly Skinner
Travis Hay
Joseph LeBlanc
Lori Chambers
Source
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can. 2017 Oct;37(10):333-341
Date
Oct-2017
Language
English
French
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
This paper looks at the market food environments of First Nations communities located in the provincial Norths by examining the potential retail competition faced by the North West Company (NWC) and by reporting on the grocery shopping experiences of people living in northern Canada.
We employed two methodological approaches to assess northern retail food environments. First, we mapped food retailers in the North to examine the breadth of retail competition in the provincial Norths, focussing specifically on those communities without year-round road access. Second, we surveyed people living in communities in northern Canada about their retail and shopping experiences.
Fifty-four percent of communities in the provincial Norths and Far North without year-round road access did not have a grocery store that competed with the NWC. The provinces with the highest percentage of northern communities without retail competition were Ontario (87%), Saskatchewan (83%) and Manitoba (72%). Respondents to the survey (n = 92) expressed concern about their shopping experiences in three main areas: the cost of food, food quality and freshness, and availability of specific foods.
There is limited retail competition in the provincial Norths. In Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Ontario, the NWC has no store competition in at least 70% of northern communities. Consumers living in northern Canada find it difficult to afford nutritious foods and would like access to a wider selection of perishable foods in good condition.
PubMed ID
29043760 View in PubMed
Less detail

Retail food environments, shopping experiences, First Nations and the provincial Norths.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295632
Source
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can. 2017 Oct; 37(10):333-341
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Oct-2017
Author
Kristin Burnett
Kelly Skinner
Travis Hay
Joseph LeBlanc
Lori Chambers
Author Affiliation
Department of Indigenous Learning, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can. 2017 Oct; 37(10):333-341
Date
Oct-2017
Language
English
French
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Canada
Economic Competition
Food - economics
Food Industry - methods - organization & administration
Food Supply - methods - standards - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Manitoba
Marketing
Ontario
Saskatchewan
Abstract
This paper looks at the market food environments of First Nations communities located in the provincial Norths by examining the potential retail competition faced by the North West Company (NWC) and by reporting on the grocery shopping experiences of people living in northern Canada.
We employed two methodological approaches to assess northern retail food environments. First, we mapped food retailers in the North to examine the breadth of retail competition in the provincial Norths, focussing specifically on those communities without year-round road access. Second, we surveyed people living in communities in northern Canada about their retail and shopping experiences.
Fifty-four percent of communities in the provincial Norths and Far North without year-round road access did not have a grocery store that competed with the NWC. The provinces with the highest percentage of northern communities without retail competition were Ontario (87%), Saskatchewan (83%) and Manitoba (72%). Respondents to the survey (n = 92) expressed concern about their shopping experiences in three main areas: the cost of food, food quality and freshness, and availability of specific foods.
There is limited retail competition in the provincial Norths. In Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Ontario, the NWC has no store competition in at least 70% of northern communities. Consumers living in northern Canada find it difficult to afford nutritious foods and would like access to a wider selection of perishable foods in good condition.
Cet article porte sur l'environnement de la vente d’aliments dans les collectivités des Premières nations du nord des provinces, en particulier sur la concurrence éventuelle dans la vente au détail de la North West Company (NWC) ainsi que sur les expériences d'achats alimentaires de la population vivant dans le Nord canadien.
Nous avons utilisé deux méthodologies pour évaluer l’environnement alimentaire de la vente au détail dans le Nord. D’abord, nous avons cartographié les détaillants en alimentation du Nord afin d’examiner le degré de concurrence au détail dans les régions nordiques, en prêtant une attention particulière aux collectivités qui ne sont pas accessibles à l’année par la route. Ensuite, nous avons enquêté auprès des personnes vivant dans les collectivités du Nord canadien à propos de leurs expériences d’achat au détail et de magasinage.
Cinquante-quatre pour cent des collectivités du nord des provinces et du Grand Nord n’avaient aucune épicerie en concurrence avec la NWC. Les provinces comptant les plus fortes proportions de collectivités nordiques sans concurrence dans la vente au détail étaient l’Ontario (87 %), la Saskatchewan (83 %) et le Manitoba (72 %). Les participants au sondage (n = 92) ont fait état de leurs préoccupations quant à leurs expériences d'achat dans trois grands secteurs : le coût des aliments, la qualité et la fraîcheur des aliments et la disponibilité de certains aliments.
La concurrence dans la vente au détail est limitée dans le nord des provinces. Au Manitoba, en Saskatchewan et en Ontario, la NWC ne fait face à aucune concurrence dans au moins 70 % des collectivités nordiques. Les consommateurs du Nord canadien considèrent que les aliments nutritifs sont peu abordables, et ils souhaitent avoir accès à un plus grand choix d’aliments périssables en bon état.
Notes
Cites: Can J Public Health. 2010 May-Jun;101(3):196-201 PMID 20737808
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2017;76(1):1279451 PMID 28151097
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Cites: BMC Public Health. 2013 May 02;13:427 PMID 23639143
Cites: Can J Public Health. 2016 Jun 09;107(Suppl 1):5344 PMID 27281520
PubMed ID
29043760 View in PubMed
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